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\ ^ ... 

IN THE Possession of Mrs. Bannatyne, 
OF Haldon, Devon. 

To be pui'chased through any Bookseller or directly from 
H.M. stationery OFFICE at the following addresses r 
Imperial House, Kingsway, London, W,C.2, and 
28, Abingdon Street, London, S.W.I. ; 
37, Peter Street, Manchester ; 
1, St. Andrew's Crescent, Cardiff ; 
23, Forth Street, Edinburgh ; 
or from E. PONSONBY, Ltd., 110, Grafton Street, Dublin. 


Price 12s. 6d. Net. 





IN THE Possession of Mrs. Bannatyne, 
OF Haldon, Devon. 

To be purchased through any Bookseller or directly from 
H.M. STATIONERY OFFICE at the following addresses ; 
Imperial House, Kingsway, London, W.C.2, and 
28, Abinodox Street, London, S.W.I. ; 
37, Peter Street, Manchester ; 
1, St. Andrew's Crescent, Cardiff ; 
23, Forth Street, Edinburgh ; 
or from E. PONSONBY, Ltd., 116, Grafton Street, Dublin. 


Price I2s. 6d. Net. 







Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . iii 

List of Calendared Documents . . . . . . Ixviii 

Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421 


This report has been prepared for the Commissioners, 
at the suggestion and with the co-operation of the India Office, 
by Colonel H. D. Love, R.E. (retired), who has also compiled the 

3 c -■ - : - 

It is suggested that for reference purposes it be numbered 74. 




OF Haldon, Devon. 

The Palk Manuscripts in the possession of Mrs. Bannatync 
consist mainly of letters addressed to Sir Robert Palk from the 
time when he relinquished the governorsliip of Madras in 1767 
down to the end of 1786. They were wTitten by all sorts and 
conditions of people — governors, councillors, natixe princes, 
naval and military officers, civil servants, native officials and 
pri\ate persons. The majority of the communications were 
sent from Fort St, George, Madras, but some are from other 
parts of the Southern Presidency, some from Bengal, and a few 
from Bombay. Written as they were in stirring times, iiiost 
of them before the publication of Indian newspapers was begun, 
they are full of political and military intelHgenee, which is 
imparted free from the restrictions and reservations imposed 
on official correspondence with the Court of Directors. After 
his return to England Palk aided several of his relations and the 
sons of many friends to begin life in India by advancing money 
to them and furnishing tliem with recommendations. All these 
correspond with him, give their early impressions of the countrv, 
and keep him informed of local events. The Palk Papers thus 
supply many details of social life in India, regarding which 
official documents are naturally silent. The collection contains 
certain letters from Palk himself, most of which were addressed 
to his friend William Martin Goodlad, one of the Secretaries to 
the Government of Madras. On Goodlad's death these com- 
munications were returned to their author, and were preser\'ed 
by him. There are a few papers anterior to 1767, the most 
important of which is a letter of 1755 from Colonel Stringer 
Lawrence, embodying a narrative of his campaigns against the 

After the elimination of a number of business papers, such 
as Bills of Exchange and Respondentia Bonds, there remain 
470 documents, the contents of which are described in sub- 
sequent pages of this report. From 1767 to 1776 the corres- 
pondence is copious. It diminishes in volume between 1777 
and 1780, and from 1781 to 1783 there is seareeh^ an Indian 
letter. In 1784 the tide flows again, but at the end of 1786 
the correspondence terminates abruptly. That letters were 
written and received during the period of scarcity is undoubted, 
though their ultimate fate is vmknown. Part of the original 
collection found its way in 1894 to the British Museum, where 
it is preserved in four volumes {Additional JISS. 31,685 — 88). 


The lirst of these volumes contains business documents of no 
importance ; the second comprises Indian letters to Palk 
of 1768 and 1769 with a few of later date down to 1774 ; the 
third consists of duplicates of despatches from the Court of 
Directors to the Government of Madras between 1762 and 1765 ; 
and the fourth of copies of official letters from Fort St. George 
to the Court from 1763 to 1767. The chief interest lies in the 
second volume. Sundry letters from Robert Palk are to be 
found in the Warren Hastings correspondence preserved in 
the British Museum {Addl. MSS. 29,132— 94). d' 

Some knowledge of Palk's singular career is indispensable 
for a thorough comprehension of the documents in Mrs. 
Bannatyne's collection. The following brief sketch embraces 
those members of his familv who are mentioned in the 

Robert Palk came of yeoman stock established at Ashburton,. 
Devon. The family homestead was liOwer Headborough, the 
first farm out of Ashburton on the road to Buckland-in-the-Moor, 
and within half a mile of the town. In 1679 Walter Palk, of 
Ashburton, left the reversion of his lands to his nephew Walter 
{b. 1659), son of Thomas Palk.'^) This second Walter was 
succeeded by his eldest son W^alter (b. 1686), his other children 
being Jonathan, Thomas and Grace. The third Walter married 
Frances Abraham at Buckland-in-the-Moor, and had three 
children, Walter {b. 1714), Robert {b. 1717), the subject of this 
notice, and Grace. The fourth Walter married in succession 
Thomasine Widdicombe, of Priestaford, Ashburt(jn, her sister 
Mary Widdicombe, and Mary Mugford, by all of whom he had 
children. His brother Robert, afterwards Governor of Madras, 
married Anne Yansittart, to whom reference will be made later, 
and his sister Grace became the wife of Richard Welland. 
Two of the Welland boys, nephews of Robert Palk, served in 
India. Among the numerous offspring of the fourth Walter 
were Walter {b. 1742), afterwards M.P. for Ashburton ; Robert 
(6. 1744), who joined the Bengal civil service ; Thomas (/;. cir. 

(1) The Warren Hastings Correspondence contains 23 letters (excluding 
duplicates) from Robert Palk, viz : — 

Add. MSS. 29132 Letters dated 23 June, 1769 ; 23 Mar., 1770 ; 9 April, 1771. 

7 Ap., 1772 ; 8 Feb. and 8 Ap., 1773. 
22 Mar., 1771. 

25 Dec, 1774. 
4/21 Feb., 12 Ap., 19 Nov., 12 Dec. and 13 

Dec, 1775. 
21 Dec, 21 Dec. and 28 Dec, 177G. 
1 Mav, 1778. 
27 Mar., 1780. 
20 Ap., 1780. 
30 May, 1781. 

26 June, 1782. 
1 July, 1782. 

N.D. [cir. Nov., 1773]. 
are to Hastings, excepting that of the 2Gth June, 1782, 
which is addressed to Major Scott, Hastings's agent in England. The final volume 
(Add. MSS. 29,193) contains also an undated letter from Robert Palk, jun., to 
William Aldersev regarding the arrest of Nandkuiuar. 

(2) Devonshire IVills, C. Worthy, 1896. 







f J 


















All the 

above letters 

1750), who came to^Madras a cadet, but was later transferred 
to the civil service ; Grace, who married Nicholas Tripe oi' 
Ashburton ; and Jonathan, vicar of Ilsington. Mention is 
made also of two brothers, Lieut. Thomas Palk and Ensign John 
Palk of the Madras army, who appear to have been grandsons 
of one of Sir Kobert Palk's uncles. They died together while 
cam])aigning in the Northern Circars. Other Indian connections 
of Sir Robert were Thomas Abraham, a Bengal civil servant, 
who was a member of his mother's family, and several of the 
Vansittarts, his wife's relations. 

It is said that Robert Palk was born at Ambrooke, in the parish 
of Ipplepen, whicli was the property of the Neyle family, but 
the statement needs verification. Certain it is that he was 
baptized at the Old Mission House, Ashburton, on the 16th 
December, 1717. He received his early education at vVshburton 
Grammar Schocjl, a very ancient foundation, matriculated at 
Wadham College, Oxford, in 1736, and graduated three years 
later. After being ordained deacon the Rev. Robert Palk was 
appointed a naval chaplain, and in 1747 he accompanied 
Roscawen's expedition to the East Indies as chaplain to the 
Admiral. He arrived at Fort St. David in July, 174.8, and was 
present at the unsuccessful siege of Pondicherry. In November 
news reached India of the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, but though 
hostilities ceased, the fleet remained on the Coast. At the 
beginning of the following year an incident occurred which 
determined Palk's future career. The Rev. Francis Fordyce, 
the Company's chaplain at Fort St. David, a notoriously 
quarrelsome and ill-tempered man, publicly insulted Robert 
Clive, and blows were exchanged between them in the streets of 
Cuddalore. An enquiry was held by the Governor and Council 
with the result that Fordyce was suspended as being " a 
meddling mischievous person." Palk was invited to enter the 
Company's service as chaplain pending the approval of the 
Directors, and the Admiral consented to his transfer. This 
" very w^orthy and able Divine " assumed his new duties on the 
1st April, 1749. 

Meanwhile the Directors sent out the Rev. George Swynfen 
as a second chaplain for the Coast, and though they approved 
of Palk's appointment, decided that their own nominee should 
be the senior. In October, 1750, the fleet sailed for Bombay 
en route for England, and Palk accompanied it with the intention 
of formally resigning His Majesty's service and obtaining a 
regular engagement from the Company. On reaching Bombay 
in March, 1751, he heard of Swynfen's death, and returned at 
once to P\)rt St. David, where he was reinstated. Fort St, 
George, which had been in the possession of the French from 
1746,' was restored in 1749, and in .Ipril, 1752, the seat of 
Government was transferred from Fort St. David to Madras, 
Palk accompanying the President and Council thither. In 
December, 1751, the Directors, having heard of Palk's departure 


in the preceding year, but not of his return, nominated two 
chaplains for the Coast, the Rev. Samuel Staveley and the Rev. 
Thomas Colefax. The arrival of these gentlemen in June, 
1752, left no vacancy for Palk. The Madras Government, 
however, quickly found another place for him. The Consul- 
tation Book for August contains the following : — 

" The account of the army in camp having been kept in an 
irregular manner, which creates confusion, 'tis agreed that the 
Rev. Robert Palk be appointed Paymaster and Commissary 
in the Field at the rate of 10s. a dav salary and Rs. 5 a dav 

At this juncture Colefax died, and Palk continued to perform 
clerical duties intermittently in addition to his special work. 
That work brought liim into intimate relations with Major 
Stringer Lawrence, who commanded the army operating against 
the French in the southern districts. On two occasions, in 
April, 1753, and May, 1754, Palk was sent to the Court of Tanjore, 
where he successfully negotiated with the Raja for aid in troops 
and money ; and in January, 1751, he was dejjuted with Henry 
Vansittart to meet the French commissaries at Sadras and 
arrange a suspension of hostilities. No agreement was then 
effected, but at the end of the year Palk and Vansittart went 
to Pondicherry and returned with a provisional treaty of peace. 
The Government of Madras were so well satisfied with Palk's 
political work that they presented him with a diamond ring of 
the value of 1,000 pagodas. 

At this period Robert Orme, the future historian of the war 
with the French in India, was a member of the Fort St. George 
Council. The following extract from a confidential letter, 
dat^d 2Gth October, 1755, addressed by him to John Payne, 
one of the Directors, throws light on Palk's character and 
duties : — 

" Mr. Palk, a gentleman left in India by Mr. Boscawcn and 
made chaplain at St. David, was, at the time I left India, '^' in 
high favour with Mr. Saunders : <-' he was one of his familv. 
It is long since this gentleman had thrown aside the learning 
of ancient or Christian books to study the tempers of mankiiui, 
in which he is indeed a great proficient, and as great a one in 
adapting himself to them, I must say, with decency. His 
character as a clergyman admitted him to the conciliation of 
disputes, and where he did not succeed, his intentions were 
rewarded with the graceful name of a Peace Maker. I had 
perceiv'd ^'ari()lls instances of his address in the management of 
persons at variance with another, and sup])resscd what was my 
rising sentiment in fa^our of the general one. Mr. Palk was 
chose by Mr. Saunders to go to camp, under the name of a 
Commissary design'd to retrench expences, but with the real 
view of softning and managing Colonel Lawrence's warm and 

(1) Jii IT");?, when Oriiic visited I'limland in cDiiipany with ('live. 

(2) ' launders. Pi t-hiikiit and Cii>\crn<)i', first a( ]''nrt St. David and after- 
wards at- Fori. 8t. George, from Sept., IT.'SO, to Jan., 1755. 


sudden temper in tlie contests then subsisting between him and 
JMr. Saunders, How well he fulliird this eonunission I would 
Avilliugly thr()\v a veil o\ er, but the facts are known to all, and 
do not seem disavowed by himsell'. He receixed from ('ok)nel 
Lawrence most benelicial employs in the camp, and by his 
means in other ser\"iees, which have, in the time of my \oyage, 
set him inde})endant in the world, \\ith at least 10, 000/. from 
two he came with into India. And from a month after his 
arrival in camp, Mr. Saunders rcceiAcd no further tokens of his 
attention or respect. Colonel liawrencc became all in all xvith 
Mr. Palk. 

" The influence which I have above described Mr. Palk to 
have over the greatest part of the community of which he is 
the pastor shone forth eminently now in their notions of the 
Governor. Mr. Palk blamed him : all the world did so too. 
Mr. Palk gave witness to a more than heroick character in 
Colonel Lawrence : he became immediatelv a hero of the hrst 
order." (d 

Lawrence and Palk met Nawab Muhammad Ali at Areot in 
August, 1755. and attended him at his trimnphal entry into 
his capital. In the preceding February the Directors had 
nominated a Select Committee of eight members at Fort St. 
George to communicate with their own Secret Conmiittee on 
military and political topics, and they settled that the first 
vacancy should be filled by the Rev. Robert Palk. An opening 
occurred at once by the death of Colonel Caroline Scott, Engineer 
General, and Palk occupied it in September. In December, 
however, the Court Avith accustomed vacillation decreed that 
he shoidd confiiie himself to Church work and be posted to Fort 
St. David. On receipt of these instructions in 1756, Palk 
announced his intention ol' leaving for England, but asked for 
time to wind up his affairs. With the sanction of Mr. Pigot's 
Government he remained at Fort St. George until August, 1758, 
exercising his various functions as chaplain, paymaster of the 
forces and member of the Select Connnittee. 

In company with Orme, Palk sailed in the Grantham, India- 
man. The ship was cai)tLu-ed by the French, who landed the 
passengers at the Cape and released them on parole. Palk 
reached England in 1750, bearing letters from the Nawab of 
Arcot to the King and the Compan3\ His personality, ability 
and address produced such an effect on the Directors that they 
penned the following lines in their despatch of the 15th 
February, 1760 :— 

" We have fixed upon Mr. Robert Palk to succeed Mr. Pigot 
in the Government whenever it shall become vacant by the 
resignation or decease of that gentleman, being fully convinced 
his ability and experience will be of great service to the Company 
both before and after his succession to the Government, 
especially as affairs are at present circumstanced." 

(1) Orme MSS., vol. 28, preserved in the India Office. 


On the 14th November, 1760, arms were granted to " Robert 
Palk of Headborough in the County of Devon," (i* and in the 
following February he married Anne, daughter of Arthur 
Vansittart of Shottesbrook Park, Berks., and sister of his old 
friend and former colleague Henry Vansittart, who had mean- 
while become Governor of Bengal. Palk sailed in March, 1761, 
with Major-General Stringer I/awrence as a fellow-passenger, 
arri\-ed at Madras in October, and took his seat as Third of 
Council with the duties of Export Warehousekeeper. On the 
resignation of Governor Pigot on the 14th November, 1763, 
Palk assumed the office of President, occupying the Chair until 
the 25th January, 1767. His administration was popular 
and comparatively peaceful, the chief events being the suppres- 
sion in 1764 of Yusuf Khan's rebellion in Madura, and the 
occupation of the Circars, followed by the Treaty of Hyderabad, 
in 1766. Clive had obtained from the Mogul in 1765 a free gift 
to the Company of the five coast districts north of the Kistna 
which \vere known as the Northern Circars. They were ruled 
by Nizam Ali, Subahdar of the Deccan, who had granted one of 
them, the Gimtiir Circar, to his brother Basalat Jang. Brig.- 
General John Caillaud, Lawrence's successor, took possession 
of the districts without serious opposition in 1766. The Nizam 
was naturally aggrieved at his deprivation of territory, and 
prepared to invade the Carnatic. Palk, a man of peace, deemed 
it prudent to placate him, and Caillaud negotiated a settlement 
at Hyderabad. By the Treaty of the 12th November, 1766, 
tlie ?»Iadras Government agreed to pay an annual rent of eight 
lakhs of rupees for the Circars, to leave Basalat Jang in possession 
of (xuntur for the term of his life, and to afford aid to the Nizam 
in the settlement of his own affairs. This last vague condition 
led, after Palk's departure, to war with Haidar Ali. 

Palk resigned the Chair to Charles Bourchier in January, 
1767, and sailed for P^ngland in the Lord Camden, accompanied 
by his wife and two children. Anne (Nancy) born in 1764, and 
Lawrence, so named after Palk's friend the (ieneral, boni early 
in 1766. The ex-Ciovernor reached England on the 13th July, 
1767, and was well received l^y both the King and the Court of 
Directors*-' (No. 38). His long residence in Lulia had enabled 
him to acquire more than a com})etence. While placing the 
interests of his employers first. Palk had not entirely neglected 
his own. The fortune with which he retired was not all derived 
I'rom his official emoluments. As Paymaster of the Army and 
the holder of a bullock-contract granted him by Clive, he had 
had early op})ortunities of making money, and those oppor- 
tunities increased w ith his adxaneement in the ser\ice. He was 
interested in private trade, a practice which was recognized by 
the Company, The custom of the time permitted the surrep- 

(1) Polwholo's llinlonj of Devomhire. 1793 and 1797. 

(2) British Museum, Addl. MSS., 34,685, Robert. Palk to " Jimmy " [James 
Bourchier], dated — Nov.j 1767. 


titioiis receipt of presents by all public servants who could 
conunand them, I*alk admits in one of his letters that he 
accepted gifts ol" money from prospective ivntcrs of lands, but 
he takes credit to liimself for never having solicited a present. 
The Nawab had nnieh to gain from a Governor, and though 
Palk resisted pressure to attack Tanjorc, he rendered valuable 
aid at Madura, and Muhammad Ali probably attested his 
gratitude in the usual manner. The conclusion of treaties 
furnished other facilities. Aceordino- to John Andrews, a 
senior civil servant who was deputed in January, 17C0, to 
arrange terms with Haidar, Palk received from the Nizam a 
lakh of pagodas and (!aillaud Pags. 60,000 for negotiating the 
Treaty of Hyderabad of 1766. (^ 

After visiting his relations in Devonshire Palk took a house 
in Spring Gardens, and entered Parliament as meml)er for 
Ashburton. In 176!) he purchased the Haldon estate near 
Exeter. The house had been built by Sir George Chudleigh 
about 17*20. After his death in 1738 the jjroperty passed in 
succession to Sir John Chichester, Mrs. Basset, Mr. John Jones 
and Mr. William ^^'ebber.'-' A friend writing to Palk in 
Deccmlier, 1769, congratuiates him on the cheapness of his 
purchase, and mentions that Mr. Webber had given Mr. Jones 
11,500/. for it.<'^) Palk made many improvements ; laid down 
floors of Indian redwood, planted trees in the park, and gradually 
acquired adjacent land. A daughter Catherine (Kitty) was born 
to the Palks on New Year's day, 1768, and another, named 
Emelia, in 1771. Both died during adolescence. 

Though he never joined the Company's Directorate, Robert 
Palk exercised influence on Indian affairs through Laurence 
Sulivan and other friends. Wlien not following the pursuits of 
a country gentleman at Ilaldon he resided in London, where he 
occupied a house in Park Place, St. James's, moving in 1775 to 
Bruton Street. He re-entered Parliament in 1774 and represented 
Ashburton until 1787. His friend Stringer Lawrence was 
his frequent, if not permanent, guest until the General died 
in London in 1775. Lawrence was buried in the ehiu'ch of 
Dunchideock by Ilaldon, which contains a monument to his 
jnemory. Palk conmiemorated him by erecting a turreted 
and battlemented tower, triangular in plan, on the summit of 
Haldon Hill, and within the park. It is known as the Belvidere. 
The principal room on the lowest of its three floors contains a 
marble statue of Lawrence, and mural tablets are inscribed 
with a recital in English, Latin and Persian of his military 
exploits. It was at Haldon House that a conference took place 
in September, 1776, between Robert Palk, George Vansittart, 
General Caillaud, Mr. Pechell and Colonel Macleane to discuss 

(1) Jiritish Museum, Addl. MSS.. 3i.686, Charles Bourcbier to Robert Palk, 
dated 10th March, 1769. 

(2) Puhvhele's Ilistori/ of Devonshire, whicli contaius a full-page engraving of 
the niaixsion. 

(") Briiish Museum, Addl. MSS., 31,680. 

the conditions to be obtained from Lord North as the price of 
resignation by Hastings of tlie office of Governor General. 

On the 19th June, 1782, Robert Palk was created a baronet. 
His only son Lawrence, after leaving Oxford, travelled on the 
Continent. Some of the son's letters written in the course of 
the tour have been preserved. During his absence from 
England in 1786 his eldest sister Anne became the wife of Sir 
Bourchier Wrey, Bt., and the youngest, Emelia, died. Lady 
Palk expired in 1788 at the age of 50. Her husband survived 
her ten years. Sir Robert was buried in Dunchideock church, 'i) 
but the remains were remo\'ed many years later to a vault 
outside the building. A simple tablet near the monument to 
Stringer Lawrence records the names of himself and eight 
members of his family. 

The docunicnts in ^Irs. Bannatyne's collection are calendared 
at the end of this report. The earliest (No. 1) is an autograph 
letter from Colonel Stringer Lawrence to Admiral Charles 
Watson, Conmiander-in-Chief of the East India squadron, dated 
I'ort St. Cieorge, 8th October, 1755, embodying Lawrence's 
" Narrative " of his campaigns of 1752-1751. The letter, 
^^'hich is bound in book form, contains 221 quarto pages of 
manuscript. Admiral Watson, who had brought out Adlercron's 
Regiment, the 39th Foot, in 1754, was at IMadras on the date 
of the letter, and he sailed two days later for Bombay on a 
mission to suppress the pirates of the Malabar coast and destroy 
the stronghold at Gheriah or Viziadrug of their chief Angria. 
The narrative was perhaps handed to the Admiral by Lawrence 
to relieve the tedium of the voyage. Other MS. copies of the 
account exist, one in the King's Library of the British Museum, <-' 
and one in the Orme collection at the Lidia Oflice.*^' The 
narrative was edited and published by R. O. Cambridge in his 
Account of the War in India, and, as that work is accessible, it is 
unnecessary to do more than indicate the principal variations 
between Mrs. Baimatyne's MS. and the printed account {Tide 
No. 1 in the Calendar of jMSS.) 

Stringer Lawrence, the "' Father of the Indian Army," was 
born in 1G98, and became an Ensign in Clayton's Regiment, 
now the West Yorks. After twenty years' service, during which 
he was actively engaged in .Spain and Flanders and in the 
Highland rising of 1715, he retired as Caj^tain. joined the East 
India Com})any, and at the age of 19 embarked lor Madras in 
February, 1717, to be Major of the Fort St. (icorge garrison. 
Madras having beoi captured by the French in 1716, liawrence 
landed, after a voyage of ele\en months, at Fort St. David, 

(1) The cliin'ch coutaius a nuniuiucat to cue of Sir Ilolnn't I'alk's [H'odocos-socs 
in tlu! Govorniiu'ut of Madras, Aaron Baker, of Bowhay, \a-1u> died in 1683. Baker 
entered the Company's service as Factor in 1633, and after being President at 
Bantam in Java from KilO, was transferred with the seat of government in 1652 
to Fort St. (Jeorge, where he ruled until 1055. His house at Bo\\hay, near 
Dunchideock, is still standinti. 

(-1 Bril. Ulutt. MS. 1!)5. atliiluite.l (n Captain Jnlm Caillaud. 

V'i) Orme MSS.. vol. 13. 


"where lie Avas gi^•en a scat in Council. lie reorganized and 
disciplined the seven independent European companies, framed 
a code of niiJitary law, and formed the body oi' native peons 
into companies of sepoys. On the arrival ol' Boseawen's 
expedition he commanded the Company's troops in the attack 
on Pondichcrry, when he was taken prisoner. Released at the 
suspension of hostilities, he was one of the Connnissaries appointed 
to receive Fort St. George from the French, and on the transfer 
of the Presidency to Madras he became Deputy Go\'ernor of 
Fort St. David. In 1750 Lawrence resigned and went to Eng- 
land, but the Directors induced him to return immediately 
as Commander-in-Chief of all the Company's forces in India. 

Landing at ^Madras in IMarch, 1752, Lawrence t<K)k command 
of the army proceeding to relicNC Trichinopt)ly, where jMuham- 
mad xAli, the claimant supported by the British for the possession 
of the Carnatic, was besieged by the French and their nominee 
Chanda Sahib. Marathas, Mysoreans and Tanjoreans took part 
in the conflict on one side or the other. The relief was accom- 
plished, and within two months d'Auteuil had surrendered to 
Clive at Valikonda, and Law to Lawrence at Srirangam. 
Chanda Sahib fell into the hands of the Tanjoreans and was 
executed. Further fighting took place near Pondicheny, do 
Kerjean being defeated at Bahour. From April to Xovendoer, 
1753, Lawrence and his lieutenants, Major James Killpatrick 
and Captain John Caillaud, were engaged in numerous actions 
in the vicinity of Trichinopoly. At the battles of the Golden 
Rock the French suffered defeat on three occasions. After 
ineffectual negotiations for peace in January, 1754, the struggle 
was renewed around Trichinopoly with varying fortimc until 
October, when a suspension of arms was agreed to. Peace 
followed at the end of the year ; Dupleix was recalled, and 
liawrence received a commission as I/ieut. -Colonel from the King 
and a sword of lionour from the Company. Orme thus writes 
of Lawrence in a confidential letter to Payne of 1755 : — 

" liawrence in his military command must have exerything 
dependant on his own will, or that will which, infused into him 
by others, he is taught to think his own. He is accessible, 
sadly accessible, from the side of his vanity, which indidges itself 
in frequent and honorable commemoration of his exploits. 
Every designing man under him had the recommendation of 
himself in his own power by his behaviour to his General. Now 
amongst these some good, some very indifferent, got ascendancy 
over the old gentleman. These, all these, must be served and 
promoted ^vithout restriction. The contempt which Lawrence 
always expressed for lucrative ^iews he verified in his own 
conduct, altho' he saw not into other men, when his favourites, 
acting from no f)thcr motives. His resolves are always violently 
hurried on."<^' 

On the cessation of hostilities Lawrence was superseded by 

(I) Orme MSS., vol. 28, Orme to Payne, 26th Oct., 1755. 


his senior, Colonel John Adlercron, a newly arrived King's 
officer, who remained in India three years. In 1757 war again 
broke out between France and England. Lally captured Fort 
St. David in 1758, and at the end of the year advanced on 
Madras. Lawrence took charge of the defences and successfully 
resisted a siege of upwards of two months. In April, 1759, 
he visited England for the recovery of his health, but returned in 
1761 in company with Palk, and took his seat as Second of 
Council with the rank of Major-General. From this time his 
duties were administrative until his retirement in April, 1766. 
He received a pension from the Company, an annuity from 
Clive, and an annual grant from the Nawab of the Carnatic. 
At his death in 1775 the Company erected a monument to his 
memory in Westminster Abbey bearing the legend, " Discipline 
established, fortresses protected, French and Indian armies 
defeated, and peace concluded in the Carnatic." A portrait 
of Lawrence in company with Nawab Muhammad Ali hangs 
in the Banqueting Hall of Government House, Madras. A later 
picture by Gainsborough is in the National Portrait Gallery. 

Other early documents preserved by Sir Robert Palk include 
a lively letter (No. 2) from John Pye, one of the Navy agents ; 
an order from the Crown (No. 4) based on the Treaty of Paris 
of 1763 ; an application (No. 5) in Latin from a Portuguese 
missionary, and letters (No. 6) from the Nawab of the Carnatic 
to the King and the Company. 

On Palk's departure from India in January, 1767, the regular 
stream of letters begins. The ex-Governor's principal corres- 
pondents during Charles Bourchier's administration were the 
new President himself, and his brother James Bourchier, a 
prominent civil servant ; Colonel John Call, Chief Engineer and 
member of Council, who was also a Field Deputy in the first 
Mysore war ; William Martin Goodlad, the Civil Secretary, a 
regular correspondent until his death in 1773 ; John Maxwell 
Stone, the Secretary in the Military and Political Department ; 
Nawab Walajah of the Carnatic ; Nicholas Morse, who was 
Governor when Madras capitulated to the French in 1746, but 
had since become head of a house of agency ; Josias Du Pre, 
a mcml)er of the Council and Bourchier's successor ; Chokappa 
Chetti, one of the Company's Merchants for the annual 
" Investment " in the manufacture of cotton fabrics for export ; 
John Pybus, who had been a volunteer with Clive in the capture 
and subsequent defence of Arcot in 1751 ; George Smith, a free- 
merchant; Henry Brooke, a civil servant, who later had a share 
in the deposition of Lord Pigot ; Thomas Palk, nephew of the 
late Governor and a cadet of 1768, who saw active service in 
Mysore but was afterwards transferred to the civil branch ; 
Captain Thomas Madge, commanding a battalion of native 
infantry in the Northern Circars, and Lieut. Thomas Palk, a 
subaltern of Madge's corps and a distant cousin of Robert Palk. 
Bengal news is communicated by George Vansittart and Robert 


Palk, jim., the ex-Governor's brother-in-law and nephew 
respectively. As time passes other Indian correspondents, 
such as Warren Hastings, Alexander Wynch, Gilbert Ironside, 
James Rennell, Henry Vansittart, jun., etc., come forward, 
while letters from Laurence Sulivan in England throw light on 
the character of a man who long exercised a potent influence over 
the affairs of the East India Company. 

Bourchier's administration was mainly occupied with the 
Mysore war. His first letter to Palk deals, however, with a 
domestic event. Mrs. Palk's brother George Vansittart and 
Robert Palk, jun., both Bengal civil servants, had come down 
from Calcutta to bid farewell to their departing relations. 
There had arrived from England a little earlier a Miss Sarah 
Stonhouse, daughter of the Rev. Sir James Stonhouse, who was 
successively physician, clerk in holy orders, and baronet. The 
young lady was a distant connection of IMrs. Palk and George 
Vansittart, whose mother was Martha, daughter of Sir John 
Stonhouse, an earlier baronet. The attractions of Miss Sarah 
were considerable, and James Bourehier, George Vansittart and 
the younger Robert Palk all aspired to her hand, ^^ansittart 
proved to be the successful suitor, and he went back to Bengal 
an engaged man. James Bourehier was grievously disappointed, 
and Robert Palk consoled himself at a later date with the lady's 
younger sister Lucia. Charles Bourehier, who deemed Sarah 
artificial, writes (No. 21) a full account of the episode, apprehen- 
sive that the elder Palk will not be well pleased with the 
Vansittart-Stonhouse match. 

The Mysore war is generally attributed to the Treaty of 
Hyderabad, though Palk contests this view. The article relating 
to British assistance for the Nizam was well understood to imply 
military support against Haidar Ali. The Marathas were pre- 
pared to attack ^lysore, and although no formal agreement 
with them subsisted, the three powers acted as confederates. 
The Marathas under the Peshwa Madhu Rao were first in the 
field and gained some success in the northern part of Haidar's 
dominions. A British force assembled under Colonel Joseph 
Smith, who was directed to unite with the Hyderabad army 
commanded by Nizam Ali in person, and attack Bangalore 
from the north-east. Haidar quickly succeeded in buying off 
the Marathas, and in inducing the Nizam to change sides. The 
situation was thus completely altered. Instead of being one 
of three confederates acting against IVIysore, the British found 
themselves alone against two allied powers, Haidar and the 
Nizam entered the Carnatic in Avigust, 1707, and battles were 
fought at Changama and Triiiomalai in which the British were 
victorious. Detached bodies of hostile ca\alry, however, 
plundered the country, and one of them under Tipu made a raid 
on Madras itself in September. In December the Nizam's 
dominions were threatened on the east by a British force from 
the Circars under Colonel Simon Hart. It was joined by a 


detachment from Bengal under Colonel Joseph Peach, who took 
command. The approach of this body to Hyderabad so alarmed 
the Nizam that he sent his nn'nister and connnander-in-chief, 
Rukn-ud-daula, to Madras to sue for peace. A treaty was 
signed on the 23rd February, 1768, by which the Nizam paid 
an indemnity, while the annual tribute for the Circars was 
reduced in amount. 

Haidar then remained the only enemy. The British army was 
formed in two divisions ; one under Colonel Joseph Smith, a 
capable officer, was established at Kolar, while the other under 
Colonel John Wood acted in the Baramahal. Smith's operations 
were hampered by the interference of the Field Deputies, John 
Call and (icorge Mackay, but Wood Avas successful in reducing 
fort after fort. On marching to rejoin Smith in Mysore Wood 
fought a se\'ere action at Mulbagal, in which both sides sustained 
heavy losses. Bourchier summoned Smith to Council, and Wood, 
who took command, displayed incapacity and met with a reverse 
near Hosur. He was recalled in December, 1768, and was 
subsequently tried by court-martial. Haidar penetrated into 
the Baramahal and rapidly recovered his forts from the scattered 
detachments left in them. Both sides, however, desired .peace ; 
Haidar through fear of the Marathas, and because he dared not 
meet Smith in pitched battle ; the Madras Government because 
of the ruinous cost of the war. Negotiations took place early 
in 1769 without result. Haidar then entered the Carnatic, 
wliicli he laid waste with fire and sword. Smith, who had 
resumed command in February, 1769, pursued him, but through 
Want of cavalry, was unable to bring him to action. By forced 
marches Haidar reached St. Thomas's Mount, eight miles from 
Madras, and intimated his willingness to negotiate, provided 
Smith, who was close behind him, was ordered to halt. Josias 
Du Pre, the second member of Council, met Haidar at the Mount, 
and a treaty was signed on the 3rd April. The common asser- 
tion is that the enemy dictated peace at the gates of Madras, 
though the only dictation was the naming of the envoy. 
Bourchier, it is true, feared for the safety of the Black Town, but 
Haidar was far more afraid of attack bv Smith, and if the latter 
had been permitted to advance, the usurper would certainly 
have decamped after doing as much damage as possible. The 
terms of peace were moderate ; a defensive alliance between 
the British and Mysore, and mutual restoration of conquests 
and prisoners. Haidar refused to recognize Walajah as a party 
to the treatv, nor would the Nawab assent to its terms. 

The above outline will elucidate the descriptions and allusions 
contained in the letters of the period. In a draft letter (No. 40) 
addressed to Mr. S. — probably Thomas Saunders, who was 
Deputy Chairman in 1767 — Robert Palk contends that the war 
originated, not in the Treaty of Hyderabad, but in the inveterate 
hatred which Haidar bore towards Muhannnad Ali, and his 
consetiuent enmity to the British as the Nawab's supporters. 
His hostility was disclosed by his correspondence with the rebel 


Yusuf Khan, wliicli I'rll into English liands after tlic capture of 
Madura in 1764 ; by liis sowing disaffection among the pohgars 
of Tinnevelly ; and by his overtures to the Nizam in 1765, when 
tlie latter was unfriendly to Fort St. George. Ilaidar was at 
that time flushed witli successes over the Maratlias, and he 
repelled the advances which Palk made. The Go\ crnor resolved 
to obtain the alliance of the Nizam, and the treaty of 1766 was 
arranged, which ga\e to the Company the peaceable possession 
of the Circars. It was then expected that a combined expedition 
would quickly secure the passes into the Carnatic and confine 
Haidar to Mysore. The scheme eventually developed, howc\'er, 
into a design for his complete overthrow. 

An important letter (No. 19) from Colonel John Call deals 
with the opening phases of the war and the movements of the 
troops of the three allies. Call considers the Nizam's action 
half-hearted, and he justly apprehends that both the Deccan 
ruler and the Marathas may come to terms with the Mysore 
usurper. He thinks that a binding agreement to prosecute 
the war to a successful termination should be made between 
the allies, and he encloses a review of the situation with the 
terms of a draft treaty framed by himself. He places no reliance 
on the INIarathas, and contemplates cooperation with Bengal 
against them as soon as Haidar shall have been overthrown. 
He goes on to narrate the measures taken by Government for the 
suppression of the insurgent poligars in Madura and Tinnevelly, 
and discusses arrangements for the payment of the Nawab's 
debt to his private creditors. In a subsequent letter (No. 25) 
Call refers to the irresolution of Nizam Ali and the successful 
progress of the Marathas. Further letters from Call, dated 7th 
August, 1768, and 26th June, 1769, will be found in British 
Museum, AdclL MSS., 34,686. 

Letters from John M. Stone (No. 29) and John Pybus (No. 30) 
describe the progress of operations. Tipu's raid on Madras 
is mentioned (No. 35) by a native correspondent. Captain, 
Thomas Madge, who accompanied Colonel Hart's expedition 
from the Circars, gives an accoimt (No. 42) of the capture of 
Khammamett, the arrival of Colonel Peach from Bengal, the 
advance to Warangal and the submission of Nizam Ali. Lieut. 
Thomas Palk, who was with Madge, refers (No. 59) to Colonel 
Wood's successes in the Baramahal and his action with Haidar 
at Mulbagal on the 4th October, 1768. He also alludes to the 
tragic end of Captain Michael Gee, Colonel Smith's aide-de-camp. 
About this time Lieut. Palk's cousin and namesake, Thomas 
Palk,*^) arrived from England. An account of his \oyRge is 
given in a letter (No. 49) to his uncle Robert Palk, who was at 
first unsuccessful in obtaining a writership for him. Tom Palk 
was permitted to join Colonel Smith's di\'ision of the army at 
Kolar, and was placed under the care of Captain Hector Mackay. 

(1) This Thomas Palk will, in fioooi'danoo with his uncle's practice, ho hence- 
forward designated Tom I'alk to dislingiiish him from his cousin. 


He relates (No. 55) his experiences with zest, and mourns the 
death of his mentor, who was killed during Colonel Wood's 
unsuccessful assault of the hill fort of Mulbagal on the night of 
the 3rd October. Nicholas Morse laments (No. 61) the heavy- 
cost of the war. He thinks it possible that Haidar may be 
driven to apply to his late enemies the Marathas for aid, but 
trusts that " those locusts may not appear in the Carnatic." 
Haidar's troops, however, required no assistance in ravaging 
the land, and W. M. Goodlad draws (No. 69) a melancholy 
picture of its condition ; "all the country to the southward 
entirely laid waste ; not an hutt or inhabitant to be seen for 
sixty miles together, so terrible have been, and still are, the 
devastations of the enemy's horse." Haidar's unexpected 
appearance at the Mount and the consequent terms of peace 
are commented on by Madge (No. 71), Du Pre (No. 73), 'i) 
Goodlad (No. 79), and more fully by Governor Bourchier 
(No. 78). 

News from Bengal is supplied by George Vansittart, Resident 
at Midnapur, and Robert Palk, jun. In April, 1767, they 
allude (Nos. 23 and 27) to Ahmad Shah Abdali's victory over the 
Sikhs, and his advance on Delhi with a large army of Afghans. 
It is expected that he will be joined by the Nawab Vizier of 
Oudh, Shuja-ud-daula, and that the Emperor, Shah Alam, 
will be dethroned. These conjectures were not realized. A 
British force moved towards Allahabad, and Shah Abdali retired. 
By the end of the following year the English were again on good 
terms with the Vizier, who consented to a reduction of his 
army. Robert Palk, jun., who had entered the service in 1763, 
found himself in trouble five years later. Appointed paymaster 
for barrack construction at Cossimbazar, he followed the 
practice of his predecessor in overcharging the Company for 
materials purchased, and when an investigation was ordered, 
was rash enough to destroy his accounts. He was consequently 
suspended pending the decision of the Company. Supported 
by Governor Verelst*^) and aided by his uncle in England, he 
was reinstated in 1770, when Government appointed him to 
the Revenue Council at Patna (No. 101). The Directors 
considered his nomination unsuitable (No. 136), and by their 
command Palk was removed from Patna in 1772 ; but the 
order was revoked, and he was restored in the following year 
(No. 220). Meanwhile, on the 12th June, 1770, he had married 
at Calcutta Lucia Stonhouse, daughter of the Rev. Sir James 
Stonhouse and sister of Mrs. George Vansittart (No. 101). 
A son was born in 1771 (No. 158), but Mrs. Palk died on the 
22nd June, 1772, aged 25 years. Her tomb in the South Park 

(1) In a letter to Orme of the lOfch June, 1769, Du Pv^ expresses his views more 
at length, ascribing the British failure to absence of cavalry, and consequent 
inability to brin;; Haidar to .-iction (Orme MSS., vol. 30). Du Pr-^ niiKhthave added 
to the causes insufficiency of transjiort and interference by llie Field Depulies 
%vith the military command. 

(2) Brit. Mus. Adcll. MSS., 31,080. Harry Verelst to Eobert Talk, sen., 21st 
Sept., 1708. 

XVI 1 

Street Burial Grouiui,*" Calcutta, bears an opitapli containing 
five stanzas, one ol" which runs : — 

" The tender pity slie would oft betray 

Shall be witli interest at her shrine retm'ned ; 
Connubial love connubial tears repay. 

And Lucia loved shall still be Lucia mourned." 

About a year after his return to England Governor Palk 
received a claim from one TJayalu Pant, otherwise called Rajah 
Pandit, late Renter of the lands and villages of San Thome by 
Madras and of Devikota in the Tanjore country, for the refund 
of money gifts made by liim, on the ground that his contract 
had been annulled. Palk writes (No. 70) to his friend Goodlad, 
admitting that he received substantial though unsolicited^ 
presents from the claimant. He consents to repay a sum 
proportional to the imexpired part of the Renter's term of con- 
tract, and asks Goodlad to arrange the matter secretly in 
conjunction Avith Muttukrishna Mudali, his former dubash. 
Palk also wrote to Governor Bourchier, who replies (No. 78) 
that " Rajahpundit is an infamous rascal, and is so much in 
debt to the Nabob that he is now^ under confinement." The 
affair was finally settled by Goodlad in 1771 (No. 140). 

Captain Madge, on his return to the Circars after the war, 
writes (No. 71) regarding the shortcomings of a cadet named 
Smerdon, in whom Palk was interested. Smerdon, contrary 
to his own inclination, was sent to India by his father, who 
not only allowed his son to sail penniless, but failed even to 
supply him with the clothing necessary for the voyage. Madge 
aided him on his arrival at Madras and afterwards in the Circars, 
but he proved to be temperamentally unfitted for the service, 
and was permitted to resign it. His " elopement from Madras " 
is subsequently recorded (No. 86). Lieut. Thomas Palk was 
joined in the Circars in 1771 by his younger brother John, w^ho 
gives an account (No. 124) of his voyage and first experiences 
of India. On landing at Madras he w^as met by his cousin Tom 
Palk, " who behaved very kind and genteel " to him. Imme- 
diately after Ensign John Palk's arrival Madge received orders 
to march against the rebelhous hill-chief of Totapilli (No. 129). 
His detachment attained its object, but on its return march 18 
out of the 20 Europeans accompanying it were struck down 
by the pernicious fever for which the Rampa hills are notorious, 
and only 8 recovered. The two young Palks fell victims to the 
malady, and their commander's constitution was broken 
(No. 1.39). Major Madge took part in the siege of Tanjore in 
1773, but died at Madras shortly afterwards (Nos. 216, 227). 

Robert Palk was eventually successful in obtaining a writer- 
ship for his nephew Tom Palk. The latter, who had been 
commissioned Ensign, found a military life to his taste, and he 
did Avell during the campaign. He hesitated about renouncing 

(1) Tn his original City of Dreadful Night, descriptive of certain aspects of 
Calcutta, Mr. Kipling has a chapter " Concerning Lucia," which mentions her 
"stately tomb" in tlie South Park Cemetery. The account of the City of 
Dreadful yight in Mr. Kipliug'.s collected works relates to Lahore. 


" the sword for the quill," but ultimately signed covenants in 
June, 1769. Tom Palk was placed under Goodlad in the 
Secretary's office, and endeavoured to supplement his monthly 
salary of 8 pagodas and 23 fanams by embarking in private trade. 
His uncle made him an allowance, but he soon became involved 
in debt. Though Governor Bourchier describes him (No. 78) 
as " a sedate, sensible youth," his early career hardly justifies 
the encomium. 

Disgusted at his want of success in the war with Haidar, 
and conscious of the displeasure of the Directors, Bourchier 
resolved (No. 78) to retire in January, 1770. Handing over 
charge to Du Pre on the 31st, he sailed in the Britannia in com- 
pany with his brother James and Colonel John Call. Bourchier 
received a better reception from the Court than he anticipated 
(No. 119). The brothers, w^ho had accumulated a joint fortune 
of about £60,000 (No. 78), arrived in England in time to see 
their father Richard Bourchier, sometime Governor of 
Bombay, just before his death. Fifteen years earlier Orme had 
characterized Charles Bourchier as "a young man who had 
strength enough to stand on his own judgment : would not 
willingly do the wrong thing : but the superiour genius of Mr. 
Palk had enthralled him so much to the dictates of his under- 
standing, that the will of the pastor became infallibly that of 
the disciple." d) 

In supplement to the letters of 1767 to 1769 in Mrs. 
Bannatyne's collection the following selected documents from 
the British Museum series of Palk Papers should be read : — 

Add. MSS., 34,685. 

1767, Nov. — Robert Palk to Jimmy [James Bourchier], 

from London. 
N.D. [cir. 1768, Feb.] Robert Palk to Charles Bourchier, Nicholas 

Morse, and John Call, from London. 

Add. MSS., 34,686. 

1768, Feb. 8th Nicholas Morse to Robert Palk, 

from Fort St. George, Madras. 
,, May 11th Charles Bourchier to Robert Palk, 

from Fort St. George, Madras. 
,, Aug. 7th John Call to Robert Palk, 

from Camp, near Bangalore. 
„ Aug. 8th Alexander Wynch to Robert Palk, 

from Fort St. George, Madras. 
„ Sept. 14th William Aldersey to Robert Palk, 

from Cossimbazar. 
„ Sept. 21st Harry Verelst to Robert Palk, 

from Fort William, Calcutta. 
,, ,, George Dodwell to Robert Palk, 

from Bengal. 


(1) Orme MSS., vol. 28, Robert Orme to John Payne, 26th Oct., 1755. 


Mar. 5th 


Mar. lOtli 


Mar. 22iid 


, June 2(3tli 


17(>8, Sq)t. 2;Jr(l ('land Jiusscll to Robert Palk. 

Ironi Calcutta. 
„ Oct. 22nd Alexander Wynch to Rol)ert Palk, 

i'rom Fort St. (ieorgc, Madras. 
,, Nov. ttli C'liokappa Chetti to Robert Palk, 

from Fort St, (ieorge, Madras. 
„ Nov. 27th Anthony Goodlad to Robert Palk, 

from Fort William, Calcutta. 
1769, Feb. 19th Charles Bourchier to Robert Palk, 

from Fort St. George, iNIadras. 
„ Feb. 24th Alexander Wynch, to Robert Palk, 

from Fort St. (ieorge, iNIadras. 
William Wynch to Robert Palk, 

from Fort St. George, Madras. 
Charles Bourchier to-Robert Palk, 

from Fort St. George, Madras. 
P^melia Vansittart, sen., to Robert Palk, 

from Bath. 
William Wynch to Robert Palk, 

from Fort St. George, Madras. 
,, „ Rajah Pant to Robert Palk, 

from Fort St. George, Madras. 
,, ,, Chokappa Chetti to Robert Palk, 

from Fort St. George, Madras. 
,, ,, John Call to Robert Palk, 

from Madras. 
,, June 28th Shamier Sultan to Robert Palk, 

from Fort St. George, Madras. 
[1769] Oct. 16th Henry Vansittart, sen., to Robert Palk, 

from Madeira. 

Josias Du Pre, who had entered the civil service in 1752, was 
Secretary during Lally's siege of Fort St. George, of which he 
was the ofTicial diarist. He visited England in 1761, and 
returned to Madras in 1768 as Second of Council with succession 
to Bourchier. His governorship lasted for three uneasy years, 
during two of Avhich he had the advantage of the co-operation 
of AVarren Hastings. After a distinguished service of fourteen 
years in Bengal Hastings had, in 1764', accompanied Henry 
Vansittart to England, and although he desired re-employment, 
it was not imtil 1769 that he was appointed to Madras. He 
arrived at Fort St. George in September, and sat as Third of 
Council with the duties of Export Warehousekeeper. On 
Bourchier's departure he became Second Member. He recast 
the system of * Investment,' and took an active part in the 
proceedings of the Board of Police. In 1771 Hastings was 
nominated to succeed John Cartier as GoAcrnor of Bengal, and 
he sailed for Calcutta in February, 1772. 

Impressed by the magnitude of recent territorial acquisitions 
in India, and by the Company's assumption of sovereignty over 
them, the Ministrv in England determined on intervention in 


Indian affairs. The Directors, justly alarmed for their powers, 
resolved to anticipate reforms, and to this end appointed Henry 
Vansittart, Luke Scrafton and Colonel Francis Forde as Com- 
missioners ; a selection which commended itself to Hastings 
(No. 88), who expected that Vansittart would vdtimately be 
reappointed Governor of Bengal. The Commissioners sailed 
from Portsmouth in September, 1769, in the frigate Aurora, 
left the Cape about the 24'th December, and were never again 
heard of. The ship is believed to have been wrecked off the 
north coast of Madagascar. As time passed without news of 
her, the letters from India from April, 1770, onwards breathe 
anxiety, and when at last hope was given up, the loss of 
Vansittart was keenly felt by his father-in-law Nicholas Morse 
and brother-in-law Robert Palk (Nos. 103, 134). The first step 
taken by the Ministry in pursuance of their object was the 
despatch of Sir John Lindsay, a young Admiral of thirty-three, 
as Naval Commander-in-Chief in India and Plenipotentiary at 
the Court of Nawab Walajah, with power to treat with other 
native rulers. Sir John arrived at Madras in July, 1770, and 
presented his credentials to an astonished Council, who had 
received no intimation of his powers. He demanded inspection 
of the consultation books,, which was refused, attached himself 
to the Nawab, and assumed an authority which the Government 
declined to recognize (No. 117). Ciencral Eyre Coote came out 
in the same month as Commander-in-Chief in India. He claimed 
the right to issue orders to the Madras army without sul)mitting 
them to Government, and maintained that his position was 
superior to that of the Governor, who held the Company's 
commission as Commander-in-Chief at Fort St. George. The 
Council deciding against Coote, he refused to serve, and left 
for Europe via Basra (No. 118). Du Pre writes to Palk (No. 108), 
" The Company abuse us like pick-pockets, send over a military 
officer to quarrel with and tyrannise over us and throw us into 
confusion. The Government send Sir John Lindsay to threaten 
and awe us, to wrest all our actions into crimes, and to support 
the Nabob (perverse enough before) against all our measures ; 
and then, if misfortunes happen, we nuist bear the whole. I 
tell you, my friend, the Company's affairs never were in so 
dangerous a way. We are surrounded with enemys, and the 
most dangerous are neither Hyder, the Morattas, the Soubah 
or the French." Hastings remarks (No. Ill) that " General 
Coote is returning to England in disgust because we will not 
acknowledge his supremacy. Sir J. L. stays because (as I 
suppose) his Excellency [the Nawab] acknowledges his sup- 
remacy. Appeals will be made by both to their respective 
constituents, and all the powers of the Company and of the 
Crown called upon to punish us for disobedience, contumacy 
and rebellion." Goodlad considers the situation critical (No. 
118) ; the Nawab thwarting the Council, " a Government spy 
})icking holes in their coat on every occasion, and the 


Conimaiider of the army bellowing out \eiigcance because he 
cannot be supreme." 

In January, 1770, Haidar Ali was again attacked by the 
Peshwa IMadhu Kao. Hastings thinks (No. 88) that if a com- 
promise is effected between them, they may eoml)ine to invade 
the Carnatic. The Marathas demanded liritish aid, and Haidar 
claimed it under the treaty of 1769 (No. 91) ; but Du Pre, while 
amusing both parties with expectations, resolved to maintain 
neutrality (Nos. 94, 96). The Secretaries, Stone and Goodlad, 
doubtless reflecting the views of the Council, contend (Nos. 117, 
118) that if the British arc compelled to intervene, they ought 
to help Haidar, as he constitutes a barrier against Maratha 
aggression in Southern India. In May, 1770, Madhu Rao 
returned to Poona sick, leaving Trimbak Rao in command of 
the army in Mysore. Haidar sustained a severe reverse near 
Seringapatam in the following March and narrowly escaped 
capture. Nawab ^Valajah, supported b}' the Plenipotentiary, 
lU'ged alliance with the Peshwa. Du Pre, however, remained 
firm in his neutrality (Nos. 155, 157). When the Marathas 
actually crossed the Carnatic border the Governor prepared for 
resistance ; but the Nawab inter^•ened, and by a small payment 
induced them to withdraw (No. 159). Stone says (No. 163) 
that Walajah and the Marathas were secretly acting in collusion, 
and that the latter had promised the Baramahal and Seringa- 
patam to the former if Haidar were overthrown with British 
help. In June, 1772, a treaty was concluded between Haidar 
and the Peshwa by which the Marathas received 60 lakhs of 
rupees*!' (No. 175), and obtained a cession of territory including 
Sira and Kolar. The Nawab's frontiers then became conter- 
minous with the Maratha dominions along the line of the passes 
into the Carnatic, 

Colonel John Wood was tried by court-martial towards the 
end of 1769 on various charges relating to misappropriation 
of stores captured in Coimbatore, and to his conduct in the 
field during the war with Haidar. The court acquitted him 
of all the charges, but the Government set aside the finding as 
being contrary to the evidence, and dismissed Wood from the 
service. Hastings, writing to Palk (No. 88), expresses the hope 
that the Directors will approve the action of Government, and 
that Laurence Sulivan, who is a relation of W^ood, will give 
personal attention to the \'oluminous proceedings in the case. 
Goodlad quotes reasons (No. 91) for the dismissal, and regrets 
that they were not made public. Ultimately the Directors 
upheld the finding of the court-martial, and Wood's acquittal 
was conftrmed (Nos. 140, 153). 

Laurence Sulivan, an intimate friend of Robert Palk, jjlayed 
for thirty years a prominent part in the affairs and management 
of the East India Company. Entering the Bombay civil 
service as Factor in 1741, he returned to England on account of 

(1) ^\■ilk-> (Hintory of Mysoor) says 35 lakhs. 


ill-health in 1752. Three years later he was elected a Director, 
and between that time and his death in 1786 he repeatedly 
served as either Chairman or Deputy Chairman. Whenever 
the rules required his withdrawal from the Direction he knew 
no rest until he had secured re-election. The qualification for a 
vote was the possession of oOOl. of India stock. The proprietor 
of a larger amount could increase his voting power only bv 
splitting his holding into blocks of 500/. stock, and assigning 
them to friends on condition of their voting to his order. Such 
votes were termed " split votes." Sulivan, being out of the 
Direction in 1767, requested Palk, who had just returned to 
England, to ask his friends (No. 41) for votes in Sulivan's favour. 
The effort was unsuccessful, and in the following vear Sulivan 
combined with Henry Vansittart to purchase India stock 
(No. 97). Both were chosen for the Direction in 1769 ; but 
owing to a heavy fall in the value of the stock they found them- 
selves financially embarrassed. Vansittart hoped to restore 
his fortunes by proceeding once more to India as one of the 
three Commissioners. His death by the wreck of the Aurora 
revealed the extent of his losses (No. 103), but even before these 
were known, Sulivan had been compelled to ask for Palk's good 
offices with the creditors. In 1772 Sulivan discloses (Nos. 
169, 170, 171) his ruined condition, states his liabilities to 
Vansittart's estate and to Palk, and resolves to return, if possible, 
to India. Expectations that he would be selected to succeed 
Du Pre at Fort St. George were disappointed. Sulivan, who 
had previously been M.P. for Taunton, sat for Ashburton from 
1768 until 1774, when he withdrew (Nos. 242, 246) in favour 
of Palk. In 1774 he suggests that Palk should join with others 
in taking up a mortgage on Sir George Colebrooke's estates in 
Grenada (No. 243). Palk declines (No. 244), giving reasons 
wdiich reflect on Colebrooke's previous transactions with him. 
In the following year Sulivan is still canvassing for votes for 
the Direction (No. 248). 

Stephen Sulivan, the impecunious son of an impecunious 
father, applies to Palk (No. 189) about 1772 for a loan of 500/., 
but is too proud to give a reason for his request. The object 
may have been aid for his father, for the latter writes (No. 169) 
in the same year : — " We live now principally upon my son's 
income, the good youth hardly allowing himselC 100/. a year." 
In 1774, however, Stephen Sulivan asks Palk (Nos. 238, 239, 
240) for 200/. or 300/. on the ground that his father is not able 
to supply him with what is necessar\' for his support. He fears 
that he may yet be compelled to seek l"ortune in India. Four 
vears later he entered the civil service as Secretarv at Madras 
(No. 339), whence he was transferred by Hastings to Bengal. 

To rctvu'n to the correspondence of 1770 : — In the Northern 
Presidency Governor Harry Verelst had given place to John 
Cartier (No. 84). Kfisim Ali Khan, the deposed Nawab of 
Bengal, assumed a threatening attitude early in 1770, and 


SliLija-ud-daula, Nuwab Vizier ol Uudli, was expected to join 
him (No. 92). Revenue Councils were established at Murshid- 
abad and Patna Cor Bengal and Riliar respectively, George 
Vansittart and Robert Palk, jun., being appointed to the latter 
(Xo. 100). From Sej)tend>er the letters J'rom India make frequent 
illusion to the terrible j'ann'ne raging in those proxinces. Robert 
Palk, jun., says (No. H)l) that many hundreds oi' thousands had 
died of starvation, while (ioodlad eonununicates the intclligenee 
(No. 118) that the loss of life was estimated at upwards ol" two 
millions, and that in Calcutta itself " the dead Avere still lavinjr 
in heaps about the streets." In March, 1771, Kasim Ali was 
reported to be north of Delhi with a I'orce of Patans and Rohillas, 
prepared to join the Marathas, who imder Mahadaji Sindia 
had lately occupied the capital (No. 133). Six months later 
the Emperor Shah Alam abandoned the I^ritish for the Marathas, 
and received Delhi from the latter (No. l-l'2). Under their tute- 
lage he gained a victory ^over the Rohillas in February, 1772. 
The Vizier, who was hostile to the Marathas, was on the Rohilla 
frontier, and a British brigade from Patna was readv to support 
him (No. 168). 

A letter from Captain James Rennell, the Surveyor General 
(No. 145), describes that ohicer's progress on the survey of Bengal. 
Rennell entered the Navy in 1756 at the age of fourteen, and the 
Company's service in 1763, when he was employed in trans- 
})orting troops by sea from Madras to Tondi for the siege of 
Madura. On that occasion he surveyed Palk Strait, so named 
after the (Governor, and in the following year he was appointed 
Surveyor Cieneral and connnissioned in the Bengal FiUginecrs. 
He became Captain in 1767 and Major in 1775. His first map 
of Bengal was carried home by Clive in 1767. In November, 
1771, Captain Rennell announces that the field work of his 
(Tcneral Survey of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, including marine 
work on the coasts and islands of the Bay, is almost complete. 
He expects that his map, in about 50 folio sheets, will be ready 
early in 1773. The Bengal Atlas w^as actually published in 1779. 
A brief note of 1776 from Major Rennell (No. 266) relates to 
domestic events and conditions. 

Turning again to the Southern Presidency, we learn that early 
in 1771 the Raja of Tanjore, influenced by the Marathas, of 
whose race he was, attacked the Marawar of Ranmad and pene- 
trated to his capital. The Marawar owed allegiance to the 
Nawab, and both Walajah and Sir John Lindsay urged reprisals 
on Tanjore. Goodlad says (Nos. 133, 140) that, though by the 
treaty of 1762 with the Raja the Company was bound to support 
the NaM-ab, yet the moment was unsuitable for taking action. 
There was risk of a Maratha invasion of the Carnatic, and 
moreover Fazil Beg Khan, the Nizam's bakhshi, was threatening 
the Circars. The Nawab, the Plenipotentiary, the Raja, the 
the Marathas and Fazil Beg were all sources of uneasiness to the 
Madras Ciovermnent. '" Du Pre, though indefatigable, is almost 


harassed to death ; Hastings knows not which way to turn 
himself, and the Secretaries have not a moment that they dare 
call their own." Fortified, however, by the opinion of the 
Directors that the Raja ought to contribute to the cost of the 
late war, the Council eventually supported the Nawab in his 
demands, and provided an auxiliary force under General Joseph 
Smith, which was to act under Walajah's orders (No. 1 i2). The 
fort of Vallam was reduced in September, 1771, and siege was 
laid to Tanjorc. By the end of October a practicable breach 
had been made, but on the eve of assault Walajah accepted 
peace on payment by the Raja of an indemnity and arrears of 
tribute (Nos. 155, 157). The Nawab's motives for granting 
such moderate terms were obscure. Goodlad attributes them 
(No. 159) to fear of the Marathas and jealousy of the Company. 

The presence of the King's Plenipotentiary had the worst 
effect on the Nawab. Walajah neglected the Company, to 
whom he owed his position as ruler of the Carnatic, and relied 
solely on the Crown. Proud and ambitious, he hoped to attain 
independence (No. 118). Lindsay, after a year of strained 
relations with Du Pre, sailed in July, 1771, and was succeeded 
in September l>y Admiral Sir Robert Harland, who possessed 
the same powers as his predecessor (No. 142). Stone writes 
(No. 163) that Harland's instructions are to give effect to the 
Treaty of Paris of 1763, and to receive and transmit complaints 
from the Nawab. By a strained construction of Article 11 of the 
treaty the Nawab is deemed an ally of the Crown, and as such 
is entitled to the King's support and protection. Stone points 
out that Walajah's undoubted subordination to both the Mogul 
and his deputy the Nizam are thus ignored. When Du Pre 
refused to join the Marathas against Haidar Harland threatened 
to engage the Crown in an alliance with the Peshwa, and enquired 
whether the Company would in that case assist with troops. 
Being met with an uncompromising negati\'e, he altered his 
tone — the result, as was surmised, of orders from the Ministry 
(No. 165). Goodlad writes (No. 167) that no confidence sub- 
sists between the Nawab and the Council, and tliat conditions 
are hopeless as long as a Minister of the Crt)wn is retained. 
The Nawab, he says, has sent home many complaints. " Is it 
possible to live on terms with a man who is known to endeavour 
all in his power to thus stab in the dark ? " Harland sailed with 
the squadron for Bombay in October, 1772, omitting to take 
leave of the (Governor, and conse(juently receiving no salute 
(No. 183). He finally left India in July, 1774. 

The Nawab's indebtedness to both the Company and private 
creditors is a. frequent topic of the letters from Fort St. George. 
In 1767 the private debt, which appears to have amounted to 
about 23 lakhs of pagodas, was consolidated (No. 28). The 
majority of the Europeans in the Madras Presidency, from 
members of the (io\ernment downwards, were creditors, as 
well as many persons in Bengal ; but the senior officials 


voluntarily renounced priority t)l' claim in favour of the Company. 
Governor Bourchier remarks in 1769 (No. 78) that Walajah 
then owed the Company Pags. 27 lakhs, more than half of 
which was for war expenditure ; but he had engaged to clear off 
25 lakhs by the middle of 1771 (No. 85). The interests of the 
pri\'ate creditors were represented in England l)y a Conmiittce, 
of which (ieneral Richard Smith was the leading meml)er 
(No. 91). A striking instance of usurious interest is cited by 
Goodlad (No. 118), but the ordinary rate before consolidation 
appears to have been 20 per cent. (No. 22), which was afterwards 
reduced to 10 per cent. The Select Conmiittce decided that 
the Company's claims shoidd have priority, and in 1771 Goodlad 
states (No. 140) that the Nawab's public dues having ])een 
discharged, the private creditors may shortly expect a dividend. 
Walajah however was recklessly extravagant, and it was not 
long before he Avas again overwhelmed with debt. 

News from home is comnumicatcd by Robert Palk, who 
announces in December, 1770 (No. 119) that England is pre- 
paring for war with Spain, though there is hope that hostilities 
may yet be averted. He characterizes the idea of conquering 
Mysore as a " wild plan," and regrets that Bourchier lent himsell' 
to it. In the following year Falk writes (No. 134) that Hastings 
lias been proposed as (lovernor of Bengal, but Rumbold is a 
powerful rival. In 1772 he intimates (Nos. 153, 166) that, while 
the Ministry do not aim at displacing the Company, they desire 
to see affairs in India better managed, and will move Parliament 
to regulate them. Informations regarding alleged frauds 
have been laid by the brothers Johnstone against Clive and 
others. Clive spoke for two hours in the House of Commons 
in vindication of his conduct, and he was followed by Rumbold, 
Carnac and Coote, the last of whom animadverted on the exces- 
sive cost of the army in India. Palk considers that the Directors 
base their actions on motives of self-interest, and asserts that 
they are " all such ignoramus's that they understand little or 
nothing of the affairs abroad," He mentions that Laurence 
Sulivan is a candidate for the Governorship of Madras in 
succession to Du Pre. 

Warren Hastings sailed from Madras on the 2iid February, 
1772, carrying with him John Stewart (or Stuart), who had just 
arrived from England as Secretary to the Bengal Government. 
Hastings succeeded Carticr on the 13th April. In September 
he writes (No. 174) to Laurence Sulivan from Cossimbazar, 
enumerating his first reforms ; the appointments made to the 
household of the minor Nawab of Bengal, and the reduction of 
that prince's stipend ; the employment of Nandkumar to break 
the power of Muhammad Raza Khan, who as Naib Diwan had 
virtually ruled Bengal for seven years ; the commencement 
of a revenue settlement ; the formation of a plan for the better 
administration of justice, and the adoption of Calcutta as the 
seat of the Diwani and the capital of the province. " The 


principles of all our measures have been to establish the new 
system which the Directors have adopted ; to break the 
influence of the former Administration ; to avail ourselves of 
the present minority^^' to establish the line of the Company's 
power, and habituate the people and the Nabob to their sove- 
reignty, and to make it acceptable to the former by an attention 
to their ease and by a mild and equal plan of Government." 
Hastings complains, however, that his constitutional powers 
as President are too circumscribed He hopes to avoid being 
drawn into war. The Nawab Mzicr of Oudh has sought 
British aid against the Marathas, but it will be afforded for his 
defence only, not for aggression. The Marathas have with- 
drawn from Rohilkhand, and are operating against the Jats. 
The Emperor Shah Alam is at Delhi " in union, that is, in 
subjection to the Marrattas." 

Two months later Hastings writes to Palk (No. 185), expressing 
regret that the Directors should pay any attention to the scur- 
rilous writings of William Bolts and Alexander Dow regarding 
Bengal administration, and that Parliament should contemplate 
making laws for India, seeing that the House is ignorant of the 
customs of the country. He mentions the arrest of Muhanuiiad 
Raza Khan, whose influence he hopes to eradicate. Muhanmiad 
Raza had been seized in August and taken to Calcutta. He and 
Shatilb Rai, Naib DiAvan of Bihar, were suspected of malver- 
sation of the revenue. Both were in due course honom-ably 
acquitted, but the Company having assumed the Diwani, their 
offices were abolished. 

Among the Palk papers is also a detailed memorandum 
(No. 190) of the reforms introduced by Hastings during 1772. 

Colonel (iilbcrt Ironside, Avho as a subaltern had commanded 
the escort on the occasion of Hastings's mission to Patna in 
17C2, is another of Palk's Bengal correspondents. Descended 
I'roni two Bisliops of Bristol of the same name, and son of a banker, 
Ironside was a soldier of education and ability who obtained 
rapid promotion. Palk had asked him (No. 135) to procure a 
copy of the Code ajMiiInoiunadaii Laic, perha])s for the use of 
the home authorities, who })r()posed to frame a code for India. 
From the library of Nawab Muhammad Razfi Khan Ironside 
secured (No. KJS) the Di<j,esfs of flic Arabian Canon and Civil 
Larvs, which he caused to be transcribed and sent to Palk (No. 
18G). lie expresses appreciation of Hastings's reforius, and 
says tiiat the Governor is surmounting all dilliculties. Mrs. 
Ironside joined her husband from England in 1773, and the 
Colonel notes (No. 220) .the restoration of Robert Palk, jun., 
to his seat on the Board of Reveiuie at Patna, " which is looked 
upon to be a certain and considerable fortune in the space of a 
few years." The younger Robert is not himself so sanguine. 
He alludes (No. 227) to Hastings's large economies, and says 
hat the opium trade hitherto in the hands of the civil servants 

'D The niiiKirity ol' tlio Nawab of Bengal. 


at Patna liavinp- been claimed for the Company, nothing now 
remains to the service but salt and Enro})ean goods. He hopes 
nevertheless to be able to return to England by 1780. 

Henry \'ansittart, jun., eldest son ol' (iovernor Vansittart, 
sailed from England in 1771 as a Writer on the l^engal establish- 
ment. He gi\es an aecoimt of his voyage (Xos. 138, 1 H, 147, 
152) to his uncle Robert Palk. Within a month of his arri\al 
at Calcutta he left I'or Madras to \ isit his grant! father Nicholas 
Morse (No. 162), the voyage occupying 25 days. Morse's death 
on the 28th May, 1772, the result of an accident, cut short 
Vansittart's stay. Chokappa Chetti says (No. 179) that Morse 
was '" a father and friend to all the people in Madras." Return- 
ing to Bengal, young Vansittart went to Patna to \'isit his uncle 
George (No. 172), and it was not until March, 1773, that he 
began work as a Writer (No. 202). During the interval, however, 
he became so proficient in Persian that he earned Hastings's 
commendation (No. 210) for translating at sight a Ilistorii of the 
Sanijasis. These wandering })ands of robbers, posing as religious 
mendicants, roved northern India in hordes of several thousands, 
committing grievous depredations. In March, 1773, no less 
than five l^attalions of sepoys were operating against them. 

In the course of 1773 P^melia, daughter of (iovcrnor Vansittart, 
arrived from England to stay with her inicle (icorge, who had 
now become a member of the Bengal Council. Robert Palk, 
jun., writes (No. 220) that, owing to her early introduction into 
societ}^ in England, she regards us in Calcutta as " contemptible 
beings ; " nevertheless, '* she is upon the whole a very worthy 
good young woman." In January, 1774, he infc)rms his uncle 
(No. 227) that ]\Ir. Petre has been tried for the murder of Mr. 
Rochford and acquitted. No mention of the trial has been 
traced in the records, but the fatality was probably the outcome 
of a duel between two young writers, John Petre and (Jcorge 
Rochford. Petre offered himself to Emelia Vansittart, who, 
fortified by her imele George's disapproval, refused him. A 
little later she became the wife of Pklward Parry'') of the Bengal 
civil service, and the union proved a happy one (No. 252). 

Tom Palk, who had visited Triehinopoly with General Joseph 
Smith in 1771, sends an account (No. 158) of the disastrous 
powder explosion which occurred at that station on the 14th 
February, 1772. He complains that, excepting Mr. Morse, 
none of his uncle's friends has shf)wn him any attention. Later 
in the year he sailed for Calcutta to visit his half-brother Robert 
(No. 184). In January, 1773, he writes (No. 101) that he is 
much enjoying himself " as this happens to be the season for 
all sorts of diversions, of which we ha\c little or none on the 
Coast." Always inclined to rely on interest rather than on his 
own exertions, he is soon grumbling that his brother, who 
spends 4,000/. to 5,000/. a year, does not do more to help him. 

(1) Brit. Mus., Addl. MSS.. 31,680, George Vansittart to Robert Palk, 27th 
March, 1771, 


While still at Calcutta Tom Palk was appointed to Masiilipatam 
(No. 207), and Major Madge offered to unite with Robert Palk, 
jun., in advancing a substantial sum to enable the young man 
to embark on private trade. In January, 1774, the younger 
Robert writes to his uncle (No. 227), " My brother is at Masuli- 
patam, and much pains I have taken to correct his errors and 
advise him to the best of my judgement ; but whether it will be 
of service to him or not I can't determine. I have said and 
done all in my power, and added 4,000 Rs. within these few 
days to 12,000 which he has already had and, I fear, spent. 
I have little expectation of seeing my money again. It will, 
however, be some satisfaction to me if it saves him from ruin . . . 
He is yet young enough to reform." Before this letter reached 
its destination Governor Palk had administered a severe casti- 
gation (No. 224) to the idle and extravagant young man. " I 
cannot observe," he says,- " in your letters or your conduct 
one generous sentiment which can give me a prospect of your 
future success and well doing." He alludes to his honest and 
worthy though not opulent ancestors, and states that the allow- 
ance he made to his nephew was ample had the latter chosen to 
live in the Fort. It may hence be concluded that the young 
Writer had indulged himself with a residence in the Wliite Town 
in preference to the stuffy quarters in the Fort Square, for he 
could scarcely aspire to a country house in the suburbs of 
Madras. This letter produced a suspension of communication 
between uncle and nephew which appears to have lasted several 
years. Eventually a reconciliation was effected. Marriage 
wrought reform, and Tom Palk saved money, brought up a 
family and retired on a competence. 

At the instance of Nawab Walajah an expedition commanded 
by General Joseph Smith was organized in 1772 against the two 
Marawars. At Ranmad great treasure was seized (Nos. 175, 
176). Kalaiyarkoil, a scene of lamentable slaughter through 
miscarriage of orders, was captured by Colonel Abraham 
Bonjour. The troops were subsequently employed in reducing 
the poligars of Madura and Tinncvelly. In August General 
Smith resigned the connnand of the army to Colonel Sir Robert 
Fletcher (No. 179). Fletcher had originally been entertained 
locally in 1757 as a monthly Writer at Madras, but was trans- 
ferred to the army, in which his promotion was rapid. He 
served as Brigade Major in the Manila expedition of 1762, and 
was subsequently moved to Bengal. • In 1766, when Lieut. 
Colonel conunaiiding a brigade, he joined the mutinous com- 
bination of oHicers which was suppressed by Clive. Tried and 
cashiered, he returned to England and entered Parliament. 
His influence enabled him to ])r()cure reinstatement, and he 
arrived at Madras in 1772 with the rank of Colonel. Tom Palk 
writes (No. 191), '' My beloved friend. General Smith " goes 
home, and " the command of the troops has devolved on Sir 
Robert Fletcher, who is universally despised, the court martial 


business liaving laid a stain on liis principles that will never l)e 
forgot or washed out. Conse(piently I have not the least 
intimacy with him." Fletcher proved a thorn in Du Pre's 
flesh. His obstrnctiveness in Council became so exasperating 
that he was ordered to Triehinopoly (No. 196). He claimed to 
resume his seat in Parliament, and his return to P^ngland was 
sanctioned, provided he first joined his new station. Passing 
through Cuddalore on his way south, he induced the Chief, 
James Daniell, to represent his cause (No. 193) to Robert Palk, 
and secure the latter's interest with the Directors, On Fletcher's 
relief from command Joseph Smith consented to postpone his 
own departure and resume duty in place of " the Chevalier " 
(No. 198). 

In October, 1772, Du Pre intimated to Palk (No. 182) his 
intention of resigning in the following January, as his " con- 
stitution is quite worn out." The rest of his stay was embittered 
by disputes in Council, and at the final meeting before he sailed 
George Mackay w^as suspended for maliciously laying an infor- 
mation against Edward Stracey (No. 196). Du Pre embarked 
on the 1st February, 1773, in the Nassmi, leaving Alexander 
Wynch in the Chair. Three months earlier J. M. Stone, who 
had been promoted to Council, had written to Palk (No. 181) 
suggesting that Wynch's Government would be strengthened 
if W. M. Goodlad also were admitted. Before Stone's letter 
reached its destination, Goodlad w^as dead. Attacked by 
hepatic disease, he was operated on by Dr. Gilbert Pasley and 
advised to go to Europe. A relapse occurred, however, and 
Goodlad expired of septicaemia on the 24th January, universally 
lamented. Tom Palk opines (No. 201) that Goodlad's fortune 
will prove to be limited, as " he was a great lover of claret and 
every thing that was good." William Petrie, who succeeded 
Stone as Secretary in the Military and Political Department, 
informs Palk (No. 196) that (ioodlad's affairs are involved owing 
to his association in private trade with James Johnson, account- 
ant to the Nawab. Until his death Goodlad was one of Palk's 
most frequent correspondents. His two brothers, Anthony and 
Richard, the latter of wdiom had recently arrived in India, were 
Bengal civil servants, and the elder henceforth assumed the 
duty of maintaining communication with their friend and patron 
(No. 203). He reports in due course (No. 215) that Petrie has 
done \vc\\ in the settlement of IVIartin's affairs, and that there 
will probably be enough money to discharge the liabilities. 
This expectation proved too sanguine. Thirteen years later 
it was estimated (No. 469) that while the bond creditors would 
be paid in fidl, the bo(jk creditors would receive only 60 per cent, 
of their dues. 

The Resident in Ganjam, Edward Cotsford, furnishes a sketch 
(No. 183) of affairs in his district from the time of Palk's depar- 
ture down to 1772. Cotsford entered the Madras Engineers in 
1758, and served in the Manila expedition and at the two sieges 


of Madura. In 1766 he was selected by Palk to be Resident in 
the newly acquired territory of Ganjam, and three years later 
he relinquished the military for the civil service. In March, 
1767, during Captain Cotsford's temporary absence, Narayan 
Deo, Zemindar of Kimedi, seized part of the Chicacole Circar. 
Colonel Joseph Peach, commanding the Bengal force sent to 
threaten Hyderabad during the first Mysore wai-, was emploved 
against this turbulent chief, who was defeated and driven out 
of the country. Cotsford returned to Ganjam early in 1768, 
accompanied by a detachment of troops. He states that the 
Zemindars have now (1772) been brought to some degree of 
order at the cost of 450 casualties to his own force of 16 com- 
panies. A fort is in course of construction, and the net revenue 
of the district is IJ lakhs of rupees. Most of the Zemindars 
are under the authority of a powerful chief named Sitaram Raz ; 
but this system, though necessary at one time, is now undesirable, 
as each zemindar ought to be directly responsible to the Resident, 
A year later Cotsford anticipates (No. 217) that Ganjam will 
become the granary of Madras. 

Alexander Wynch, who became provisional Governor on 
Du Pre's departure, had had long experience of the Company's 
service. Entertained locally in 1784, he was brought on tiie 
civil list in 1740. He was a member of Pigot's Council from 
1755, and was officiating as Deputy Governor of Fort St. David 
when that place capitulated to Lally in 1758. He subsequently 
resigned the service and sailed for England. In 1768 he was 
re-employed, and served as Chief at Masulipatam. The prin- 
cipal event of his governorship, which lasted from February, 
1773, until the arrival of Lord Pigot in December, 1775, was 
the conquest of the province of Tanjore, an operation which had 
far-reaching consequences. Walajah's pretext for attack was 
the non-payment of tribute by the Raja. The (iovcrnment, 
supported l)y Harland, sent a contingent under General Josepli 
Smith to assist the Nawab. Rritisli and Carnatic troops laid 
siege to the fort and city of Tanjore in August, 1773, and the 
place was taken on the 17th September. It was made over to 
.the Nawab, who imprisf)ncd the Raja and occupied the province. 
The fort of Vallam, a few miles from the capital, was garrisoned 
by the Company's troops. Before his deposition the Raja 
had granted the sea port of Nagore to the Dutch, and Walajah 
claimed British help in recovering it. Edward Cotsford states 
(No. 217) that the Dutcli evacuated the territory under protest, 
but collected troops from Ceylon and assumed a threatening 
attitude. He connnents on the rej)rehen.sible system adopted 
at Tanjore by the Nawal) of bargaining with a conmiittec of 
British officers for money to be paid them in lieu of plunder, 
and considers that the plan strikes at the root of discij)line. 
Tiiere are rumours, he says, that the officers may refuse to light 
the Dutch on the groimd that such service is not covered by 
their agreement with the Nawab. 


Towards the cud ol" 1773 Hastings mentions (No. 223) his 
negotiations with the Nawab Vizier, which terminated in the 
Treaty of Benares. ]?y tliis instrimient the districts of Kora and 
Allahabad, which Clivc had assigned in 1765 to the titular 
Emperor, were, in consequence of Shah Alam's rupture with 
the British and attachment to the Marathas, taken back and 
ceded to the Vizier. Shuja-ud-daula agreed to pay 50 lakhs 
of rupees into Hastings's exhausted treasury, while the Company 
engaged to furnish him with military aid against the Rohillas. 
Anthony Goodlad alludes (No. 215) to the treaty, and refers 
Palk for details to George Vansittart, who was with Hastings 
at the time of its execution. Goodlad says that the differences 
in England between the Ministry and the Directors arouse 
anxiety in India, and considers that Hastings deserves more 
ample support in his reforms. Robert Palk, jun., writes in 
January, 1774 (No. 227) that the Vizier has already paid 20 
lakhs of the stipulated sum. He enumerates Hastings's new 
revenue regulations, whereby Provincial Councils replace Col- 
lectors, and Re\cnuc Courts are established. Members of the 
Councils arc forbidden to engage in private trade, but are 
granted a substantial allowance in lieu. Military officers are 
prohibited from dealing with landholders or revenue officials. 
He reports that General Sir Robert Barker, who had exercised 
great influence over the Nawab Vizier, has left India, and that 
the army command has devolved on General Chapman, an 
elderl}^ officer whose chief aim is to recoup his gambling losses. 
It is expected that Chapman will be bought out of the service 
by his juniors, and that Cieneral Alexander Champion will 
succeed him. 

In February the same correspondent reports (Nos. 233, 234) 
that the Jats have yielded Agra to the combined forces of the 
Emperor, under Najaf Khan, and the Nawab Vizier. Hastings's 
stipulation that the British troops within the confines of Oudh 
shall be paid by Shuja-ud-daula is said to have been unfavourably 
criticized : it is called " hiring the troops to the country powers." 
Economies are being effected in all directions. A post is about 
to be established for the whole country, a charge of two annas 
per hundred miles being fixed for each letter of minimum 
weight. This plan will save the Company two lakhs of rupees 
annually, the cost of the existing daks. Some two years later 
the advantages of the Suez route for mails to and from England 
become apparent. John d 'Fries reports from Madras in 1776 
(No. 299) that private letters for FTastings of the 20th May 
from London and 3rd June from Marseilles were delivered in 
Calcutta on the 15th August. He advocates the appointment 
of a Company's agent at Cairo to forward communications to 
Suez, where a small vessel from Bombay or Bengal should be 
always kept in readiness for the passage to India. In his view 
a quarterly service might thus be maintained at small cost.^ 

Among Robert Palk's native correspondents at Fort St. 



George are Chokappa Chetti and Muttvikrishna Mudali. The 
former, a Company's Merchant of long standing, was thrown out 
of employ by the change in the system of Investment which 
Hastings introduced when Export Warehousekeeper. Under 
his plan gomastas in the weaving villages replaced the Company's 
Merchants. Chokappa continued, however, to hold the contract 
for the exclusive supply of arrack and toddy (Nos. 194, 204). 
Muttukrishna, who had held the office of Company's Interpreter 
from 1749, attended Palk and Vansittart on their mission 
to Sadras in 1754, and detected the forgery which Dupleix 
attempted to impose on the Commissioners. Chokappa 
frequently gives news of French proceedings. In 1773 and 
1774 he reports (Nos. 219, 230) activity on the fortifications, 
and states that Jean Law as Governor and Commander-in- 
Chief, aided by a Supervisor sent from France, rules Pondi- 
cherry for the King independently of a Council. 

On the 18th November, 1772, died the Peshwa Madhu Rao. 
He was succeeded by his brother Narayan Rao, whose uncle 
Raghunath Rao, commonly called Raghoba, became commander 
of the army (No. 194). The new Peshwa was murdered in the 
following August at the instigation of Raghoba, who aimed at 
the government. The Ministers, however, supported an infant 
said to be a posthumous son of Narayan. The dissensions 
which ensued gave Haidar an opportunity of recovering lost 
territory. In November, 1773, he reduced Malabar, while Tipu 
secured the northern districts around Sira. Chokappa writes 
in February, 1774 (No. 230) that Raghoba, after threatening 
Hyderabad with a large force, had settled with the Nizam, and 
is now engaged in making terms with Haidar at Sira. It is 
expected that the Marathas will invade the Carnatic in order to 
compel the restoration of Tanjore to the Raja, reclaim the 
Marawa country and Arni for themselves, and obtain from the 
Nawab arrears of chaut. Muttukrishna Mudali writes to the 
same effect (No. 232), and adds that Walajah is already nego- 
tiating with Raghoba, while alarm prevails in the Carnatic. 
Fears subsided as soon as it became known that the prospect 
of civil war had compelled the withdrawal of Raghoba's troops 
(No. 235). The Raja of Tanjore, still a prisoner, then lost all 
hope of liberation. 

In 1773 the Regulating Act was passed by the Home Govern- 
ment. Under this Act Hastings became Governor General in 
Council with certain controlling powers over Madras and 
Bombay. His Council was reduced to four members, three of 
whom. General Sir John Clavering, Colonel the Hon. George 
Monson, and Philip Francis, were sent out from England, 
while the fourth, Richard Barwell, was a member of the old 
Council. Robert Palk, writing to Walajah about March, 1774, 
^(No. 237), informs him that the three new members, who are 
on the point of sailing, will visit the Nawab at Madras on their 
way. Palk conveys a message from General Lawrence, whose 


health is faiHng, and adds, " I still endeavour to keep up his 
spirits and make his life comfortable as formerly, and we often 
recount the many happy days we have passed with your High- 
ness in the field, in garrison and at the Mount." The Regulating 
Act also constituted a Supreme Court of Judicature to administer 
English law ^t Fort William, with Sir Elijah Impey as Chief 
Justice. Clavering, Monson and Francis were escorted up the 
Hugh by Sir Edward Hughes, commanding the East India 
squadron (No. 284), and they landed at Calcutta on the 19th 
October, 1774. They at once adopted an attitude of hostility to 
Hastings, who could rely for support on Barwell only. As the 
Act gave the Governor General no power to outvote his Council, 
Hastings was constantly thwarted, and the Government 
measures adopted down to the time of Monson's death in 
1777 may generally be attributed to the triune majority. They 
denounced the Treaties of Allahabad and Benares, and dis- 
approved of the Rohilla war, which, undertaken to support the 
Vizier against the Marathas, terminated in 1774. In January, 
1775, Shuja-ud-daula died and was succeeded by his son Asaf- 
ud-daula, who was required to cede to the Company his 
sovereign rights over the territory of Benares. 

Public knowledge of the dissensions in the Council induced the 
production of charges against Hastings. Maharaja Nandkumar 
accused him of fraud, and Joseph and Francis Fowke of 
corruption. Hastings prosecuted his accusers for conspiracy, but 
Avhile proceedings were pending Nandkumar was arrested on a 
charge of forgery at the instance of a private person, and was 
tried and executed. A side-light is thrown on the situation 
in Council by a letter from Colonel Ironside of 1776 (No. 268). 
Charges, which the accused characterizes as " frivolous and 
insignificant," had been made against the Colonel and brought 
to the notice of the Board. Hastings and Clavering, as re- 
presenting their respccti^'e parties, both expressed themselves 
ready to acquiesce in Ironside's justification, but neither would 
make the first advance through fear of being charged with 
partiality, Ironside having previously acted as Hastings's 
Secretary, while Mrs. Ironside's brother, Roger Roberts,' i' was 
Clavering's Persian Translator. Eventually the matter was 
referred to the Directors. John d'Fries writes (No. 252, 256) 
that " Bengal is over run with informers' accusations . . . 
Nothing is done but from the spirit of party." D'Fries, an 
assistant in Nicholas Morse's house of agency, carried on the 
business after his chief's death. At a later dale he was joined 
by Thomas Pelling, a free-merchant of long standing, and the 
firm became known as Pelling & de Fries. Both partners 
frequently corresponded Avith Robert Palk, whom they re- 
presented in Madras. Mrs. Morse, who had gone to England to 
join her daughter Mrs. Vansittart, could not readily adapt 
herself to new conditions of life after her long residence in 
Madras (No. 265). Married in 1730, she had endured De la 
W Grand mentions Captain Roberts as aide-de-camp to Clavering. 


Bourdonnais' bombardment of Fort St. George in 1746, 
courageously refusing a permit to leave which was offered to her 
as the wife of the Governor. Prior to Lally's siege of Madras 
in 1758 Mrs. Morse and Mrs. Vansittart were sent by sea to 
Sadras for safety. That Dutch settlement had just then been 
seized by the French, and the ladies landed to find themselves 

In connection with the period 1771 to 1774 the following 
selection from the Palk papers in the British Museum should 
be consulted : — 

Addl. MSS., 34,686. 

1771, April 22nd John Call to Robert Palk, 

from Whiteford, Cornwall. 

1772, Sept. 7th Warren Hastings to Robert Palk, 

from Cossimbazar. 

1773, Nov. 15th Warren Hastings to Robert Palk, 

from Fort William, Calcutta. 

1774, Jan. 17th George Vansittart to Robert Palk, 

from Calcutta. 

1774, Mar. 21st Warren Hastings to Robert Palk, 

from Fort William, Calcutta. 

1774, Mar. 27th George Vansittart to Robert Palk, 

from Calcutta. 

The dissensions in the Supreme Council were imitated at Fort 
St. George. Nawab Walajah designed to make his favourite son 
Amir-ul-Umara ruler of Tanjore (No. 250). Wynch and the 
majority of Council opposed the proposition, which was sup- 
ported by General Smith, J. M. Stone and Samuel Johnson, 
and the matter was referred to Bengal. Chokappa notifies the 
return to Madras in 1775 of Sir Robert Fletcher, and the steady 
purchase by the Nawab of substantial houses in the Fort. He 
-mentions the publication of an order forbidding acceptance by 
the Company's civil and military servants of gifts from natives 
under penalty of fine and deportation, and remarks that " if this 
is the case, the Madrass gentlemen in the Company's service 
will find great difficulty in getting a fortune after they disburse 
their own private expences." He also reports a storm at Surat 
which wrecked nine large ships and forty small vessels, and 
alludes to fighting by land and sea between the Company's 
forces and the Marathas. 

These hostilities were due to the action of the Bombay 
Government in espousing the cause of Raghoba against the 
Ministerial parfy at Poona. The price of aid was to be the 
cession of Bassein and Salsette, and an agreement known as 
the Treaty of Surat was concluded with Raghoba to that effect 
in 1775. The island of Salsette was occupied by a force under 
Colonel Robert Gordon at the end of 1774, and three months 
later Colonel Keating was sent with troops to support Raghoba 
in his march from Baroda to Poona. The Supreme Council, 
which had not been consulted, ordered the recall of Keating, sent 


Colonel John Upton to Poona to negotiate with the confederacy 
of chiefs, and obtained a suspension of arms. Colonel Gordon, 
writing to Palk in 1775, describes (No. 255) the position of affairs. 
Comments on the action of the Bombay Government are made 
by d'Fries (Nos. 252, 256). He remarks that Salsette is " the 
grainery of Bombay," and considers the occasion favourable 
for dividing and therefore weakening the Maratha power. 
Meanwhile civil war continued. Muttukrislma Mudali writes 
(No. 262) that the internecine strife is advantageous to the 
Nizam, who has recovered lost territory, as well as to minor 
chiefs, who have escaped payment of chaut. Basalat Jang, 
the Nizam's brother, who had l)een required by the Supreme 
(iovernment to disband a substantial body of French troops in 
his service (No. 256), sent his army, including the French 
detachment, to besiege Bellar}^, where a Hindu tributary was 
aiming at independence. This poligar appealed for help to 
Haidar, who swooped down on BeOary, routed Basalat Jang, 
continued the siege on his own account and compelled the 
surrender of the unfortunate poligar (No. 263). Haidar then 
attacked Goot}^ (No. 278), and forced its chief, the celebrated 
Morari Rao, who made a gallant defence, to capitulate. Morari 
Rao was imprisoned, and died in confinement. 

From 1775 Robert Palk has a new correspondent, though an 
old friend, in Commander George Baker, late of the Company's 
marine service. Baker, who was born in 1721 at Tor Mohun 
(now called Torre, near Torquay), first came to India in 1743. 
I/ike Palk, he was with Boscawen at Pondicherry, and he after- 
wards did good service during Lally's siege of Fort St. George. 
He was rewarded by Pigot in 1762 with the post of Master 
Attendant or controller of shipping at Madras. Nine years 
later, when in England, Baker contracted with the Company 
to supply water to the P^ort and shipping from a source north of 
Black Town, and he duly carried out the project. Reynold 
Adams, who was Master Attendant when Baker arrived in 1772, 
feared that the water scheme would interfere with his own 
perquisites (No. 177). To recoup himself he asked for Palk's 
aid in procuring a contract for the exclusive supply of betel, 
tobacco and bhang (No. 229). He was the tenant of Palk's 
house in the White Town, and from time to time propitiated 
his landlord with the gift of a pipe of madeira. In 1775 he 
sent (No. 261) " a hogshead of old Goa arrack, said to be the 
best ever brought to Madras ... It was got of the dispersed 
Fathers of the Inquisition." Tom Palk coveted the house, 
and vainly tried to induce his uncle to evict Adams (No. 191). 

George Baker reports progress (No. 260) on the Madras forti- 
fications. It is remarkable that there are but few allusions in 
the Palk letters to the final reform and completion of Fort St. 
George. This extensive and costly work was carried out by 
the Chief Engineer, Colonel Patrick Ross, betw^een 1770 and 
1783. After mentioning that dissensions in Council continue, 


and that Governor Wynch fails to inspire respect. Baker 
announces the arrival of Palk's nephew Richard Welland, a 
naval cadet of the Salisbury, flagship of Sir Edward Hughes. 
The Salisbui'y has been lately at Masulipatam to fetch some 
Company's merchandize, and since her return Welland has not 
been ashore, " for the Comniadore pays close attention to the 
manner in which all his young gentlemen spend their time." 
Welland himself, a son of Governor Palk's sister Grace, writes 
to his uncle (No. 259) of his visit to Masulipatam, where Tom 
Palk " behaved very kind to me and gave me some books." 
He says that both Baker and Adams often invite him ashore, 
and adds, " I think hats is very dear in India." Sir Edward 
Hughes, who had succeeded Harland in command of the squad- 
ron, sailed for the Malabar coast in October, 1775, and in the 
following January writes (No. 269) that he has come to Bombay 
to refit, and " assist if I can in the treaty making at Poonali." 
He tells Palk that Welland " grows a very smart young man." 

Colonel Upton's negotiations with the Ministerial party 
terminated in the Treaty of Purandhar, by which Raghoba w^as 
thrown over, Salsette and Broach were ceded to the Compan}% 
while other British conquests reverted to the Marathas. In 
March, 1776, Sir Edward Hughes sums up the position thus 
(No. 284) : " Ragobah has been able to get little security and 
no share in the government : in short the Presidency of Bombay- 
made a treaty with him to support his attempt, which that of 
Fort William disapproved and sent a deputy to make peace, 
which was concluded and signed at Poonah the 1st of this 
instant." Edmund Yeale Lane, a Bombay civil servant of 
1767 whom Palk had befriended, was now at Tannah in Salsette 
after serving as Judge Advocate with Colonel Gordon. He 
writes (No. 290) of " the dishonorable and wretched treat}' 
concluded by the Supreme Council's Plenipo with the Ministerial 
party of the Marrattas, by Avhich we have violated the national 
honor, and made our faith justl}' doubted by every prince in 
India." Lane foresees further trouble, as Haidar is aggressive 
and the Maratha chiefs are disunited. A claimant for the 
Peshwaship, who pretends to be Sudaba, cousin of Raghoba, 
is in the field with a considerable force, and in liane's opinion 
he may succeed, whether an impostor or not, in overthrowing 
the Ministers. The pretender gained in fact important successes 
in the Konkan, and " very near wrested the government " 
from the Ministerial party (No. 313). Lane considers that, 
but for these successes, the cessions re(|uired by the treaty 
would never have been made. The real Sudaba or Sudasheo 
Hao was a nephew of the Pesliwa Baji Rao. He was missing, 
believed killed, after the battle of Panipat in 1761, when the 
Marathas were defeated by Ahmad Shah Abdali. Some years 
later a person representing himself to be Sudaba was imprisoned 
as an impostor. Escaping in April, 1776, this man secured a 
large following of believers, and even received some coiuitenance 


from the ]?onibay (Government. Siiccessfnl at first, he was 
eventually delcated and delivered to the Ministers, by whom 
he was executed. 

Lieut. J. Sneliing, who had been started in life by Robert 
Palk, writes from V'izagapatam (Xo. 267) that lie is laid up with 
a severe attaek of malarial fever after an expedition in the 
adjaeent hills. He has lately been transferred to a battalion 
eonmianded by Captain Mathews, and he represents that officer 
as " the most warlike genius in India, and the most enter- 
])rizing man that ever drew sword in this part of the country . . . 
What a pleasure and satisfaction it is for a young fellow like 
myself to be under a man so renowned for every particular of 
the military art ! " Richard Mathews, when in command of a 
native battalion in the first Mysore war, had captured the hill 
fort of Mulljagal by a bold and clever stratagem. His operations 
during the second Mysore war, when he eonmianded the troops 
in Malabar will be mentioned later. Snelling has been advised 
to go south for the sake of his health, but he fears the greater 
expense " from the number of pleasures to be met with there, 
such as plays, horse racing, cock-fighting ; in short almost all 
those expensive amusements you have in England." In the 
Circars he can live on his pay " very genteelly." Snelling's health 
was seriouslv undermined, and he died at Madras in 1778 
(Xo. 327). 

The Directors appointed (X^o. 274) a Committee of Circuit, 
consisting of five members, to tour the Circars and the Company's 
Jagir, and report on the administration of those districts. At this 
juncture John Whitehill resigned the cliiefship of Masulipatam, 
and George Baker observes (X'^o. 277) that " the busy world say 
he chose not to stay till the new Committee came their rounds." 
Writing on the 23rd February, 1776, Baker mentions (Xo. 281) 
that Whitehill and John Sulivan will sail from Pondicherry for 
pAirope in the Ajax, and he adds, " A Mrs. Draper of Bombay 
(who is a niece of Mr. Whitehill's) accompanyes them : they all 
set out for Pondicherry to-morrow." This lady was Sterne's 
"Eliza." Her father,' Mav Sclater, went to India in 1736, 
married Miss Whitehill and settled at x\njengo, where Eliza was 
born in 1744. She married Daniel Draper of the Bombay civil 
service, and in 1765, during a visit to England, met Laurence 
Sterne. Correspondence ensued, which was afterwards pub- 
lished. She was his " Bramine " ; he her " mild, generous and 
good Yorick." Mrs. Draper sailed for India in 1767 to rejoin 
her husband. About six years later she eloped from Bombay 
in a ship commanded by Sir John Clarke, <i' and went to her 
uncle Thomas Whitehill, a Bombay civil servant. She sub- 
sequently joined his brother John Whitehill at Masulipatam, 
and accompanied him in 1776 to England, where she died two 
years afterwards at the age of thirty-four. Baker further 
announces that the Hillsborough, with George Vansittart and 

(1) An allasiou t(» .Sir John Clarke is made in Xu. 260. 


his wife on board, left Madras for England on the 16th February, 
and was not out of sight until the 20th. The ship pursued a 
leisurely course to St. Helena, where the Vansittarts became the 
guests of Daniel Corneille, the Lieutenant-Governor. Corneille 
writes to Palk (No. 286) regarding them, and adds, " The good 
example you have set me of four little ones I am endeavouring 
to follow. My present family consist of two boys and one girl, 
besides one upon the stocks that will make his or her appearance 
in three months ; after which, ha\ ing followed your example, 
I aspire to no further wish of greater perfection." 

The difficulty of making private remittances to England is 
complained of in many letters. The rates for Company's bills 
being generally unfavourable, remittances were often made by 
sending home diamonds (Nos. 16, 20, 48, 68, 80, etc.). George 
Vansittart and Robert Palk, jun., purchased a ship, loaded her 
with opium, and sent her to trade in the Eastern Archipelago 
and China with the view of remitting the proceeds from Batavia 
and Canton (No. 213) ; but the venture proved unsuccessful. 
When diamonds were not procurable recourse was had to specie. 
D'Fries says in 1775 (No. 256), " The exportation of the specie 
continues with us to a greater degree than ever. It is reckoned 
that in the course of this present year six lacks of pagodas have 
been exported to China and Europe — a melanchoh^ and very 
alarming circumstance, for it must drain the country, and that 
very soon if continued." A little later Chokappa writes (No. 
270), " Several gentlemen in the place, for want of a way of 
remitting their fortune to England by l)ills, sends it in gold and 
Star pagodas on every ship that goes from hence, which 
impoverish[es] the place very much." 

The American war is noticed by d'Fries early in 1776 (No. 
276). " The unlucky turn that the American business has 
taken has filled us with much serious reflection. Wc anxiously 
wait to hear from England. God send that matters may have 
been made up." Allusion to the war is also made by Sir E. 
Hughes (No. 303). 

The long expected arrival of liOrd Pigot, which took place on 
the 9th December, 1775, opened a strange chapter in the history 
of Madras. The Governor elect was accompanied by Claud 
Russell and Alexander Dalrymple, two members of his Council 
of ten. Pigot was no stranger to the Southern Presidency, the 
government of which he had administered from 1755 to 1763. 
A grateful population was not oblivious of his successful defence 
of Fort St. (ieorge against the French, nor of the subsequent 
British capture of Pondicherry. George Baker describes 
(No. 263) the enthusiastic reception of the new Go^■ernor and 
the ceremonial observed on his assumption of office. Pigot was 
charged by the Directors with orders to effect the restoration 
of the Tanjore province to the Raja (No. 274). Sir Edward 
Hughes wrote from Bombay (No, 284), " I am told Lord Pigot 
brings regulations respecting Tanjour, but am afraid not very 


pleasing to the poor Nabob, who certainly merits every attention 
from the English, being in my opinion their most sincere Irieiul 
in this conntry.",^ Pigot was considerate to the Nawab, and after 
nearly two months spent in argument Walajah consented to 
release the Raja and receive a British garrison in Tanjore cit\-. 
The province he could not be prevailed on to relinquish, as he 
said that the two expeditions for its conquest had cost him 
three crores of rupees (No. 276). Colonel Humphrey Harper 
marched from Trichinopoly and took possession of the city fort. 
Meanwhile the Nawab made representations to the Directors 
through Colonel Lauehlan Macleane, his agent in England 
(Nos. 245, 275). Macleane had retired from the Bengal Army 
as Major in 1766, but was re-appointed through the influence 
of Sir George Colebrooke (No. 169), who was Chairman of 
Directors in 1772. He returned to India as Commissarv General. 
Bengal, with the rank of Lieut.-Colonel. In 1774 Hastings 
selected him to serve as his representative in England, and 
Macleane accepted a commission to act for \\'alaiah at the 
same time. 

While Pigot was arguing with AValajah, John Macpherson, 
a former representative of the Nawab, intervened. Macpherson 
had come to India in 1767, at the age of 22, as the purser of a 
Company's ship. He ingratiated himself with the Nawab, and 
was by him appointed his agent in England. Macpherson 
approached the King's Ministers, and the nomination of Sir 
John Lindsay as Plenipotentiary is believed to have been partly 
due to his advocacy. For himself he secured a Writership at 
Madras from the Directors. Early in 1776 he was paying 
surreptitious midnight visits to the Nawab (No. 270) to claim 
recognition of his former services. Walajah, disillusioned by 
the orders respecting Tanjore, handed Macpherson's memorial 
to Lord Pigot. The \'oung civil serxant was sunmioned before 
the Council, and was dismissed the service for conduct pre- 
judicial to the Company in the past (No. 277). Macpherson 
returned to England in 1777 and entered Parliament. In 
1781 he was reinstated by the Directors, and sent to Bengal 
as a member of the Supreme Council. On Hastings's resigna- 
tion in 1785 Macpherson became provisional Governor General, 
and he was created a baronet in the following year. 

Further pressure by Lord Pigot failed to persuade the Nawab 
to reinstate the Raja, and produced only friction. Duly 
authorized by the Council, Pigot went down to Tanjore with a 
retinue, and on the 11th April restored the province to its former 
ruler (No. 288). Chokappa, who accompanied the party, 
describes (No. 289) the treatment of the Raja during his confine- 
ment, and gi\'es a graphic account of the ceremony of reinstate- 
ment. Chokap})a then w^ent on to Trichinopoly, and learned 
that the Marawars of Ranmad and Sivaganga wetc detained 
prisoners there by the Nawab. While at Tanjore Lord Pigot 
recjuired the Nawab's manager to produce accounts of the 


revenues of the province. Tlie manager fled, and Pigot caused 
him to be pursued into Carnatic territory and arrested. This 
action gave great umbrage to the Nawab. 

As security for loans from private persons Walajah had 
granted tankas or assignments of the revenues of Tanjore to 
the extent of about ] G lakhs of pagodas. The creditors held a 
lien on the grain crop, which at the time of Lord Pigot's visit 
was partly cut. Directly Tanjore was restored, the Raja, 
supported by British troops, seized the grain (Nos. 288, 289). 
On Pigot's return to Madras a difference arose in Council as to 
liability for payment of the tankas. The majority were in favour 
of satisfaction by the Raja, while the minority, Avhich included 
the Governor, held that the Raja was not concerned with assign- 
ments made by the Nawab. Walajah declined to pay unless 
ordered by the Company to do so. He professed fear of violence 
from Lord Pigot, and applied to Sir Edward Hughes for 
protection (No. 288). The breach between Governor and 
NaAvab yawned wide. In June, 1776, Walajah writes to Palk 
(No. 287) that it is evidently " his Lordship's intention to distress 
and disgrace me, and he has seized every opportunity of injuring 
my affairs and of hurting my honor and authority " ; and the 
writer goes on to hint that Pigot has private interests to serve 
by his action. 

The principal creditors were Paul Benfield, the Hon. Edward 
Monckton, George Smith and Reynold Adams, but all Madras 
was interested. Monckton, a civil servant, had lately married 
Pigot's daughter Sophia. Benfield came out to Madras in 1764 
as Civil Architect and Engineer, and was employed on the works 
of Fort St. George with the rank of lieutenant, though his name 
was also borne on the civil list. In 1769 he resigned his appoint- 
ment of Engineer to become contractor for the erection of a 
rampart 3| miles in length for the defence of Black Town. 
Dismissed the service in 1770 for factious conduct, he was 
reinstated, but Avas suspended for disobedience in 1772. He 
subsequently contracted for new works at Fort St. George, and 
was engaged on them irntil 1776. Out of the profits of his 
contracts he lent large sums to tlie Nawab. Chokappa writes 
in 1774 (No. 230), " Mr. l^en field is Hanker and Soukar to his 
Highness the Nabob : all drafts and bills for the payment of 
the kists to the Company are scut to him, and he discharges 

Yov three months following Pigot's return from Tanjore 
disputes continued in Coinicil. Benlield was supported by 
(Tcorge Stratton, Sir Robert Fletcher, Henry Brooke, Charles 
Floyer, Archdale Palmer, Francis Jourdan and Oorge Mackay ; 
while the minority consisted of Lord Pigot, Claud Russell, 
Alexander Dalrymple and J. M. Stone. The crisis came in 
August. All the letters of the })eriod are full of the events 
which followed. The best accounts are those by George Baker 
(No. 293) and John d'Fries (No. 310). The point immediately 


at issue was the representation ol' British interests at Tanjorc. 
Russell had been nominated Resident, but the Majority proposed 
to caneel the appointment, send Russell on tour with the Com- 
mittee of Cireuit, and despatch Colonel James Stuart to command 
the troops in the province and incidentally recover the Nawab's 
assignments from the Raja. Orders lor Stuart were drawn 
up, but the President refused to sign them unless Russell also 
went as Resident to watch ()\er the Raja's interests. On the 
23rd August the Majority directed the Secretary, Richard 
Joseph Sulivan, to sign the orders on behalf of the President. 
Sulivan required a written instruction, which was accordingly 
drafted and passed round for signature. After Stratton and 
Brooke had signed, Pigot intercepted the paper, charged the 
two signatories with inciting the Secretary to do an unlawful 
act, and moved their suspension. Sir Robert Fletcher being 
absent through sickness, the motion was carried. 

The Majority assembled the same evening at Benficld's 
house, where, according to Chokappa (No. 295), they consulted 
with Macpherson, Benfield and the Nawab's two sons. They 
met again early next morning at Fletcher's residence, resolved 
that the suspensions were illegal, and determined to assume 
the powers of Government. Tliey sent out notices to that effect. 
On the same day, the 23rd, Lord Pigot sununoned to the Board 
Richard liathom, Chief of Cuddalore, who had come up to join 
the Committee of Circuit, and the Minority thus augmented 
suspended the remaining members of the Majority, ordered 
Fletcher into arrest, and offered the command of the army to 
Stuart. On Saturday, the 21th, Stuart breakfasted with I^ord 
Pigot, and the Council sat intermittently throughout the day at 
the Fort House. When the\- rose the Governor invited Stuart 
to supper at the Company's Gardens and offered him a seat in 
his chaise. They started after dark, Pigot himself driving a 
pair of spirited horses. The road lay across the Island through 
a double avenue of banyan trees. When the carriage was 
midwav between the bridges two officers. Lieut-Colonel 
Edington, Adjutant-General, and Captain Lysaght, stepped 
into the road and signed to it to stop. They were supported by 
an armed party of sepoys concealed in the shadow of the trees. 
Lord Pigot reined in. l/vsaght shouted, " You are my prisoner," 
and Stuart ordered the (Governor to get out. Pigot was hustled 
into a closed carriage belonging to Benfield, which was waiting 
at the spot. Lysaght, pistol in hand, followed ; an order!}' 
sergeant mounted behind, and the carriage w^ith draw^n blinds 
was driven rapidly to the Mount, where Lord Pigot was delivered 
into the custody of Major Matthew Home, commanding the 

Stuart, who had framed the whole plan in collusion with 
Fletcher, returned from the scene of arrest to the Fort House, 
where the Majority were already assembled. All slept in the 
Council Chamber that night. On the morning of Sunday the 


25th, having suspended Russell, Dalrymple, Stone and 
Ivathoni, they summoned the civil and military servants and 
the inhabitants to hear a proclamation announcing their 
assumption of Government with George Stratton as President. 
The militarv officers had alreadv received their orders from 
Stuart. Among the civil servants there was some hesitation, 
and 38 ol' them idtimately refused to acknowledge the new 
Government (No. 297). On the 27th at midnight Colonel 
Edington presented himself at the Mount with an order to 
Major Home for the removal of Lord Pigot to an unspecified 
place of detention. Pigot refused to go, and when Home 
summoned the garrison troops the ex-(iovernor harangued them 
to such effect that they tacitly refused to exercise force. 
Edington returned to Madras, his mission unfulfilled. Mean- 
while Russell, who was with Lord Pigot, hurried to Sir Edward 
Hughes at San Thome to demand his protection, and Hughes 
left his bed for the Fort. The Majority refused to yield the 
person of Lord Pigot to the Admiral, but engaged that no further 
attempt should be made to remove his lordship from the Mount. 
Hughes himself says (No. 303) that, both parties having appealed 
to him for support, he determined to afford it to the section 
which possessed power to carry on the government. 

The Nawab protests (No. 301) entire innocence of complicit}' 
in Lord Pigot's arrest, and assures Palk of his own unalterable 
attachment to the Company. In a subsequent letter (No. 308) 
he recalls his disapproval of the Treaty with Tanjore of 1762, 
and says that Pigot at that time forced him to sign the instru- 
ment. George Smith, although a /«///irt-holder on Tanjore 
revenues for about Pags. 30,000, denounces (No. 297) the 
revolution, and asserts that the charges against Pigot of des- 
potism, venality and attempts to subvert the constitution are 
imfounded. D'Fries, who mentions the sudden death of 
another tanka-holdev, Reynold Adams, reports (No. 299) that 
the revolution has affected the Company's i:)rcstigc with the 
natives. He believes that the Nawab's selection of Madras as 
his place of residence, though tending to develop intrigue, is 
on the whole advantageous, since he can be better watched 
when uiuh-r the eye of Government, while his presence has 
uiidoul)te<lly conduced to the prosperity of the capital, the 
})opulation of which has increased by one-third diu'ing the last 
ten years. Sir Edward Hughes is of opinion (No. 303) that the 
Tanjore province ought to be held by the Nawab. a British 
garrison occupying the city. He thinks that the orders for 
rendition wonid not ha\'e been issued if Colonel Macleane had 
reached Enghvnd earher, ; and he regrets that no Avritten treaty 
has e\er been concluded between the Company and the Nawab. 

Charles Eloyer, a mend^er of the Majority, explains (No. 302) 
the motives of his action in the revolution, and conjures up a 
farrago of surmises. He hokls that Lord I'igot intended to 
extract a large sum from the Raja as the reward of rendition, 


and fears that Bcnfield's unsupported charges of venaHty will 
prove to be only too true. He draws dark inferences from the 
nomination of Russell to Tanjore, seeing that the prospective 
Resident is about to marry I^eonora Pigot, He points ovit that 
the suspension of Stratton and Brooke would make Russell 
Second of Coimcil, and suggests that Pigot contemplated 
resignation of the Government to his son-in-law. He makes 
the point that the revolution was bloodless, and contends that 
it would certainly have been otherwise if the Majority had 
limited themselves to suspending the Governor instead of 
arresting him. Benfield went to Tanjore (No. 307) to press his 
claims on the Raja and secure proofs of Lord Pigot's venality. 
He came back unsatisfied on both heads. 

The Supreme Government, Avhich had already expressed 
disapproval of Pigot's attitude towards the Nawab and of his 
action in Tanjore, especially in regard to the arrest of the 
Nawab's manager (No. 293), determined to support the Majority 
as the legal Government. Their decision reached Madras early 
in October, and the Srcaliozc, sloop of war, was at once des- 
patched to Suez with fidl reports of the revolution. Dalrymple 
carried a packet from Lord Pigot, and Colonel Capper one from 
the Nawab. D'Fries considers (No. 310) that the Company 
should strictly define the powers of the President in relation 
to those of a majority of the Council, and issue explicit orders 
as to intervention by military officers in civil disputes. In a 
subsequent letter (No. 312) he mentions Colonel Monson's 
death, wherebj' Hastings obtains a majority in the Supreme 
Council and is once more free to act. Sir Robert Fletcher, 
who has been ill for months with phthisis, is about to embark for 
the Cape, but there is little prospect of his recovery. The 
prognostication was fulfilled, for Fletcher died at Mauritius in 
December before reaching his destination. Raker assigns 
causes for the revolution (No. 311), and observes that Pigot 
failed to maintain a good understanding with Bengal, while 
meml^ers of the Majority corresponded privately with Clavering's 

In 1777 a partial break occurs in the Palk correspondence, 
only four Indian letters of that year having been preserved. 
Sir Edward Hughes announces (No. 315) that a proposal to 
send Lord Pigot to England has been negatived, and says that 
the Directors' orders on the reports of the revolution are 
anxiously awaited. He states that Major General Bellecombe 
arrived in January as Governor of Pondicherry, and that M. 
Law is disgusted at being superseded. " Our friend Captain 
Baker " is engaged in carrying a pipe line through the surf to 
supply water to shipping. Chokappa writes (No. 314) that 
Bombay refuses to recognize Stratton as Governor of Madras. 
Baker observes (No. 316) that " Mr. Macpherson, a gentleman 
well known (and in some degree distinguished here, though of 
little standing in the Company's service)," is leaving for England 


to support, it is understood, the cause of the Nawab. Tom 
Palk writes (No. 317) to announce his marriage to Catharine, 
daughter of Thomas Pelhng of the firm of Pehing & de Fries. 
" With respect to her accompH[sh]ments it would be absurd 
in me to sound forth, but I must do her that justice to say that 
they are such as no man would make the least objection to." 

During the interval which elapsed before the next letter of the 
collection was written several notable events occurred. After 
an attack of illness brought on by chill following violent exercise 
Lord Pigot was brought from the Mount to the Garden House, 
where, in spite of attention from Drs. Pasley and Anderson, 
he expired on the 11th May, 1777. An inquest was held 
by the Coroner, George Andrew Ram. The jury, of which George 
Smith was foreman, brought in a verdict of wilful murder against 
Stratton and the rest of the Majority, and also against Stuart, 
Edington, Lysaght and Home. The verdict was delivered in 
July, but not published until September. Meanwhile, on the 
31st August, John Whitehill arrived from England via Suez 
after a passage of only 79 days, bearing a despatch from the 
Directors, dated 11th June, addressed to " Lord Pigot, our 
President and Governor of Fort St. George," Thomas Rumbold, 
Major General Hector Munro, John Whitehill, Charles Smith, 
Samuel Johnson, Peter Perring and others. The Court 
denounced the subversion of the Government by the Majority, 
and ordered the reinstatement of I/ord Pigot, which was, however, 
to be followed by his return to England by the first ship. His 
successor, Thomas Rumbold, was to be aided by a Council of 
only five members as named above. Stratton and the Majority 
were suspended and summoned home, as was Benfield, while 
Stuart was suspended for local enquiry into his conduct. 

Confronted with the news of Lord Pigot's death, Wliitehill 
found himself the senior member of the new Government 
and the only Councillor present at Madras. He summoned the 
two senior civil servants at the Presidency, Anthony Sadleir 
and Quintin Crauford, to assist him, and communicated the 
Directors' despatch to Stratton and the Majority, who at once 
submitted to the Court's orders. Whitehill assumed office as 
provisional Governor, and Smith, Johnson and Perring joined 
him from their out-stations. On the September the 
Coroner delivered the inquest verdict, and the accused were 
committed for trial at Quarter Sessions, Adxice was asked 
of the Sujireme Court, and pending its receipt the trial pro- 
ceeded. In due course Chief Justice Impey and the Judges 
delivered the opinion that the inquest afforded insufficient 
evidence for indictment. Tlic proceedings were accordingly 
quashed. Stratton, Brooke, Floyer and Mackay were dealt 
with in Enoland and fined 1,000/. each. Stuart rejnained under 
suspension until December 1780, when he was tried by court- 
martial for nuitiny in arresting Lord Pigot. Of this charge he 
was acquitted on the ground that the seiziu'C was made outside 


the limits of the Fort, and therefore beyond the sphere of the 
Governor's niihtary command. 

The years 1778 and 1770 are covered by only sixteen letters. 
Baker writes (Nos. 320, 322) that Rnssell, Stone, Stratton and 
Brooke have already left for England, Russell marrying Leonora 
Pigot the day before embarkation. He reports progress on 
the fortifications of the east front of Fort St. George, and 
announces that Tom Palk, lately nominated Paymaster at 
Chingleput, has lost the appointment through the reinstatement 
of the civil servants who were suspended by Stratton. Tom 
Palk eventually received a similar post at Trichinopoly, and 
became a prosperous man. Baker attributes to Wynch certain 
modifications made in the original contract for water supply. 
"Mr. Wynch has done me an irreparable injury ... I wish not 
to live for any other thing so much as to confront that man in 
a Court of Justice or in a General Court of Proprietors." 

Thomas Rumbold and ^Major-General Hector Munro arrived 
at Madras on the 8th February. 1778 (No. 322), when the former 
took charge from Whitehill. Like Robert Clive, John Caillaud, 
Robert Barker, Richard Smith. John Carnac. Robert Fletcher 
and John Macpherson, Rumbold furnished an instance of a 
man trained in Madras, who after transfer to Bengal, rose to 
high position in the service. Originally appointed to Fort St, 
George as a Writer in 1752, Rumbold was shortly afterwards 
commissioned in the army. After serving under Lawrence in 
the Trichinopoly campaigns, he accompanied Clive to Calcutta, 
and was wounded at Plassey. Reverting to the civil list, he 
continued to serve in Bengal, and sat in Council for three years 
until 1769, when he returned to England and entered Parliament. 
He was a Director of the Company from 1772 until he was 
appointed Governor of Madras. Hector INIunro came to India in 
1761 as Major of the 89th Foot, and in 1764, when commanding 
the troops at Patna in succession to Carnac, defeated the 
combined forces of Mir Kasim and the Xawab Vizier at the 
decisive battle of Buxar. He then returned home, and did not 
see India again until he came out in 1778 to command the 
Madras army. Sir Eyre Coote arrived at the end of the same 
year to be once more Commander-in-Chief in India. 

Colonel Ironside, writing from Calcutta in March. 1778 
(No. 324), fears supersession by officers from home, and asks 
for Palk's interest to procure him promotion to brigadier by 
brevet, with succession to Brig.-General Giles Stibbert. He 
encloses for Palk's perusal papers relating to General Clavering's 
attempted usurpation of the Government in 1777. Hastings 
had entrusted to his agent, Colonel Macleane, a letter of resig- 
nation, which was to be presented to the Directors only under 
certain conditions. A despatch from England, which reached 
Calcutta in June, disclosed the tender by Macleane of the letter, 
and the appointment by the Directors of Edward Wheler to fill a 
vacancy in the Council. Clavering immediately assumed the 


Government, summoned Francis to sit in Council with him, 
and required Hastings to give up charge. Hastings consulted 
the Judges, who declared Clavering's act to be illegal. The 
Council then resolved that the General had by his proceeding 
vacated his seat. Further appeals to the Judges by Clavering 
and Francis elicited an opinion favourable to the General on 
this point, and the Council rescinded their resolution. 

Clavering's death shortly afterwards is reported by Henry 
Vansittart, jun., (No. 325), who expresses the view that the 
Supreme Court is assuming authority which overrides the 
Governor General's powers. He mentions the intrigues of the 
French with the Marathas, and the intended despatch of a force 
from Bengal to Bombay. A person calling himself the Chevalier 
St. Lubin was the French agent at Poona. This adventurer 
was formerly attached as an intelligence officer to the British 
Field Deputies in the first Mysore war, but was discredited. 
In May, 1777, he appeared at Poona as a genuine representative 
of the King of France, bearing letters and gifts for the Peshwa. 
On promise of French aid Nana Farnavis, the principal Maratha 
Minister, granted St. Lubin the use of the port of Chaul, where he 
hoisted French colours (No. 322). Jealousy of Nana Farnavis 
had led to the formation of a Maratha party pledged 
to restore Raghoba to power. The Bombay Government 
supported the party, and Hastings, disliking Colonel Upton's 
treaty, agreed to assist. An expedition under Colonel Leslie, 
who was soon superseded by Colonel Thomas Goddard, started 
in 1778 to march across India to Poona or the coast with the 
ostensible object of protecting Bombay from French aggression. 
The Bombay Government co-operated by despatching a force 
towards Poona under Colonel Charles Egerton, whom they 
hampered with Field Deputies. When nearing Poona in 
January, 1779, Egerton was surrounded by the enemy and 
compelled to surrender. An agreement, known as the Con- 
vention of Wargaon, was made between the Marathas and the 
Field Deputies, by which Raghoba was to be given up, and all 
Britisli conquests made subsequent to 1765 were to be restored. 
This convention was disavowed by the Bombay Government. 
Meanwhile Goddard, who had diverted his course from Poona, 
arrived at Surat in February. There he was joined by a 
contingent from Madras (No. 336). Raghoba, who had fallen 
into the hands of Mahadaji Sindia, escaped from custody in 
.Tunc, 1779, and reached Goddard at Surat. 

In March, 1778, war had broken out between England and 
France, and in July Fort St. George received instructions from 
home to attack Pondicherry. Edward Cotsford, returning to 
Madras in August after a visit to England, and ignorant of the 
state of war, relates (No. 329) how his ship was chased by the 
eucmy for 20 miles until she fell in witli the squadron under Sir 
Edward Vernon, who had relieved Hughes in the preceding year. 
Siege operations were l^egun at the end of August under the 


direction of Major William Stevens, the acting Chief Engineer, 
and on the 17th October, when the assanlt was about to be 
delivered, General Bellecombe, the Governor, capitulated 
(No. 331). Chokappa quotes (Nos. 330, 332) the terms of sur- 
render, and the arrangements for the disposal of the prisoners. 
Among the British killed were Major Stevens, Captain Augustus 
De Morgan, and Ensign George Baker, the last being the son 
of Palk's friend of the same name. Despatches were immediately 
carried home by Captain William Rumbold, son of the Governor. 
Munro was knighted and Thomas Rumbold created a baronet. 
The Pondicherry fortifications were demolished during 1779. 

The French settlement of Mahe, near Tellicherry, was reduced 
in March, 1779, by an expedition from Madras 'under Colonel 
Brathwaite. The operation ga^^e umbrage to Haidar, who 
received his military stores through that port. Notwithstanding 
the failure of the British to fulfil the terms of the Mount treaty 
of 1769, Haidar had proposed alliance in 1771, and again after 
the conquest of Tanjore in 1773, but his advances, owing to 
Walajah's implacable enmity, were repelled. In 1775 he 
definitely ranged himself with the French, and four years later 
announced that he would join them in defending Mahe. In 
November, 1779, nine passengers from England via Suez, 
including two ladies (No. 337), were seized by Haidar from a 
Danish ship at Calicut, and seven of them were sent to Seringa- 
patam.'i) Mr. George Gray, formerly of the Bengal civil 
service, was despatched from Madras to Haidar's capital to 
procure their release and promote an alliance with Mysore. 
The prisoners were liberated Ijefore Gray's arrival, but the envoy 
was informed that his proposals came too late. 

Basalat Jang continuing to recruit the French force in his 
service, Rumbold opened direct negotiations with him. Basalat 
agreed in 1779 to dismiss the force and transfer Guntiir to the 
British, provided the Comj^any would protect his dominions 
and send a force at once to his capital, Adoni. This agreement, 
involving a breach of the treaty of 1768, incensed the Nizam. 
Basalat's French contingent went over to the ruler of the Deecan 
and eventually to Haidar Ali. A force under Colonel Humphrey 
Harper was ordered to Adoni from the Circars. Its route lay 
through territories ruled by Haidar, but permission to pass was 
not sought in advance. Harper found the road barred, and he 
fell back. The attempt to penetrate his country gave Haidar 
an additional grievance. Meanwhile Rumbold rented Guntur 
to Walajah (No. 335), aiid sent .Tohn Hollond to Hyderabad 
to claim the abolition of the tribute payable for the Circars. 
This proposal exasperated Nizam Ali, who saw the treaty of 
1768 flouted in all its terms. Hollond reported the situation to 
Hastings, and was directed to withdraw the demand. Rumbold 
suspended Hollond for disobedience, but the Bengal Council 

(1) The other two. Mi-, and Mrs. Fay, were detained at Calicut, and released aftei- 
three months' captivity. {Original Letters from ludia. Mrs. Fay, 1817.) 



reinstated him with credentials from themselves. Sir Thomas 
Rumbold, having thus embroiled himself with Haidar, the 
Nizam and the Supreme Government at the very time when 
war subsisted with the powerful Maratha state, announced that 
his health necessitated his immediate return to England. He 
sailed in April, 1780, delivering charge of the Government to 
the senior Councillor, John Whitehill. 

Some events of Rumbold's administration are mentioned in 
the few Madras letters of the period. Philip Stowey, who was 
sent out by the Directors in 1778 as Civil Architect, writes 
(No. 331) of plans for the enlargement of Admiralty House 
in the Fort. He has been consulted about the palace at Chepauk 
which Walajah is building " in the Moorish stile," but fears that 
the Nawab " has gone too far to be prevailed on to alter it." 
DTries (Nos. 333, 334, 336) alludes to the death of Colonel 
Macleane in England, and of Mahfuz Khan, the Nawab's elder 
brother, in India. He states that Walajah's finances are 
seriously embarrassed, and that his numerous European creditors 
in India and England cannot obtain payment of interest on their 
loans. The Madras Treasury is depleted owing to the heavy 
cost of the fortifications, and Haidar's attitude is suspicious. 
Fearing trouble, Felling & de Fries counsel Palk to limit his 
interests in the East. " We think your property will be safer 
nearer you than at a distance. India is a country of revolution, 
and we think we shall always be subject to it." Edward 
Cotsford writes in 1778 (No. 329) of the " small abilities of the 
present Governor and Council," and complains that his own 
authority is prejudiced by Rumbold's summoning to Madras 
the Zemindars of the Circars. A year later Tom Palk says 
(No. 335) that the Zemindars were called up to be squeezed, 
and that they have in their turn squeezed the ryots relentlessly. 
Corruption is rampant in IMadras, and gaming prevalent. 
" The Guntoor Circar the Nabob is to have, or has it. The 
Jaghire in December last was advertized to be lett, but it did 
not take place because of course the Nabob paid handsomely 
for it.<^' . . . Never was a man so universally disliked " as 
Sir Thomas, who is not even coiu-teous to his friends. Tom 
Palk dined recently with the Governor, who sat down to a 
rubber with Hall Plumer, a civil servant, and two subalterns. 
Directly play began dinner was announced, and 60 guests were 
kept waiting until the game was finished. In January, 1780, 
the same correspondent writes (No. 337) lamenting the 
continuance of his uncle's displeasure. Nothing has come of 
Rumbold's promises of employment. " I do, Sir, assure you that 
a King of France was never so absolute as he is here. Everything 
he proposes is carried without the least opposition." The 
Company is rapidly going to ruin. Sir Edward Hughes has just 
arrived with a squadron to relieve Sir Edward Vernon, who goes 

(1) The Nawab rented tlie Jagit and Poonamnlleo for ?,\ lakhs of pagodas per 


home ill an Tiidianiaii. Colonel Goddard has taken the field 
against the Marathas. DTrics, adverting to Runibold's im- 
pending departure and Whitehill's succession, says (No. 338), 
" I hope nothing will happen to require the exertion of extra- 
ordinary abilities, for T lielieve they will not be found in our 
Council." The Marathas have seized Captains Banks and 
Bonnevaux while these officers were on their way from Englatid 
via Basra with despatches. Stephen Sulivan, who came out 
to Madras about 1778 as Secretary and Persian Translator, 
informs Palk (No. 339) that his health is as good " as when I 
■* partook of red mullets with you in Devonshire." He finds the 
emoluments of the secretaryship insufficient to meet the high 
cost of living at the Presidency, and has asked his father to 
obtain for him a seat in Council or the post of Resident at 
Tan j ore. He thinks that Laurence Sulivan is wrong in his 
favourable estimate of Walajah's character. He himself con- 
siders the Nawab artful, ambitious and ungrateful, and says 
that Macphcrson will have difficulty in proving him otherwise. 
About this time Robert Palk must have relaxed his displeasure 
with his nephew, for George Baker writes in February, 1780 
(No. 340), that Tom Palk "is made happy by your kind remem- 
brance of him." Baker sends his letter by a private hand via 
Suez, but fears it may fail to reach its destination, as " it is very 
doubtfull whether (after what has past) an Englishman may be 
suffered to pass unmolested through Egypt with a packet." 
He adds that Sir Edward Hughes " is the same good man as 
ever," and that Palk's nephew, Richard Welland, who is " a 
charming youth, modest, manly and discreet," has been 
commissioned a lieutenant. 

As has been noticed, the letters in the Palk collection from the 
beginning of 1777 are few in number. Between February, 1780, 
and February, 1784, only a single communication from India is 
foimd. The hiatus is unfortunate, as many notable events 
occurred in the interval, particularh^ in Madras. Since the 
blank period coincides with the duration of the second Mysore 
war, the surmise is hazarded that the letters of the time may have 
been handed to some historian or other interested person, who 
failed to return them. The following outline of events will 
serve to transport the reader across the gap without giving him 
too severe a jolt. 

The escape of Raghoba from the clutches of Mahadaji 
Sindia and his junction with Goddard prompted the Marathas 
to propose alliance with Haidar and the Nizam, and a powerful 
confederacy was formed, which had for its object the expulsion 
of the English from India. Haidar was to attack Fort St. 
George through the Carnatie; Nizam Ali to invade the Cirears; 
Mudaji of Berar to enter Bengal ; Sindia and Holkar were to 
dispose of Colonel Goddard, while the Poona Ministers dealt 
with Bombay. Goddard, however, proved too strong for his 
adversaries ; Major Popham took by assault Sindia's rock 


fortress of Gwalior, deemed impregnable ; Hastings converted 
the Raja of Berar from a foe to a friend, and detached Nizam 
Ah from the confederacy by ordering the restoration of Guntur 
to Basalat Jang. There remained the implacable Haidar. 
Whitehill and his Council, blind to portents and deaf to warnings, 
took no measures of security. On the 20th July, 1780, Haidar 
issued from the pass of Changama with 90,000 men. An 
advanced party seized Porto Novo : another raided San Thome 
and the suburbs of the capital. For 50 miles round Madras 
and 1.5 round Vellore the country was devastated. The British 
army assembled at Conjeveram under Sir Hector Munro, who 
directed Colonel William Baillie to join him with a force from 
Guntiir. When near Conjeveram Baillie was intercepted by 
Tipu at Polilur, and his detachment was annihilated. Munro 
retreated to Madras harassed by the enemy. Stephen Sulivan 
was deputed to Bengal to entreat help. Hastings immediately 
sent Eyre Coote to take command at Madras, and a force was 
despatched under Colonel Thomas Deane Pearse to march down 
to the Carnatic through Ganjam. Coote reached Fort St. George 
on the 5th November, bearing orders for the suspension of 
Whitehill for disobedience in failing to restore Guntiir ; and 
Charles Smith, the senior Councillor, became provisional 

Coote took the field in January, 1781, relieved Wandewash, 
which had been gallantly defended by Lieut. William Flint, and 
on the 1st July defeated Haidar in a pitched battle at Porto 
Novo. Early in August he was joined by Pearse's Bengal 
contingent, and on the 15th he worsted the enemy at Polilur, 
the scene of Bailhe's disaster. After a further success at 
Sholingarh he relieved Vellore, defended by Colonel Ross Lang. 
Lord Macartney, who arrived as Governor of Madras on the 
22nd June, 1781, brought news of war between England and 
Holland. Munro, with the co-operation of Hughes's squadron, 
took Negapatam in October. The other Dutch settlements 
on the coast, Tuticorin, Sadras, Pulicat and Bimlipatam, Avere 
also captured. The Dutch port of Trincomalee in Ceylon was 
taken by Hughes early in 1782, but was surrendered to a French 
naval force six months later. In January, 1782, Eyre Coote 
had an apoplectic seizure, but continued to command. Shortly 
afterwards Colonel Brathwaite sustained a severe reverse in 
Tanjore. A French fleet under Admiral Suffren appeared on 
the coast, and was repeatedly, though indecisively, engaged by 
Hughes. Bombay troops operated in Malabar, and Haidar 
was preparing to evacuate the Carnatic when the landing in 
March of a substantial French force at Porto Novo induced 
him to change his plans. Cuddalore surrendered to Tipu and 
the French in April. SufCren earned lasting obloquy by 
delivering to Haidar at Cuddalore in June the British crews 
of his prizes. 

The cost of the war drained the Company's treasuries in the 


three Presideneies. In 1781 Walajah sent his Diwan, aeeoni- 
panied by Riehard Snhvan, to Calcutta, where an agreement 
was concluded on the 2nd April by which the Nawab assigned 
the whole of his rev^enues to the Company for the period ol" the 
war. At a later date Macartney objected to relinquish the 
assigimient, and on this and other grounds there was friction 
between him and Hastings, Chait Sing, tributary Raja of 
Benares, refusing to aid with supplies, Hastings visited his 
capital in August, 1781, and after a rising in which the Governor 
General narrowh* escaped Avith his life, deposed the Raja. 
Hastings next effected a settlement with the young Nawab 
of Oudh. On the death of Shuja-ud-daula in 1775, his son 
Asaf-ud-daula had succeeded as ruler, but the old man's treasure 
was seized by his mother and widow, the Begams of Oudh, whose 
claims were recognized by the majority in the Bengal Council. 
In September, 1781, Hastings reversed their decision, compelled 
the Begams to make restitution, and thus enabled Asaf-ud-daula 
to discharge his debt to the Company. 

On the 17th May, 1782, Hastings concluded with Sindia, as 
the representative of the Maratha federation, the Treaty of 
Salbai, by which the possession of Salsette was guaranteed to 
the English, Raghoba was pensionecl, and the son of Narayan 
Rao was acknowledged as Peshwa. Haidar had now no friends 
but the French. Munro resigned and sailed for England. 
Coote, worn out, returned to Bengal in September. The 
command devolved on General James Stuart, who had lost a 
leg at the second battle of Polilur. In December Haidar died 
of carbuncle at Chittoor. 

Meanwhile Bombay had rendered help. In January, 1782, 
Major Abington won success at Tellicherry, and Colonel Humber- 
stone, after reducing Calicut, inflicted a further defeat on the 
Mysore forces in April. Towards the end of the year General 
Richard Mathews, formerly of the Madras army but now 
commanding in Malabar, took Honavar and marched to Bednur, 
which he occupied without resistance in January, 1783. Manga- 
lore fell to the British a Uttle later. These successes brought 
Tipu from Coromandel to Malabar. Bednur, which he besieged 
with his whole army, surrendered on the 3rd May. The garrison, 
in breach of terms, was sent to Seringapatam, where INIathews 
died in confmement. Tipu then invested Mangalore, which 
was defended by Colonel John Campbell of the 42nd Highlanders. 
Sir Eyre Coote arri\ed once more at IMadras on the 24th April, 
1783, but succumbed to illness three days later. Stuart 
unsuccessfully attacked Bussy at Cuddalore in June, but 
hostilities with the French ceased on the 2nd July after news had 
been received of the conclusion of peace in Europe. The British 
commander, who had shown insubordination to the Madras 
Government, was dismissed the Conipany's service, and on his 
attempting to give orders to the King's troops, was arrested by 
Macartnc}- and forcibly deported. This proceeding prompted 


Amir-ul-Umara's mot, " Once General Stuart catch one I^ord, 
now one Lord catch General Stuart." The command of the 
Madras army then devolved on General Ross Lang, a Company's 
officer. Colonel William Fnllarton operated successfully against 
Tipu's possessions in Dindigul and Coimbatore, and at length the 
Mysore ruler consented to negotiate for peace. The Com- 
missioners, Anthony Sadleir, George Staunton and John 
Hudleston, left Madras in November, 1783, but their passage 
through Mysore was artfidly checked until INIangalore was 
starved into surrender in the following January after a gallant 
defence by Campbell for nine months against Tipu's main army. 
On arriving at their destination the Commissioners found three 
gibbets erected opposite their respective tents. They were 
loaded with contumely, but at length, on the 11th March, 1784, 
the Treaty of ]Mangalore was signed, which pro\ided for the 
release of captives and nuitual restitution of conquests. The 
survivors of the prisoners at Seringapatam and other places, 
to the number of about 1,150 British and 3,000 sepoys, were 

From 1784 the series of Indian letters to Sir Robert Palk, 
who had been created a baronet in 1782, reconmiences. There 
is however an isolated letter of 1783 (No. 343) from Henry 
Preston, a Bengal cadet and one of Palk's many proteges, who 
landed at Madras after a voyage of only 4 months and 10 days. 
He mentions the death of Haidar Ali and of Sir Eyre Coote, as 
well as a recent naval engagement between Hughes and Suffren. 
Besides this comnumication there is a batch of documents 
relating to the homeward voyage of Robert Palk, jun., his 
death during the passage, and the difficulties encounted in 
delivering his effects to his relations in England. These papers 
deserve notice as illustrating the conditions of travel of the 

Robert Palk, jun., after suffering several seizures of an 
epileptic character, was advised by the Calcutta doctors to go 
to England. Passage was taken for him in the Surprise, 
conmiander David Ascjuith. a coimtry ^ cssel owned by Colonel 
Watson of Calcutta, and bound for Limerick with a packet for 
the Company. Dr. Adam Burt was specially engaged by 
Government to attend the sick man during the voyage. The 
ship carried only one other passenger, Major John McGowan, 
who had accompanied Colonel Pearse's Bengal contingent to 
Madras and scr\ed at the second battle of Polilur. The Si(rj)rise 
sailed from Calcutta early in April, 1783. Dr. Burt supplies 
(No. 342) Palk's medical case, and records a diary of events, 
symptoms and treatment until the death of his patient on the 
20th May. The deceased's '' bureau and escritoire " were 
opened by the captain in the presence of Dr. Burt and Major 
McCiowan, and an inventory was made of the money and 
jewellery found therein. Captain Asquith, however, removed 
all papers. 

Oil the lOth September the Surpriftc anehored in tlic I'ort of 
liinieriek. 20 miles l)el()W the town. Dr. Burt, ignorant of Sir 
Robert Palk's name and address, wrote a letter to his own agents, 
Messrs. Webster of Leadenhall Street, reporting the oeenrrenees 
of the voyage for the information of the relatives oi"the deceased 
(No. 341-). He alludes to the impropriety of Captain Asquith's 
eojiduct, especially in regard to the abstraction of papers, 
mentions that two servants of Robert Palk, a European and a 
BengaH, are on board, and proposes to remain at Limerick 
until he receives instructions how to act. At the same time 
Dr. Hurt entrusted to Major McGowan, who intended to seek 
out Falk's relations, a memorandum (No. 345) for their infor- 
mation, together with an inventory of effects. In the former 
he mentions that Robert Palk, notAvithstanding that he had 
paid Rs. 10,000 for his passage, was constrained by the captain, 
after the ship had sailed, to promise a further sum of Rs. 1,500 
for the passage of the doctor. Burt advises that any claim 
made for this sum should be resisted, because he, at the captain's 
request, attended the sick of the shij)'s company and thus 
became entitled to free passage. Dr. Burt adds that the captain 
and officers throughout the voyage subsisted exclusively on 
the stores brought on board by the two passengers, and especially 
on Palk's ample supplies. The list of those stores comprises 122 
chests containing provisions in great variety, wines, spirits and 
cigars, with a moderate quantity of plate, saddlery, clothing and 
books. His live stock embraced 30 sheep, 10 hogs, 5 deer, 12 
turkeys, 26 geese, 30 ducks and 220 fowls. An inventory of 
the money and jewellery found in the bureau is also given. 

About the same time Captain Asquith wrote (No. 346) to Sir 
Robert Palk in Bruton Street, reporting his nephew's death, 
the particulars of which are to be communicated verbally by 
the chief mate, John Nimmo, who carries the Company's packet 
to liOndon, Asquith also alludes to the promise of payment 
of Rs. 1,500 for Burt's passage. After hearing from Sir Robert 
Dr. Burt writes early in October (No. 348) explaining 
Asquith's solicitude about the deceased's papers. Asquith had 
lately commanded a \essel chartered from Bengal to Madras 
and insured with Robert Palk and others. For private reasons 
the captain took his ship down to Trincomalee, where she was 
captured and condemned as a prize, the loss falling on the owners. 
After j-)ossessing himself of Palk's papers on board the Surprise 
Asquith hinted that a claim against the underwriters might 
be revived. Burt reports that all the effects are now in securit}', 
and adds that the captain threatened to flog Palk's European 
servant for refusing to relincjuish his original list of stores. 

The papers and valuables were ultimately handed to Dr. 
13urt (No. 351). The agent for the ship refused to carry the 
baggage round to London, and the doctor, after making formal 
protest, landed the cases, 82 in number, and delivered them 
sealed to Sexton Baylie, the Surveyor of Customs. Burt was 


assisted by Captain Sober Hall, of Limerick, who was known 
to Sir Robert. Hall suggested (No. 352) that Palk should 
obtain an order from the Treasury to the Commissioners of 
Customs to allow the cases to be reshij^ped on another vessel 
for London without examination. The day following the 
deposit of the baggage Burt found most of the seals broken. 
Baylie, declaring that he would open everything, went off to 
Dublin to lay an information before the Commissioners based 
on statements made by the ship's agents regarding the contents 
of the cases (No. 357). The doctor engaged a local attorney, 
Henry McMahon, to watch Palk's interest, and himself posted 
to London. Sir Robert being absent, probably in Devonshire, 
Bm-t left the papers and valuables at his house in Bruton Street 
on the 31st October, with a report of progress. 

Meanwhile Baylie, on his return from Dublin, made a seizure 
of the effects. McMahon ascertained that the Seizing Note, 
though filed on the 3rd November, was dated 15th October, so 
as to ensure the lapse of the legal interval for making a claim 
before Sir Robert could submit one. McMahon himself tendered 
a claim, which was rejected, and he then petitioned the Cf>m- 
missioners. He suggests that Sir Robert should approach 
Mr. Pery, Speaker of the Irish House of Commons and a 
connection of Baylie's, who might curb the Surveyor's pestilent 
activities (Nos. 358, 361). Time was granted by the Com- 
missioners, and Sober Hall remarks (No. 363), " Thus far is Mr. 
Bailie disappointed, who flattered himself with the notion of 
accelerating matters so as to have the goods condemned and 
sold before there would be cither a claim or tryal." The 
Surveyor, howe\'er, " broke open every chest and package 
belonging to Mr. Palk, rummaged and tossed the whole of his 
effects " (No. 365). Dr. Burt in London made an affidavit 
before the Lord Mayor of the circumstances under which the 
goods were landed and delivered to Baylie (No. 366). The 
Surprise sailed for London early in November, carrying Palk's 
Indian servant. 

Not until the middle of January- Avere the effects released 
and sent to Dubhn in charge of the Euroj^can servant, William 
Young (No, 369). George Maunsell, the Collector of Limerick, 
writes to Sir Robert (No. 370) that he has settled Baylie's account 
for WL. accepting a bill drawn by Young on Thomas Maunsell 
of Dul)lin. The last luuiied will forward the goods to Londtni. 
Thomas Maunsell, who had been in 1757 an agent for the army 
in Bengal and was a friend of Sir Robert's, reports early in 
February that William Young was, during his journey from 
liimerick. " taken up on a suspicion of being a highway man 
and brought before a magistrate. Young stated in examination 
that he had drawn a bill for 10/. on Thomas Maunsell. The 
magistrate, Luke Flood, wrote for confirmation to Maunsell, 
who by good fortune was staying weatherbound in the vicinity. 
Young was in due course discharged, " but lost his pistols by 


the \ illuiii y ol" the people." The weapons were eventually 
recovered. By the middle of February Maunsell obtained an 
order for the effects, which had been deposited in the Dublin 
Custom House, to be shipped for London in charge ol' William 

Indian letters to Sir Robert I'alk from the termination of the 
second Mysore war down to the end of 1780 have been preserved. 
The princi])al correspondents are, in the Southern l^residcncy, 
Tom Palk, l*eiling <k de Fries, (icorge Baker and the faithful 
Chokappa : and in Bengal, Henry Vansittart, jmi., Thomas 
Abraham and Abraham VVelland. 

Writing in February, 178t, Tom Palk, who is now Paymaster 
at Trichinopoly, states (No. 372) that after the restoration to 
Ti])u of Palghat, a strong place captured ))y Colonel Fullarton 
in the preceding November, the garrison was attacked by a 
tributary poligar and sustained considerable loss. In September 
Chokappa alludes (No. .378) to the conclusion of peace, and the 
return of the Commissioners from Mangalore ; while George 
Baker announces (No. 377) that the hnal settlement with Tipu 
has been completed l)y his delivery of the forts of Satgarh and 
Ambur in return for Dindigul. Colonel Pearse's contingent, 
with which Captain John Keimaway is serving, is in Ganjam 
on its march back to Bengal. Cuddalore and Trincomalee are 
still held by the French, wdiile the British retain Pondicherry. 
The delay in transfer was due to a contention by the French that 
their cession of Trincomalee was to be only formal, pending its 
innnediate restoration to the Dutch. This view was disputed, 
and the matter was referred to the home authorities. Baker 
adds that money is scarce in Madras, and that the pay of both 
civil and military servants is in arrear. Reform in the system 
of government is grcatlv needed. " God send that that which 
may be adopted may be perfect in proportion to the great 
length of time that has been bestowed on the investigation of 
the subject." John Sulivan, Resident at Tanjore, who is about 
to retire, is said to have made a large fortune by providing stores 
for the army during the war. Baker alludes also to Hastings's 
tour in the provinces to settle the affairs of Oudh. At Lucknow 
the Governor (iencral met the Mogid's eldest son, who had 
escaped thither from Delhi to entreat British assistance for his 
father. The aid which Hastings was disposed to give was 
vetoed by the Council. 

Chokappa reports (No. 378) that Lord Macartney is in dis- 
agreement with the Supreme (iovermiient regarding the Nawab's 
affairs, and on bad terms with Walajah himself; "but his 
Lordship is very honest and do[es] not receive any present nor 
allowance from any body." The Nawab complains })itterly 
(No. 379) of the (Governor's attitude, declaring that " Lord 
Macartney has brought utter ruin upon all the affairs of his 
employers." Large sums from Carnatie revenues have, he 
asserts, })een dissipated, for particulars of which Sir Robert Palk 


is referred to James Macpherson, who had become Walajah's 
agent in England on the nomination of his cousin John 
Macpherson to the Supreme Council. The Nawab has a special 
grievance about the transfer of certain territory to the French. 
The recent treaty between England and France provided that 
the village lands of Villenour and Bahour should be ceded to 
Pondicherry. Walajah unwillingly assented, but is aggrieved 
that the actual transfer was made by the Governor without any 
recognition of the Nawab's ownership. Macartney, he says, 
claimed sovereign rights, but even Bussy, an enemy, declined 
to accept the Governor's contention. 

Early in ITS^ Tom Palk's eldest son Tom was sent home to 
the care of Sir Robert, the sum of Fags. 500 being paid for his 
passage (No. 372). In October his mother hopes (No. 381) that 
he has safely arrived. She would like a portrait of him sent 
out. The next child, Catharine, aged four, will go to England 
by the next opportimity. When the time comes for Robert, 
the youngest, to follow, he will, she trusts, be accompanied by 
his parents. She refers to " the loss of our valuable brother " 
in the Surprise. Her letter occupied a year in transit owing 
to delay in despatch of the ship Pigot. Tom Palk writes at 
the same time (No. 382) that the Supreme Council do not 
entirely approve of the Treaty of Mangalorc, because the Nawab 
is not a party to it, and they have desired the Madras Select 
Committee to negotiate for a revision. The present Government 
of P^ort St. George, he says, " gives general dissatisfaction and 

George Baker reports (Nos. 383, 388) the existence of a 
nuitinous spirit in the army due to 7ion-issue of arrears of pay 
and threatened withdrawal of batta. The pay of the Company's 
troops was in fact twelve months behind time. Batta, drawn 
by both King's and Company's forces, was to cease in part from 
the 1st October, ITS-t, and wholly three months later. In 
September the 36th Regiment took up arms, but submitted 
after a ringleader had been blown from a gun. In January, 
1785, the 52nd Foot nuitinied at Foonamallce. Baker considers 
that but t'or the suspension of the obnoxious orders regarding 
batta a General nmtinv would have occurred. The bulk of 
the army was at Arcot imder Brig-(ieneral Matthew Home. 
The King's officers having complained of the Commandant's 
pi'ivilege of selling arrack to the troops, it was ruled that luture 
su])ph"es should be made by contract ; and Home was trans- 
ferred to the Southern command. At a meeting of the Select 
Committee in September. 178 1-, a personal dispute arose 
between tlie (Tov(>rnor and Anthony Sadleir. Sadleir challenged 
Macartney, and a duel with pistols ensued, in which Macartney 
was wounded, though not severely. Baker adds that Thomas 
Abraham, a connection of Sir Robert Palk, has arrived at 
Madras on his way to liengai. His ship " has been remarkably 
healthy, haveing not buryed a man since she left P^ngland." 


The same coiTespondent writes in January that a copy of 
Pitt's India Bill has been received. Lord Macartney waits to 
hear that the bill has been passed before deciding to depart or 
not. but he keeps a vessel ready. Baker mentions the sudden 
death at Pondielierry of tlie Marquis de Bussy, wbieh occurred 
on the 7th January. " A small American shij) (the first 
belonging to the United States) from Fhyladelphia arrived at 
Pondicherry on the 'i()th of last month. The Captain and 
supracargoe lunc been here, and are just gone back to tluit 

Orders were receixed from the Supreme (ioxcrmuent in 
January, 1785, for the mutual rendition, as between the British, 
French and|Dutch, of places taken- during the war, and Charles 
Floyer was appointed Englisli Commissary for the transfer, 
Pondicherry and Cuddalore were restored at once (No. 389). 
Pelling it de Fries'[report in June (No. 400) that Trincomalee 
has been dehvered to the Dutch, who, however, have not yet 
taken possession of their coast factories owing to their war with 
the Malays. The Dutch power is considered to be on the 
dechne. The French are limiting themselves to commerce, 
keep only a small garrison at Pondicherry and make no attempt 
to rccoiistruct the defences. 

The deplorable effects of the war are noticed by several 
correspondents. George Baker writes in October, 1784 (No. 
383), that the Carnatic is desolated, depopulated, uncultivated 
and deprived of its manufactures, while its stock of cattle is 
exhausted. Tom Palk says in the following May (No. 390) that 
" from the Colleroon to Arcot the country is almost laid waste 
from the want of inhabitants to cultivate." The cost of the 
war fell heavily on all the Presidencies. In Madras the Govern- 
ment could not meet the salaries of their ci\il servants or the 
pay of the army. The troops were mutinous. Money was 
scarce and credit low. William Wvnch writes earlv in 1785 
(No. 390), ■' It is now with the greatest difficulty even a 
trifling l(^an can be obtained from a black man." Arrears of 
salary are paid in bills, which are at 50 per cent, discount, yet 
Lord jNIacartney draws his full stipend in coin. " Nothing but 
the most disagreeable cireumstances have attended us lately, 
duels, dissensions in Covmcil, and mutiny among the King's 
troops." Pelling & de Fries report in June (No. 400) that the 
Company's debt in India is upwards of seven millions sterling, 
to clear which not less than fifteen years of peace are needed. 
The Compain's ])()nds stand in Madras at 40 per cent, discount, 
in Bengal at 25 per cent., and in Bombay, where no interest 
has been paid for four years, at 70 per cent. Tom Palk alludes 
(No. 401) to the distressed condition of the sepoys at Triehin- 
opoly : " Believe me, Sir, I have seen the native troops 
perishing in the streets, selling their children for a rupee, and 
it is not a month ago that thcv were begging about the canton- 
ments almost in the same condition." 


In Bengal salaries were ruthlessly cut down. Abraham 
Welland writes in December, 1785 (No. 407), that Richard 
Kennaway's monthly income is reduced from Rs. 2,000 to 
Rs. 500, while his own modest stipend has been diminished by 
Rs. 400. Many civil servants have resigned ; some to reside 
at the foreign settlements of Serampore, Chinsurah and Chander- 
nagore, where living is cheap ; others to return to Europe. 
The commander of one Indiaman has received no less than a 
lakh and a half of rupees for passenger fares alone. Welland 
adds that a petition to the House of Commons is being drawn 
up at Calcutta protesting against certain clauses of the India 
Act of 1784. A year earlier the same correspondent was 
discoursing (No. 380) to his uncle Sir Roliert on the minimum 
number of indispensable servants. " How very much times are 
altered since you was in India, when a person was satisfied with 
one or two servants ! I can assure you a Writer in Bengal can not 
now exist under an establishment of less than thirtv. The 
goodness of jNIr. Hastings to the black people has lain us under 
this imposition." 

Henry Vansittart. jun., alludes in December, 1784 (No. 38G), 
to his marriage in the preceding year to Catherine Powney, 
and the birth of a son. Hastings, who returned from tour to 
find that he had " had the misfortune to lose his only friend in 
Council, Mr. Wheler," has announced his approaching departure 
from India. Vansittart & Kennaway ask (No. 387) for instruc- 
tions regarding the estate of Robert Palk, jun. The only property 
remaining in India is a house in Calcutta worth Rs. 50,000 and 
some Company's bonds. Palk's legacy of 2,000/. to his brother 
Tom is set off by the latter's debt of practically equal amount. 
Their relatives, however, subsequently consented to annul 
this debt, as well as one incurred by Abraham Welland to 
extricate his brother Richard from difficulties due to extrava- 
gance (Nos. 414, 452). Rawson Hart Boddam, Governor of 
Bombay, writes in March, 1785 (No. 394), about a debt to Sir 
Robert Palk from the estate of the late E. V. Lane. He deplores 
the departure of Hastings, and observes that the recent 
reductif)n of the Council to a Governor, two civilians and the 
Conunandcr-in-Chicf affects the prospects of the senior servants 
in Bombay, who would retire if they could. He adds that " the 
late rapid progress and success that has attended Mahadjee 
Sindia in now })cing possessed of the whole power at the Court 
of Dillv . . . forebodes no very favoural:)lc })r()spects from so 
able and enterprizing a genius." 

Major John Shortt writes to Sir Robert from Madras (No. 391) 
that his promotion has been stopped for some reason which he 
is unal)lc to elicit. " I camiot charge myself with any thing 
more than being too hospitable heretofore, which, as it has 
proved prejudicial to my interest, I will in future study to 
correct". Sitaram Pandit, revenue accountant of Vizagapatam, 
draws attention (No. 392) to the persistent oppression of the 



landholders of the Chieacolc Circar by the powerful and truculent 
Zemindar Sitaram Raz, and encloses copies of petitions which 
had been submitted to Rumbold, Macartney and Hastings. 
Captain Francis Swain Ward, a well known Indian artist, 
furnishes Richard Kennaway (No. 396) with a recciiDt for 
subscription to the publication of his Views of Ilindon Temples, 
Buildings, etc. ; while a painter of greater distinction, Ozias 
Humphry, writes in May, 1785, from the Cape, on his way to 
India, bemoaning the retirement of Hastings, the death of 
Wlieler, and the departure of Sir John D'Oyly, to all of whom 
he carried letters, and entreating Sir Robert Palk to recommend 
him to the succeeding Governor General (No. 397). 

In May, 1785, orders were received from home directing the 
surrender of Walajah's assignment in consideration of an annual 
payment by him of Pags. 12 lakhs on account of his debt to the 
Company and private creditors and Pags. 4 lakhs towards 
current charges (No. 403). Pelling & de Fries give credit to 
Colonel John Call (No. 400) for his efforts on behalf of the 
creditors. Lord Macartney was so dissatisfied with the Court's 
orders that he sailed for Bengal on the 4th June, resigning from 
Vizagapatam on the 8th. Pending the arrival of his successor, 
the Chair was occupied by Alexander Davidson, who had Sir 
John Balling, Commander-in-Chief, and James Daniell as his 
Councillors. General Robert Sloper, Commander-in-Chief in 
India, also had a seat in Council during his stay in Madras. 
Pelling & de Fries say that Macartney's departure was accele- 
rated by his reluctance to associate with Amir-ul-Umara, who 
was managing the Nawab's affairs. A despatch nominating 
Lord Macartnev Governor General reached Madras on the 16th 
July and was forwarded at once to Calcutta, but he declined the 
appointment and sailed for England on the 10th August (No. 
403). John Macpherson accordingly remained in control of 
the Supreme Government. Abraham Welland remarks of 
Macpherson (No. 409) that " his abilities are no ways suited to 
it, nor indeed are any of his coadjutors, particularly Mr. Stables, 
whose head is too thick ever to cut a conspicuous figure." The 
Madras Government, before surrendering the assignment, 
demanded security from the Nawab for the payment of the 
stipulated 16 lakhs of pagodas. This he was unable to furnish 
(No. 403), but by January, 1786, he was faithfully executing 
his contract (No. 412). Pelling & de Fries say that " the 
distresses of individuals from not having received any part of 
the Nabob's debt for so long a space of time are great, and affect 
the trade and welfare of the Settlement." The Government 
continued to be in financial difficulty ; arrears of army pay 
were still outstanding, Com])any's bonds stood at a heavy 
discount, and no funds were available for the Investment. The 
writers add that James Daniell, who is retiring, will be replaced 
in Council by Charles Floyer. Daniell was nominated by the 
Directors to succeed the next Governor, but he sailed the dav 
before the news reached Madras (No. 422), 


Not long after the conclusion of the Treaty of Mangalore 
there were rumours of approaching trouble between Tipu on 
one side and the Marathas and Nizam on the other (No. 383). 
Tipu set up a claim to Bijapur in the Nizam's dominions, while 
the Marathas, who hoped for British aid (No. 403), pressed for 
arrears of tribute from Mysore. Felling & de Fries, writing 
in January, 1786 (No. 412), say that Madras has had no trading- 
intercourse with Mysore since the peace, the passes from the 
Carnatic being jealously guarded by Tipu. A report of the 
Sultan's death (Nos, 412, 430), sedulously spread by himself, 
was conmionly credited, and Macpherson even despatched an 
envoy to the supposed new ruler. Tom Falk says in March 
(No. 431), " The Nizam and Marattoes have actually taken the 
field with a view of attacking Tippoo, who is not dead as was 
the general belief for two months . , . From hence you may 
infer that we keep ourselves exceedingly ignorant of what passes 
beyond even the walls of Madras ... I cannot penetrate 
Tippoo's real design by feigning himself dead and keeping the 
gates of Scringapatam shut for so long a time, which we know 
beyond a doubt to have happened." Felling & de Fries 
write (No. 432), " Storms brewing around us. A formidable 
army of the Marattas . . . together with the Nizam's army 
have crossed the Kistna and invaded Tippoo's country . . . 
Tippoo has a very considerable force, but from his tyrannical 
disposition don't stand so well in the affection of his subjects as 
old Hyder did, whose political abilities were infinitely superior," 
The same correspondents mention in June (No. 441) that the 
Nizam had returned to Hyderabad, though his army remained 
to co-operate with the Marathas (No. 456). Instead of directly 
facing his enemies, Tipu made a diversion by devastating the 
district of Adoni, which had passed to the Nizam on the death 
of his brother Basalat Jang. Desperately defended by Muhabat 
Jang, son of Basalat, Adoni fort was relieved by the confederates 
at the end of June, but was inmiediatcly evacuated (No. 460). 
Operations were then transferred to the north of the Tunga- 
bhadra, and continued till the close of the year (Nos. 467, 469). 
Tipu was generally successful, but he nevertheless negotiated 
with Ilolkar for peace, and a treaty was concluded in January, 

Daxidson continued to f)ccupy the Madras Chair pending the 
appointment of a permanent successor to Macartney. Tom 
Falk writes (No. 422), " liord M. is certainly very culjjable in 
leaving the C'hair to so weak and indolent a man as fills it at 
present, that never was capal)le of conducting even his own 
domestick affairs." And (No. 431), " Fi\ery one is dissatisfied, 
and looking out with the most painlii! anxiety (lor] the speedy 
arrival of Governor Campbell." Felling & de Fries say 
(No. 432), " We want much an able (Governor : our present 
administration is but a feeble one." Major-Cieneral Sir Archi- 
bald Cam])l)ell, an olTieer of the Ro}'al Engineers, who had been 


Chief Engineer of Bengal, had served in North America and had 
been Governor of Janiaiea, arrived on the 6th April, 1786, and 
assumed eharge of the Madras (io\"ernmcnt. A few months later 
he Avas also appointed Connnander-in-Chief of the Coast army 
(No. 460), whereupon Sir John Bailing retm'ned to England. 
A change was also made in Bengal, where Macpherson's rule 
was no more acceptable to Thomas Abraham than was David- 
son's in Madras to Thomas Palk. Abraham writes (No. 425), 
" I see everything still goes by interest notwithstanding the late 
Act of Parliament. I can convince you of this no better than 
by telling you that the greatest part of the many appointments 
that have been given away lately have been given to Scotch- 
men." And (No, 434), " It is a Scotch Government, and very 
few but Scotchmen get any thing." I^ord Cornwallis arrived 
at Madras on the 22nd August, 1786, and a few days later sailed 
for Calcutta (Nos. 456, 460), where he relieved Macpherson 
on the 12th September (No. 461). 

Henry Vansittart, jun., and Richard Kennaway, as administra- 
tors of the Indian estate of Robert Palk, jun., bring to notice 
the case of Simeon Droz, a Bengal civil servant, who was 
indebted to the estate (No. 419). Droz gave Palk a bond for 
Rs. 9,000 for the purchase from him of " a Filature or building 
for winding silk, in the neighbourhood of Cossimbuzar," but he 
Failed to receive possession because " Mr. Palk, holding a contract 
for raw silk under another name with the Board of Trade, 
continued to employ the Filature in the provision of his silk." 
Before he sailed Palk sold the property to another person, but 
the administrators, having no power to cancel Droz's bond, 
which was found among the deceased's papers, refer the matter 
to Sir Robert. Droz went home at this time, and on arri\'al 
wrote to his friend General Caillaud (No. 453), asking him to 
represent his case. Vansittart aimounces in August (No. 455) 
that the estate is about to be wound up, and that he himself 
intends to return to England. Six weeks later he was dead, a 
victim to climate (No. 464). 

During 1786 the financial situation improved steadily. Bengal 
assisted the other Presidencies with money (No. 409), and under- 
took to pay the King's troops in Madras (No. 432). The arrears 
due to the Company's forces, however, continued unpaid, and 
credit remained low, Government securities being discounted 
at 35 to 40 per cent. Permission was then granted by the 
Directors for the liquidation of bonds to the extent of Rs. 
6 crores, say, six millions sterling, by bills on England at rates 
of exchange to be settled by the Supreme Government (No. 425). 
The rate fixed for Madras was only 7,S'. per pagoda (No. 461), 
which Pelling S: de Fries consider will be unacceptable. The 
measure hel])ed, however, to restore credit (No. 441). A small 
bank established by Hastings in Calcutta in 1773 had been 
abolished by Clavering's party, but in 1786 proposals were made 
for a " General Bank of India " with a capital of Rs, 20 lakhs 


in 100 shares, of which 75 were to be allotted to Bengal, 15 to 
Madras and 10 to Bombay (No. 434). Felling & de Fries 
write frequently from Madras to report that Walajah is paying 
the kists or instalments of his annual subsidy of 16 lakhs of 
pagodas with surprising regularity, though the Government 
is less prompt in discharging the share due to the private 
creditors (No. 441, etc.). A settlement with the creditors was 
made in December, 1786, half in cash and half in bills on 
Masuhpatam (No. 469). 

Thomas Felling writes to Sir Robert Falk in 1786 (No. 433) on 
behalf of two of his grandsons, who, on the death of their father, 
Captain Thomas Gibson, were admitted by Hastings " Minor 
Cadets on the Bengal Establishment." When xery young they 
were sent to England, but were required to present themselves 
in India at the age of 14 or be struck off the list of cadets. The 
boys are now 16 and 15, and Felling represents that it would 
be ruinous to their education to bring them out before 1788, 
when he wishes them to enter the Bengal iVrmy. George Baker 
mentions (No. 430) the settlement of a dispute about the site 
of a new British cantonment at Sheveram, between Conjeveram 
and Chingleput, which encroached on the Nawab's territory. 
Davidson, Sir John Dalling, the Nawab and his son Amir-ul- 
Umara met at the spot, an exchange of land was effected, and 
the cantonment receixed the name of Walajabad. The barracks' 
were abandoned in 1860 as unhealthy. Chokappa records 
(No. 460) the formation by Sir Archibald Campbell of Boards 
of Re^'enue and Trade, each consisting of a president and three 
members. The Committee of Circuit continues to function. 

Tom Falk had sent his eldest son Tom home in February, 
1784, but it was not until August, 1785 (No. 401), that he was 
able to acknowledge the receipt of news of the little boy's 
arrival at Haldon House, and of Sir Robert's intention of 
establishing him at the school of Ottery St. Mary. Thither 
young Tom duly went^ and among the papers in the collection 
is his first school bill (No. 405). His father, to whom another 
son was born in 1785 (No. 433), prospered at Trichinopoly, and 
remitted substantial sums to England (No. 442). In September, 
1786, he writes (No. 457) that he has about 10,000/. at his credit, 
besides Company's paper for Fags, 60,000. He hopes to go 
home in January, 1788, but " fortunes are not to be made so 
rapidly as before the war. People in my situation have never 
made them by their em})loys, but by loans of money to the 
country at, as you know, an high interest ; but it is no longer safe 
to do it on any terms ; and the Nabob, since the restitution 
of the assignment, has not practised that good old custom." 
Considering " ni}' liaxing been 12 years without any employ, 
and finding myself much in debt on my coming here, you will 
not think I have been idle." Tom Falk proposed to send his 
children Catharine and Robert to England in January, 1787, 
under the care of his wife's sister Mrs. Lang. The family, 


accompanied by Ensign William Preston, started for Madras 
in November (No. 465), but when within 80 miles of their 
destination were disappointed to learn that General Ross Lang 
had changed his mind and would not sail that season (No. 468). 
The children probably went home with their parents a year 
later. In 1788 Tom Palk acquired the estate of Butterford in 
the parish of North Huish, near Totnes.*^) 

With the year 1786 the Indian correspondence ceases abruptly. 
There remain a few letters written to Sir Robert by friends in 
England, and a number relating to a continental tour made 
by his son Lawrence Palk. These will be briefly noticed. 
The Rev. J. Bradford writes from Ideford (No. 443) on behalf 
of his^^eldest son, for whom he desires a clerkship in a public 
office or a bank. He had intended the boy to embark in trade, 
but finds that " the premiums they expect in any reputable 
shop are not less than four or five hundred pounds," a sum 
which is beyond his means. The Rev. Samuel Badcock, 
nonconformist minister of South Molton, who was a frequent 
contributor to literary magazines, corresponded with Sir Robert 
Palk about a proposed history of the County of Devon, which 
he undertook to prepare. He received from Sir Robert and 
catalogued a collection of MSS. bearing on the subject (No. 
420), and consulted documents obtained from various sources, 
especially from the Coffin liibrary at Portledge near Bideford 
(No. 449). He resolved in 1786 to resign his office and enter 
the Established Church (No. 462), and he was duly ordained. 
The county history, which Sir Robert appears to have financed 
(No. 470), was uncompleted at the time of Badcock's death 
in 1788. 

Sir Robert Palk's children were four in number. The two 
elder, Anne and Lawrence, were born in India and brought home 
when very young by their parents. Catherine and Emelia 
were born in England in 1768 and 1774, and died at the ages 
of 14 and 12 respectively. Lawrence Palk appears, judging 
from allusions in the correspondence, to have been educated 
at Oxford. In 1785, when he was 19 years old, his father 
determined to send him abroad to " supply the want of study 
at home, and to teaclr him to be a good citizen " (No. 447). 
A Swiss gentleman named D'lvernois was chosen to accompany 
and advise the young man, and to regulate his expenditure. 
From an account|rendered in March, 1786 (No. 429), it appears 
that the tour began" in July, 1785, and that a Mr. Beeke 
(probabl}^ the Rev. Henry Beeke, Fellow of Oriel) travelled 
with Lawrence and D'lvernois to Switzerland, visiting Neuchatel 
St. Gall, Constance and Berne. Beeke then returned to England, 
while the other two established themselves for the winter at 
Neuchatel, whence l)oth corresponded frequently with Sir 
Robert Palk, D'lvernoisVriting always in French. The earliest 
letter preserved is of December, 1785 (No. 406), in which 

(1) History of Devonshire, Lysons, 1822. 



Lawrence expresses pleasure at his eldest sister's engagement 
to Sir Bourchier Wrey, reports his own progress in the French 
language, and alludes to indisposition following dental treat- 
ment. Six weeks later D'lvernois gives details (No. 415) of 
the singular operation performed on Lawrence by an itinerant 
dentist, by which, after two overcrowded teeth had been 
extracted, one of them was cut to shape and replaced. 
D'lvernois hints (No. 408) that his charge finds life at Neuchatel 
too comfortable, and that his association with a Mr. Spencer, 
who is staying in the same house as themselves, distracts his 
attention from his studies. Sir Robert is therefore urged to 
direct an early move to Germany, and to provide recommenda- 
tions for the Courts of Dresden, Berlin and Vienna. Spencer 
returned to England in February, 1786, his friend accompanying 
him as far as Besan9on (No. 417). liawrence showed unwilling- 
ness to leave Neuchatel, where he received much attention 
from the residents and made many friends. Early in March 
he writes to his father (No. 427), lamenting his sister Emelia's 
illness. Regarding himself he says, evidently in reply to an 
admonition, " I willingly promise that I never will propose 
to any lady to whom either you or my mother object ; and 
your goodness to me upon every occasion makes me flatter 
myself that you would not wish to oblige me to make choice 
of one that I do not approve. Your fortune is certainly of 
your own acquiring, and I would not wish to have the least 
share of it if you have the least reason to imagine I do not 
deserve it." 

After a farewell ball given by Ijawrence to Neuchatel society 

in acknowledgment of hospitality received, D'lvernois, whose 

sisters came over from Geneva to attend it, announces (No. 429) 

that a move to Vienna will be possible early in April. He 

considers that by the time Lawrence returns to England he 

will be able to speak French " if not like Mr. Spencer without 

accent, at any rate sufficiently well for an ambassador, the 

standard generally aimed at by young Englishmen." In 

April Lawrence Palk writes from Constance (No. 435), whence 

they are about to start for Munich en route to Vienna. He 

alludes to his sister's marriage to Sir Bourchier Wrey, which 

took place on the 14th March, and expresses regret at leaving 

Neuchatel, where he had met Colonel Abraham Bonjour, an 

old acquaintance of Sir Robert's, and had received kindness 

from the sister of the late Colonel Des Plans. Des Plans died 

at Madras in 1772, leaving his property to his widow and two 

daughters, with remainder to his sister. The daughters died, 

and the widow married again. On her dcatli in 1776, her second 

husband took possession, and his claim was confirmed by the 

Mayor's Court. The sister hopes that Sir Robert may be able 

to represent her case to the authorities in India, and Lawrence 

encloses a copy of Des Plans' will with an explanator}^ 

memorandum. He goes on to mention the existence of a 


colony of Genevans established at Constance, engaged in the 
industries of watchmaking and enamelling. " The tyraimy of 
the aristocrats ever since the late revolution, and the means 
they employ to oppress the natives have rendered Geneva 
disgusting to its inhabitants." The Emperor encourages the 
colonists, granting them not only religious freedom but actual 

Not until the travellers reach Vienna does D'lvernois divulge 
the real cause of Lawrence Palk's reluctance to quit Neuchatel 
after his protracted stay of six months (No. 436). The youth 
had become enamoured of a young lady who was both esteemed 
and attractive. She returned his affection, and her parents 
offered encouragement. The final interviews were of a heart- 
rending character, but Lawrence resisted the temptation to 
make any promise. D'lvernois says that his own previous 
silence on the subject was due to fear of alarming Sir Robert 
unnecessarily ; but the father probably had some inkling of 
what was in progress, as he appears to have delivered to his 
son in February a homily on marriage. 

By the beginning of June Lawrence finds Vienna dull (Nos. 
437, 438), the Emperor having gone to Luxembourg, and the 
nobles retired to their country properties. He frequently 
visits Prince Kaunitz, "the Oracle of Vienna," whom he 
admires and appreciates as a great politician, and he has been 
received by the Countess of Thun and by the Russian 
Ambassador. The travellers then make an excursion into 
Hungary, visiting the seat of Prince Esterhazy and appreciating 
the Belvidere in his gardens " as being entirely different from 
the German taste, who admires nothing but what is entirely 
covered with gilding and awkward ornaments." They went 
on to Prcsburg, " an ugly, ill-built town," whose castle was 
occupied by 600 young men preparing for the church. Here 
it was that the late Empress, Maria Theresa, presented her 
infant son, the present Emperor Joseph II., to the Hungarians, 
who swore to defend him. " Little did they think that the 
child would one day prove their greatest oppressor." After 
a few days' stay with the Countess de Friez at Feslau, near 
Vienna (No. 439), the travellers started for Berlin towards the 
end of June, halting at Leipzig to visit the seat of Prince Leopold 
of Anhalt-Dessau. 

At Berlin, where they had an introduction to the British 
Ambassador, Lord Dalrymple, afterwards Earl of Stair, they 
tind that the King of Prussia, Frederick the Great, is in poor 
health and unable to see strangers (No. 444). He remains at 
Potsdam with a chosen party of his generals (No. 446). 
Lawrence and his mentor were presented to the Queen and 
princes, and dined with the Crown Prince at Potsdam (No. 447). 
Towards the end of August the King was seriously ill and unable 
to move without assistance. His demise may give rise to 
trouble, for " the Emperour has his eyes continually fixed on 


Silesia, keeps his troups in readiness, and waits only for that 
event to attempt the conquest of that province which has been 
so unjustly ravished from him." The Prussian forces are 
strong, but unless the new king increases their pay " it is feared 
that nearly half his army will desert upon the first breaking 
out of a war." 

Quitting Berlin, the travellers proceeded at the end of July 
to Brunswick and Hanover. At the former place they were 
received by the Duchess, sister of George III (No. 448), and at 
the latter dined with the Duke of York (No. 451). At Gottingen 
they were presented to the princes, with whom they supped. 
There they encountered some of Lawrence's Oxford friends, 
and met Sir Isaac Heard, Garter King of Arms, who brought 
news of Sir Robert Palk. On arriving at Wesel on the 20th 
August (No. 454) they heard of the death of Frederick the 
Great on the 17th and the accession of the Crown Prince as 
Frederick Wilham II. " Notwithstanding the trouble and 
confusion this event cannot fail of producing in every part of 
the Prussian territories, it seems here to be the general opinion 
that the Emperour, actually in Transylvania and far removed 
from the frontiers of Silesia, will not strike a blow in attempting 
to regain this part of the possessions anciently belonging to 
his family." At Wesel Lawrence received alarming accounts 
of the health of his mother and youngest sister. At his father's 
request, however, he determined to continue his tour through 
Holland and then return to England, relinquishing the original 
intention of making a prolonged stay in Paris. 

His final letter is written from the Hague on the 8th September, 
1786 (No. 458), The British Minister, Sir James Harris, 
afterwards Earl of Malmesbury, to whom he has a letter of 
recommendation, is much occupied Avith " the Prince of Orange's 
affairs, which seem to grow every day worse and worse, insomuch 
that a civil war appears now to be almost inevitable." The 
States have this day resolved to deprive their ruler of the 
Stadtholdership. The Prince is supported only by Guelderland, 
being opposed by six provinces with forces five times larger 
than his own. His brother-in-law of Prussia has sent the Count 
de Goertz to endeavour to effect a reconciliation. Lawrence 
refers to news of a declaration of war by Russia on Turkey, 
and to a rumour that Gibraltar has been sold to the Empress 
for two millions sterling. This report he hopes is true, " as 
it has been sufficiently proved that this fortress is of no real 
use to us, but on the contrary puts us to a nmch greater expence 
than we can at present afford." He has been greatly struck 
by the prosperous condition of Holland as contrasted with the 
miserable deserts of Westphalia, and by the wonderful neatness 
and cleanliness of the Dutch homes. He and D'lvernois 
propose to move to Brussels in a few days by way of Rotterdam 
and Breda. He is glad to hear of his mother's improved health, 
but notes that no allusion is made to his sister in his father's 


last letter. In point of fact Emelia passed away on the 1 ith 
August, and the intelligence was doubtless withheld purposely 
from her brother. 

The picture of Lawrence Palk presented by these letters from 
himself and D'lvernois is one of a shy and sensitive youth of 
transparently open character, who is amiable and considerate, 
a dutiful son, an affectionate brother and a general favourite. 
His mother died in 1788, and his father ten years later, when 
Lawrence Palk succeeded to the baronetcy and the Haldon 

The editor cannot conclude this report on the Palk letters 
without acknowledging the liberality of their owner, Mrs. 
Bannatyne, in placing the documents at his disposal and 
affording the most ample facilities for their examination and 
study. He has received invaluable help in his work from Sir 
Murray Hammick, K.C.S.I., CLE., and ^Ir. William Foster, 
CLE. The former has kindly examined tliat part of the 
original collection which is now preser\ed in the Manuscripts 
Department of the British Museum, and has consulted many 
printed books ; while the latter has not only communicated a 
store of information from the records of the India Office and 
from his own wide knowledge of the subjects discussed, but has 
read and criticized the proof sheets of this work. The editor 
is indebted also to Mr. John S. Amery for particulars of the 
Palk family, to Mr. Demetrius C Boulger for notes on the 
iMarathas, to ^Ir. Stephen Wheeler for information concerning 
sundry Anglo-Indian notables, to Mr. Hugh R. Vibart for 
research in the British Museum, and to the Rev. Frank Pennv's 
History of the Church in Madras for details of the ecclesiastical 
portion of Sir Robert Palk's career. 

Henry Davison Love, 

Colonel, R.E., retired. 








To No. 

1755, Oct. 


Col. Stringer Lawrence 

Fort St. George . . 

. Admiral Charles ... 



i8, Feb. 
)0, Nov. 
53, Mar. 


John Pye 
WilUani Fergusson 
Lord Egremont 



Court of St. James' 

. Robert Palk 

3 Maj. Gen. Lawrence, 




55, Sep. 


Fra. Salvator a Sanctis 

San Thom^ 

. Robert Palk 



56, April 3 
, Oct. 18 
, Dec. i 

Nawab Walajah ... — 
Memorandum of Miles run by ship Pacific 
Robert James ... ... India House 

. Maj. Gen. Lawrence 




57, Jan. 
, Feb. 


Henry Moore ... 
Robert Falk 
Ensign J. Carpenter ... 
George Vansittart 

Ship Osterley 
Ship Lord Camden 

. Robert Palk 

William M. Goodlad 
. Robert Palk 






Robert Palk, jun. 

Fort St. George . . 



, Mar. 


Chokappa Chetti 


,, ... 


1 tt 


Mary Povvney ... 
Muperala Kistnaiya, &c. 
George Vansittart 


. ,, ... 
. ,, ... 
■ ,, ... 



Rebecca Casamaijor .. 
Colonel John CaU 

»> • ■ * 
Charles Bom'chier 

Fort St. George . . 

ti ... 

Fort St. George .. 

,, • • . 
,, ... 
II ' ' ' 
II ' ' ' 


t tf 


William M. Goodlad ... 




, April 3 

George Vansittart 
Chokapiaa Chetti 
Colonel John CaU 

Midnapur ... 
Fort St. George .. 

. Anne Palk 
. Robert Palk 




George Piu-nell... 
Robert Palk, jun. 

Fort St. George . . 
Fort William 

• II ' ' ' 



) } > 


James Johnson 

Fort St. George . . 

. II • ' • 


1 7> 


John M. Stone 


II • * • 


f it 

i it 


John Pybus 
Henry Brooke ... 
WiUiamM. Goodlad ... 

St. Thomas's Moun 
Fort St. George . . 

J ,, ... 

' II ' ' ' 

II * * * 


, Oct. 
, Nov 


George Smith ... 
John Calland 

>> ... 

* ,, ... 
II • • ■ 


» >> 





Muperala Kistnaiya, &c. 
Nawab Walajah 
Prince Amir-ul-Umara 
Robert Palk 

Spring Gardens, 


II ' ' * 

. Maj. Gen. Lawrence 

,, ... 

William M. Goodlad 






. Editor Morning ... 



Robert Palk 

Laurence Suhvan 


. Mr. S. 

. Robert Palk 









Feb. 20 

Capt. Thomas Madge . . . 


Robert Palk 



Mar. 1 

Robert Palk 


William M. Goodlad 



„ 28 

William Aldersey 

Port William 

Robert Palk 



Apl. 25 

John Calland 

Fort St. George . . . 

tt • * • 



„ 28 

T. Orton 


It • ' ' 



May 2 

James Bourcliier 


It ' ' ' 



„ 7 

George Smith 

Fort St. George . . . 

f) • • • 



„ 7 

Tom Palk 

Off Cape of Good 




,. 7 

Rev. John Thomas 

Fort St. George . . . 

1 i • * * 



,, 10 



1 i ' ' ' 



,. 12 

WUliam M. Goodlad ... 

,, ... ... 

, , ... 


J J 

„ 19 

Laurence Sulivan 

Great Ormond St. 

I > ... 



Sept. 6 

George Vansittart 

Midnapur ... 




„ 30 

Tom Palk 

Camp near Kolar 

ft • • • 



Oct. 4 

Kitoria Sloper ... 


it • • • 



„ 9 

Jane Morse 

. Fort St. George . . . 

n * • ■ 



„ 16 

Capt. Thomas Madge . . . 

. Samulkota 

>} ... 



„ 24 

Lieut. Thomas Palk . . , 

»j • • • 

tt • • • 



„ 27 

Geoz'ge Piu'nell... 

. E'ort St. George . . . 

,, ... 




Nicholas Morse 


a • • • 



, Nov. 1 

Robert Palk 

. London 

WiUiam M. Goodlad 



„ 22 


,, ... ... 




Dec. 5 


,, ... ... 




, Jan. 5 

George Vansittart 

. On the road to 


Robert Palk 



Feb. 28 

Nicholas Morse 

. Fort St. George . . . 

n ' • • 



„ 28 

Certificate of President and Council, Fort St 

. George 


» t 

Mar. 9 


. Fort St. George • • . 

Robert Palk 



„ 11 

William M. Goodlad . . 

); . . . 

,, ... 



., 17 

Robert Palk 

. London 

William M. Goodlad 


) » 

May 16 

Capt. Thomas Madge . . 

. Ellore 

Robert Palk 



June 1 

Jane Morse 

. Fort St. George . . . 

»» ... 



„ 15 

Josias Du Pr6 

ft • • • 




„ 20 

Nicholas Morse 

n • " • 

l» ■ • • 


J 1 

„ 27 

John M. Stone 


,, ... 


J J 

„ 28 

Nicholas Morse 

a * * ■ 

It ■ • • 



„ 28 


* Si ■ * ■ 

»» ... 



„ 29 

Charles Bourchier 

11 * ' • 

t> • • • 



„ 30 

William M. Goodlad .. 

ti • • • 

it • • • 



Nov. 3 

Abraham de Paiba 

. London 

it ' • • 



„ 5 

Robort Palk 

William M. Goodlad 

' 81 


„ 19 

Sir Robert Barker 

. Calcutta ... 

Robert Palk 


f > 

Dec. 3 

George Vansittart 

,, ... . . . 

it • • • 




Robert Palk, jun. 

, , . .« . . . 

f, ... 


I ; 


Plstimate of Charges of 

Coast Army, &c. 



, Jan. 12 

Lieut. Thomas Palk .. 

. Kondapalli 

Robert Palk 



„ 23 

Robert Palk 

. Spring Gardens ... 

His attorneys 



„ 29 

Warren Hastings 

. Fort St. George . . . 

Robert Palk 



„ 31 

Tom Palk 

it • ' ' 

tt • • • 



Feb. 5 

>> ... 

>} * * * 

n • • • 



„ 6 

William M. Goodlad .. 


li • • • 



., 25 

Hohcrt Palk, juii. 

. Ingcrlee (Ilijili) ... 

It • • • 



Mar. 15 

Robert Palk 

. London 

WiUiam M. Goodlad 




1770, April 3 

„ ,. 7 

„ ., 8 


1771), June It) 

„ Aug. -J 

„ Sept. 5 

„ « 

„ Ki 

„ 19 

„ „ 30 

,, Oct. 1 

„ 1 


„ 4 

„ 12 

„ „ 12 

„ 12 

„ 12 

„ 12 

,. 12 

„ 12 

„ 12 

„ „ 12/13 

,, Dec. 7 

„ 13 

1771, Jan. 4 

., 21 

„ 22 

„ Feb. 2 

,. 8 

.. ,> 8 

., 26 

„ Mar. 14 

.. 1. "^"^ 

„ „ 25 

„ 26 

„ April 2 

„ 7 

„ 10 

„ 17 

„ May 22 

June 15 

„ July 21 

„ Oct. 3 

,. ,,4/14 

,, Nov. 2 


„ „ 25 
„ 29 

.. Dec. 2 

Warren Hastings 

William M. Goodlad 
Laurence Sulivan 
Ri.hort Pa Ik ... 
C. Bazett 
George Vansittart 
Robert Palk, jun. 
Alexander VVynch 
Jane Morse 
Nicholas Morse 
William Jackson 
Lieut. Thomas Palk 
Chokappa Chetti 
Josias Du Pr^ ... 

Tom Palk 

Warren Hastings 

Reynolil Adams 
Nawab W'ala.iah 
Henry Brooke ... 
Nicholas Morse 
Robert D. Munro 
John M. Stone 
William M. Goodlad . . . 
Ro]>ert Palk 

1 1 ' ' ' 

Robert Palk 

Reynold Adams 

Tom Palk 

Ensign John Palk 
Chokappa Chetti 
Wilham M. Goodlad . . . 
Tom Palk 

Lieut. Thomas Palk ... 

Robert Palk 

Chokappa Chetti 
Kasturi & Kesava 
William M. Goodlad . . . 

Robert Palk 

Colonel Gilbert Ironside 


Fort St. George 

St. Helena 
Calcutta . . . 

Fort St. George 

Kondapa Hi 
Fort St. George 

Fort St. 



Fort St. George 

Haldon House 
Fort St. George 

Fort St. George 

Ship Vansittart 



Fort St. George 

Fort William 

Robert Palk 

William M. Goodlad 
Robert Palk 

William M. Goodlad 

II • ' • 

Mrs. Goodlad 
Robert Palk 

John M. Stone, &c. 
Robert Palk 

Wilham M. Goodlad 
Robert Palk 

Paragraph of General Letter from Court of Directors 

Robert Palk 

Henry Vansittart, jun. 
Capt. Thomas Madge . . 
William M. Goodlad .. 
Henry Vansittart, jun. 
Wilham M. Goodlad . 

Madeira ... 


Fort St. George . . . 
Cape of Good Hope 
Fort St. George . . . 

Nawab Walajah 
Robert Palk 

Maj. Thomas FitzGerald Angelville 
Capt. James Rennell ... Bengal 
Wilham Aldersey . . . Calcutta 
Henry Vansittart, jun. At Sea, Indian 

Lajtitia Ironside . . . Chilton Lodge, 



. 91 

. 95 

. 96 

. 97 






























1771, Dec. 2 

Robert Palk 

. Haldon House 

William M. Goodlad 


,. 17 
1772, Jan. 25 

Edmund V. Lane 
John Crichton ... 

Bombay ... 

Robert Palk 


„ 29 
, Feb. 2 

Henry Vansittart, jun. 
Robert Palk 

Park Place 

William M. Goodlad 


„ 20 
„ 25 
,. 27 
. ■ .- 28 
,. 28 

Anthony Goodlad 
Josias Du Pr6 
Reynold Adams 
Chokappa Chetti 
Tom Palk 

Fort William 
Fort St. George . . . 

i» * ■ * ■ • * 
II ■ ■ • 
tt * * * 

Robert Palk 

II ' * • 
tt ' • • 
II • • • 
tl * • 


,. 28 

WUIiam M. Goodlad . . 

II * * • 

1 1 ' ' 


„ 29 
, Mar. 20 




, April 2 


Henry Vansittart, jun. 
John M. Stone 

ti ' • ' 
tt ' ' ' 


»l * * ' 



Reynold Adams 
William M. Goodlad . . 


i» ' • • 



Robert Palk 

. Park Place 

William 31. Goodlad 


.. 13 

WiUiam M. Goodlad .. 


Robert Palk 


„ 13 

Colonel Gilbert Ironside 

i Fort William 



, May 27 

Laiu-ence Sulivan 

Queen Square 

,, . . . 








1772, Aug. 28 

Henry Vansittart, jun. 

Queen Square 




, Sept. 2 
, ,,27/Oct 

Ensign J. Snelling 

Warren Hastings 

2 WilUam M. Goodlad 

Jelmur, Ganjam ... 



Laurence Sulivan ... 
Robert Palk 


, Sep. 30 
, Oct. 2 
. .. 3 

John M. Stone 
Reynold Adams 
William M. Goodlad . . 

Fort St. George . . . 

II • • ' 
II ' • • 


tt " ' 


, „ 10 
. ., 10 
, „ 15 

Chokappa Chetti 


John M. Stone 

tt • ' • • • • 
If • • * 
It • • • 

Charles Bourchier ... 
Robert Palk 


, ,- 15 

Josias Du Pr6 ... 


II • • • 


, ,. 15 

Edward Cotsford 


tt ' • 


, Nov. 10 

Tom Palk 

Calcutta ... 

Robert Palk 


. ., 11 
, „ 11 

Warren Hastings 
Colonel Gilbert Ironside 

Fort William 

II • • • 

tt * • • 

n • • • 


, .. 11 

Henry Griffiths 

Calcutta ... 

It • * ' 


, Dec. 1 

Tom Palk 

tt • ' • • ' • 

It • • ■ 



Stephen Sulivan 
^lemorandum of Reforn 

Essex Court, 

as effected by W. Hastings 


1773, Jan. 11 

Tom Palk 

Calcutta ... 

II . . . 


. N.D. 
, Jan. 28 

Anthony Goodlad 
James Daniell ... 




„ 28 
, .. 31 

Chokappa Chetti 
Venkatararaaiya, &c. 

Fort St. George . . . 

n • • * 


, ,. 31 

William Petrie 

Fort St. George . . . 

11 * ' * 


, Feb. 1 
. .. 1 
. ., 5 

Nawab Walajah 
George SmitJi ... 
Tom Palk 


Fort St. George . . . 

Maj. (tou. Lawrence 
Robert Palk 


., 10 
, „ 30 


, Mar. 1 
.. 2 

Roger Darvall 

Tom Palk 

Henry Vansittart, jun. 
.iVnthony Goodlad 

Fort Marlborough 
Calcutta ... 

Fort WilMam 

If * • • 
t$ * * * 

JI • • • 

19 • • • 










1773, Mar. 10 

Chokappa Chetti 

Port St. George . 

. , Robert Palk 

.. 204 

., „ 13 

George Smith ... 

»» ■ 


.. 205 

„ ., 14 

Muttukrishna Mudali 

t> • 

•• >» 

.. 20(5 

., 22 

Tom Palk 

Calcutta ... 


.. 207 

„ „ 28 

Letter of Attorney from 

Robert Palk, jun. 


„ AprU 1 

Henry Vansittart, jun. 

Calcutta ... 

.. Robert Palk 

.. 209 

„ 3 

Warren Hastings 

Port WiUiam 

• • ft 

.. 210 

„ May 14 

Eleanor Adams 


• • 11 

.. 211 

„ July 7/22 

Reynold Adams 

Fort St. George . 

• • l> 

.. 212 

„ Oct. 9 

George Vansittart 

Calcutta ... 

.. His attorneys 

.. 213 

„ „ 13 

James Daniell ... 

Fort St. George . 

. . Robert Palk 

.. 214 

„ „ 20 

Anthony Goodlad 



.. 215 

„ .. 25 

Reynold Adams 

Fort St. George . 

* • *i 

.. 216 

„ „ 29 

Edward Cotsford 


' • )» 

.. 217 

„ ,. 29 

John d' Pries 

Port St. George 

• * ft 

.. 218 

„ „ 29 

Chokappa Chetti 



.. 219 

„ Nov. 3 

Robert Palk, jun. 

Calcutta . . . 

• • »» 

.. 220 

,. „ 10 

Henry Griffiths 

i> " • ' 

' • t» 

.. 221 

„ „ 11 

Henry Vansittart, jun. 

»j • • * 

• • tt 

.. 222 

„ „ 14 

Warren Hastings 

Port William 


.. 223 


Robert Palk 


. . Tom Palk 

.. 224 

1774, Jan. 1 

George Vansittart 

Calcutta ... 

. . Robert Palk 

.. 225 

., 15 

Colonel Gilbert Ironside 

The Grove, Fort 

* » 

.. 226 


„ „ 16 

Robert Palk, jun. 



.. 227 

„ „ 20 

Frederick Griffiths 

Calcutta . . . 

.. 228 

„ Feb. 2 

Reynold Adams 

Port St. George . 

.. 229 

„ „ 4 

Chokappa Chetti 

t) ' 

.. 230 

„ „ 6 

John d'Fries 


.. 231 

„ „ 12 

Muttukrishna Mudali 


.. 232 

„ „ 23 

Robert Palk, jun. 


.. 233 

„ Mar. 11 

,, ... 

,, ... 

.. 234 

„ „ 15 

Muttukrishna Mudali 

Fort St. George 

.. 235 

„ ,. 18 

Joseph Price ... 

Calcutta . . . 

.. 236 


Robert Palk 


. . Nawab Walajah 

.. 237 

1774, AprU 3 

Stephen Sulivan 

Paper Buildings, 

Robert Palk 

.. 238 



l> • ' 


.. 239 


»» ' * 

Paper Buildings, 


... 240 


1774, Aug. 1 

Statement of Account of Robert Palk with 

the Estate of Henrj- 

' 241 



„ „ 23 

Laurence Sulivan 

Queen Square 

. . Robert Palk 

.. 242 

,, Sep. 15 

»i ' ' 


* • »» 

.. 243 

„ ., 21 

Robert Palk 

Haldon House 

.. Laurence Sulivan 

.. 244 

„ „ 24 

Nawab Walajah 

. Chepauk House 

. . . Robert Palk 

.. 245 

„ „ 30 

Lam-ence Sulivan 

Queen Square 

.. 246 

„ Nov. 24 

Thomas Short ... 

Calcutta . . . 

.. 247 

1775, Feb. 12 

Laurence Sulivan 

Queen Square 

.. 248 

... „ 24 

Frederick Griffiths 


.. 249 

„ July 2 

Chokappa Chetti 

Fort St. George 

.. 250 

„ „ 4 

James Hodges 

} » 

.. 251 

„ ,. 4 

John d'Fries ... 


.. 252 

„ .. 8 

George Baker ... 

Fort St. George 

.. Tom Palk 

.. 253 

,, Aug. 12 

Tom Palk 


. . George Baker 

.. 254 

„ Sep. 10 

Colonel Robert Gordon 

Bombay . . . 

. . Robert Palk 

.. 255 

,, Oct. 7 

John d'Fries ... 



.. 256 

„ „ 10 

George Baker ... 

Fort St. George 

* ' »* 

.. 257 








1775, Oct. 10 

Chokappa Chetti 

Fort St. George ... 


.. 258 

„ „ 12 

Richard Welland 

Madras Roads 


.. 259 

„ 13 

George Baker ... 

Fort St. George . . . 

if • 

.. 260 

„ 14 

Reynold Adams 

}f ' ' • 


.. 261 

„ „ 14 

Muttukrishna Mudali 



.. 262 

„ Dec. 14 

George Baker ... 

i> • • * 


.. 263 

,, 14 

Chokappa Chetti 

,, ... 


.. 264 

„ 14 

John d'Fries 



.. 265 

1776, Jan. 2 

Major James Rennell 



.. 266 


Lieut. J. Snelling 

Sick Qrs. Vizaga- 



.. 267 

,, 14 

Colonel Gilbert Ironside 

Calcutta ... 

)> ' 

.. 268 

,, 15 

Sir Edward Hughes . . . 

Bombay ... 


.. 269 

,, Feb. 2 

Chokappa Chetti 

Fort St. Geoi'ge . . . 


.. 270 

., „ 8 

Tom Palk 


t J 

.. 271 

„ „ 10 

George Baker ... 

Fort St. George . . . 


.. 272 

„ „ 10 

Mary Turing ... 

,, ... ... 

> i 

.. 273 

., „ 12 

John M. Stone 

,1 ... 

i t 

.. 274 

„ 12 

Nawab Walajah 



.. 275 

„ „ 12 

John d'Fries ... 



.. 276 

., „ 15 

George Baker ... 

Fort St. George . . . 

, , 

.. 277 

,, 16 

Muttukrishna Mudali 

, , ... 


.. 278 

,. ,. 17 

A. Venkata 



.. 279 

,. „ 21 

John M. Stone 

Fort St. George . . . 

> > 

.. 280 

,, 23 

George Baker ... 

,, ... ... 


.. 281 

„ Mar. 16 

Richard Goodlad 

Dinajpur ... 

} » 

.. 282 

,. 21 

Robert Palk, jun. 



.. 283 

,, 22 

Sir Edward Hughes . . . 

Bombay ... 


.. 284 

„ „ 30 

Henry Vansittart, jun. 

Calcutta ... 


.. 285 

Juno 11 

Daniel Corneillo 

St. Helena 


.. 286 

,. 20 

Nawab Walajah 



.. 287 

„ ., 20 

John d'Fries ... 



.. 288 

„ „ 27 

Chokappa Chetti 

Fort St. George . . . 

} t 

... 289 

., July 11 

Edmund V. Lane 



... 290 

„ ,. 13 

Lieut. J. Snelling 

Chicacole ... 

J J 

... 291 

„ Aug. 16 

Lieut. John Yarde 



.. 292 

„ „ 30/Oct 

8 George Baker. . . 

Fort St. George . . . 


... 293 

„ Sept. 6 

Richard Welland 

Madras Roads 


.. 294 

„ „ 15 

Chokappa Chetti 

Fort St. George . . . 


.. 295 

„ „ 18 

Henry Vansittart, jun. 

Calcutta ... 


.. 296 

„ .. 20 

George Smith ... 

Fort St. George . . . 


... 297 

„ ., 20 

Chokappa Chetti 

>» • • • 



.. „ 21 

John d'Fries 



... 299 

„ „ 22 

Muttukrishna Mudali 



... 300 

,. „ 25 

Nawab Walajah 



... 301 

„ ., 25 

Charles Floyer 

Fort St. George . . . 


.. 302 

„ ., 26 

Sir Edward Hughes ... 



.. 303 

„ „ 26 

John d'Fries ... 

»» ... ... 


.. 304 

„ Oct. 1 

Chokappa Chetti 

Fort St. George ... 


.. 305 

„ ., 2 

Henry Brooke ... 

II ' ' • 


.. 306 

.. „ 

George Baker ... 

• 1 


.. 307 

„ .. 8 

Nawab Walajah 



.. 308 

„ „ 9 

Prince Amir-ul-Umara 

tt * * ' • • • 


... 309 

., ., 10 

John d'Fries 



... 310 

„ 14 

George Baker ... 

Fort St. George . . . 


.. 311 

„ ,. 15 

John d'Fries 



.. 312 








Dec. 17 

Kdnmnd V. Lane 

.. Salsette ... 

... Robert P 


.. 313 


Jan. 20 

Chokappa Chetti 

. . Fort St. George 


.. 314 


Feb. f) 



Sir Edward Hughes 
George Baker 
Tom Palk 

.. Madras 

. . Port St. George 

.. Madras 

• . . ,, 

• . . ,, 

• < > ,, 

.. 315 
.. 316 
.. 317 

Oct. 13 
„ 20 

George Baker ... 
Robert Palk, jun. 

. . Fort St. George 

... ,, 

.. 318 
.. 319 


Jan. 29 
„ 30 

George Baker ... 
Muttukrislma Mudali 

.. Fort St. George 

... J, 
... J, 

.. 320 
.. 321 

Mar. 5 

George Baker . . . 
Muttukrislma Mudali 


. * • ,, 
* * ■ J, 

.. 322 
.. 323 


„ 22 

Colonel Gilbert Ironside Calcutta ... 

... ,, 

.. .324 



Apl. 24 

Oct. 11 

„ 15 

„ 15 

Henry Van.sittart, jun 
Thomas Felling 
Tom Palk 
Muttukrislma Mudali 

• J , ... 

.. Madras 

.. Fort St. George 

... J f 
... ,, 
... ff 
... ,, 

.. 325 
.. 326 
.. 327 
.. 328 


„ 17 

Edward Cotsford 

.. Madras 

... ,, 

.. 329 



„ 19 

„ 21 

„ 31 

Nov. 1 

Mar. 22 

Oct. 15 

Chokappa Chetti 
Phihp Stowey 
Chokappa Chetti 
Felling & de Fries 
Jolm d 'Fries ... 
Tom Palk 

.. Fort St. George 

. . Madras 
... Port St. George 
... Madras 
... Fort St. George 


... ,, 
... J, 
• . * ,, 
... ,, 
... J J 

.. 330 
.. 331 
.. 332 
.. 333 
.. 334 
.. 335 


Jan. 16 

John d 'Fries ... 

... Madras 

... ,, 

.. 336 


„ 30 

Tom Palk 

. .. Fort St. George 

... J ^ 

.. 337 


Feb. -1 

John d' Fries 

. .. Madras 

... ^, 

.. 338 


5 Stephen Sulivan 
7 George Baker ... 
,, 10 Felling <fe de Fries 
April 8/May 20 

Medical Case of Robe 

. .. Fort St. George 

. .. Madras 

ft Palk, jun., and D 

... ,^ 
... ,, 
... J J 


.. 339 
.. 340 
.. 341 



Aug. 8 
Sep. 10 


Sep. 12 

„ 10 

Henry Preston 
Dr. Adam Burt 

David Asquitii 
Dr. Adam Burt 

.. Fort St. George 
. . . Limerick . . . 

. .. Ship Surprise. 

. .. Limerick ... 

. . . 8ir Robert Palk . 
... Messrs. J. & D. 

Major J. McGowan 
Sir Robert Palk . 
• ■ • ») 

.. 343 


.. 346 

.. 347 

Oct. 3 

II • • ' 

»i • • • 

• . > f, 

.. 348 

.. 10 

II • • • 
Major John McGowan 



.. 349 
.. 350 

„ 14 

Dr. Adam Burt 

. . Limerick . . . 

... J J 

.. 351 

„ u 

„ 15 

Sober Hall 
James Lyons ... 

II ' ' ' 


.. 352 
.. 353 

„ 16 
.. 17 
,. 17 

Certificate by Dr. Adam Burt 

II »» n 

David Asquith . . . Limerick . . . 

... Sir Robert Palk . 



.. 356 

„ 31 

Dr. Adam Burt 

. . London 

... ,, 

.. .357 

Nov. 2 

Henry McMahon 

. . . Limerick . . . 

... ,, 

.. 358 


Sober Hall 

... ,, 

.. 359 


.. 7 

William Douglas 
Henry McMahon 
William Douglas 
Sober Hall 

... ,, 
... ,, 
... ,, 
... ,, 

.. 360 
.. 361 
.. 362 
.. 363 

„ 9 
„ 11 

„ 15 

William Young 
William Douglas 
Deposition by Dr. Ad 

am Burt before the 

... ,, 
... ,, 
Lord Mayor 

.. 364 

.. 365 








1783, Nov. 30 

Dr. Adam Burt 


Sir Robert Palk . . 

. 367 

,, Dec. 16 

William Young 

Limerick ... 


. 368 

1784, Jan. 14 

Sober Hall 

,, ... . . . 


. 369 

„ „ 15 

George Maunsell 

,, ... ... 


. 370 

„ „ 21 

David Asquith 

Ship Surprise, 



. 371 

„ Feb. 2 

Tom Palk 

Fort St. George . . . 


. 372 

l» ff ^ 

Henry Preston 

Camp, Trivatur ... 


. 373 

.. „ 4 

David Asquitb 

Ship Surprise, 



. 374 

). <i 5 

Thomas Maunsell 


) ( • • 

. 375 

„ „ 14 

,, . . . 

,, ... ... 


. 376 

„ Sep. 10 

George Baker ... 

Fort St. George ... 


. 377 

., 11 

Chokappa Chetti 



. 378 

„ „ 15 

Nawab Walajah 

Chepauk ... 

t f • • 

. 379 

., 18 

Abraham Welland 

Calcutta ... 


. 380 

„ Oct. 8 

Catharine Palk 



. 381 

„ 10 

Tom Palk 

1) ■ • ■ 

17 • • 

. 382 

„ „ 10 

George Baker ... 

Fort St. George ... 


. 383 

„ 12 

Tom Palk 


ij • • 

. 384 

„ Nov. 20 

1 1 ... 

,, . . . 


. 385 

„ Dec. 4 

Henry Vansittart, jun. 



. 386 


Vansittart & Kennaway 

,, ... 


. 387 

1785, Jan. 25 

George Baker ... 

Fort St. George ... 


. 388 

,. Feb. 2 

Chokappa Chetti 



. 389 


William Wynch 

,, ... ... 


. 390 


Major J. Shortt 

,, ... ... 

ft • • 

. 391 

., „ 7 

Sitaram Pandit 



. 392 

„ 9 

Lieut. Gen. Ross Lang 

Fort St. George ... 

t) • • 


,, Mar. 12 

Rawson H. Boddam . . . 

Bombay ... 


. 394 

„ „ 21 

Aliraham Welland 


f ) • • 


„ Apl. 24 

Capt. Francis S. Ward 


Capt. J. Kennaway 


,, May 15 

Ozias Humphry 

Cape of Good Hope 

Sir Robert Palk ., 


.. „ 16 

Ensign William Preston 




,. ,. 20 

Tom Palk 




,, June 12 

Felling & de Pries 

Fort St. George ... 



,. July 12 

Tom Palk 


i 1 • • 


„ Aug. (i 

Thomas Abraham 

Calcutta ... 



., -Sep. 17 

Chokappa Chetti 




,, Oct. 10 

George Baker ... 

Fort St. George ... 



,, Nov. 8 

Futwood Smerdon 

Ottery St. Mary . . . 

Walter Palk, jun. .. 


„ Dec. 3 

Lawrence Palk 


Sir Robert Palk .. 

, 400 

,, 13 

AV)raham ^\'elland 

G uttaul 

, , . . . 


., 24 

F. D'lvernois ... 




„ „ 25 

Al)raham Welland 

Calcutta ... 



,, 25 

Tom Palk 


,, . . t 


1786, Jjin. 5 

Chokappa Chetti 


,, . . . 


,, 12 

Felling & de Fries 

Fort St. George . . . 

,, . . . 


,, 12 

Tom Palk 


,, . . . 

11. •} 

„ „ 16 

Walter Palk, jun. 


,, . . . 


„ l? 

F. D'lvernois 


,, . • . 


,, 23 

'fbomas Abraham 


, , . . . 


.. Fob. 4 

Lawrence Palk 


,, . . . 


„ 6 

F. D'lvernois ... 


,, . . . 

41 S 

.. „ 9 

Henry Vansittart, jun. 


Gen. .biiiu C.iill.uKl 



Hev. Samuel H.idoook 

South Moltnn 

Sir 1{,,I» It P.ilk ... 




1786, Feb. 13 

„ „ 1-' 

„ 17 

„ „ 22 

„ 25 

Lawrence Palk 

Tom Palk 

Avton, Brassev & Co... 

Lombard Street 

Sir Robert. Palk 



„ 5 
„ 9 
„ 15 
„ 18 
„ 18 
„ 24 

Apl. 10 
., 22 

May 21 

.Tune 3 
„ 10 
„ 26 
,, 26 

July 2 

., 1 



,. 10 

„ 21 

.. 30 




Vansittart & Kennaway Calcutta ... 
Thomas Abraham 

Aytou, Brassey & Co Lonibard Street 

Lawrence Palk... ... Neuchatel 


















„ „ 1!» 
,, 23 

1787, Mar. 1 

,, Sept. 

f > >t 

1 ) ) I 

J } > ) 

„ Oct. 

','. Nov. 

J > I > 

t» If 

.. Dec. 

F. D'lvernois ... 
George Baker ... 

Tom Palk 

PeUing & de Fries 
Thomas Pellmg 
Thomas Abraham 
Lawrence Palk 
F. D'lvernois 
Lawrence Palk 

it ' ' 

F. D'lvernois 
Lawrence Palk 
Pelling &^ de Fries 
Tom Palk 
Rev. J. Bradford 
Lawrence Palk 

Tom Palk 

LawTence Palk 

1 1 • • • • ' 

F. D'lvernois 

Rev. Samuel Badcock 

Thomas Pelling 

F. D'lvernois 

Vansittart & Kennaway 
Simeon Droz ... 
Law^rence Palk 
Henry Vansittart, jun. 
Pelling & de Fries 

Tom Palk 

Lawrence Palk 
Thomas Abraham 
Chokappa Chetti 
Pelling and de Fries . . . 
Rev. Samuel Badcock 

G. Browne 
Thomas Abraham 

Tom Palk 

Adrian de Fries 
Pelling & de Fries 
Ensign William Preston 
Pelling &: de Fries 
Rev. .Samuel Badcock 

Fort St. George 


Fort St. George 


Calcutta . . . 



Feslau, near Vienna 

Dresden ... 

Fort St. George ... 






t > ' ' ' • * * 

West Sandford 

I'yrmont and 



Arlington Street ... 


Fort St. George ... 


The Hague 

Calcutta ... 


Fort St. George ... 

South Molton 

Calcutta ... 
. Trichinopoly 
. Fort St. George ... 


Fort St. George ... 
South Molton 

Gen. .Tolin Caillaud 
Sir Robert Palk .. 


. 421 

. 422 

. 423 

. 424 

. 425 

. 426 

. 427 

. 428 

. 429 

.. 430 

,. 431 

.. 432 

.. 433 

.. 434 

.. 435 

,. 436 

.. 437 

.. 438 

,. 439 

. 440 

. 441 

. 442 

. 443 

. 444 

. 445 

. 446 

. 447 

. 448 

. 449 

. 4.50 

. 451 

. 452 
,. 454 
.. 455 
.. 456 
.. 457 
.. 458 
.. 459 
.. 460 
.. 401 
.. 462 
.. 463 
.. 464 
.. 465 
.. 466 
.. 407 
.. 408 
.. 469 
.. 470 





IN THE Possession of Mrs. Bannatyne, 
OF Haldon, Devon. 

[No. 1.] 

[Lieut. Colonel] S[tringer] Lawrence to Charles Watson, 
EsQR., Rear Admiral of the Red, and Commander in Chief of 
all His Majesty's Ships employed in the East Indies. 

1755, October 8th. Fort St. George. — " Sir, I beg leave to 
present you with an account of my campaigns in India. The 
better to make the cause of the war understood I shall begin 
with a short account of the first rise of the troubles here ; 
the state of affairs when I left India at the end of the year 
'50 ; \\ hat happened during my absence and after my return 
in March '52, unto the end of the year '54, when a cessation of 
arms took place between the two nations, 

" My narrative. Sir, will, I am afraid, savour more of the 
soldier than the historian, but I submit my stile and actions 
with all my heart to your inspection. Your good nature, I 
know, will make large allowances, and your judgment in 
correcting, at the same time it improves, will be a mark of 
your esteem and regard, which I shall at all times think 
myself highly honoured with. 

" The Mogul Empire is divided into three Departments. I 
shall only treat of the one in which we have been concerned : 
it is to the southward and called the Deckan. The govern- 
ment of this third is appointed by the Mogul himself ; and 
by a power delegated from his Prince, he'^' names the Nabobs 
to govern the different Subahs'-* in his Principality. The 
Deckan has seven Subahships, which are named as in the 
margin.*^) The capital of the Province is Aurengebade : 
the three last Subahships are comprehended under the name 
of the Carnatick, in wliich we have endeavoured to support 
the Nabob Mahomed Allee Cawn. 

(O The ruler of the Deccan undci' the Mo<)ul. 

(■-) Provinces. 

(3) Marginal note Ijy Lawrence : — " Names of llie Snhaliships in (he Deckan ; 
Anrengel ade, Kandoes, Barraud, Hei'ainpoore, Ciolcondali, Ahaniad Nagar, 
M/.apoor : (lie (lu'ce last compi'chended under the naiue of (lie f'ai'Tiadek."' 
Wt. IIGI. A 

No. l.j 2 

" The Carnatick is part on this side of the river Kitshna*^' 
to Cape Comoriii, and Golconda is on the other side of the river 
to Aurengebade : the whole goes under the name of the Deckan. 

[Then follows Lawrence's Narrative substantially as printed 
by R. O. Cambridge in his Account of the War in India, 1750 
to 1760. London, 1761. The principal variations between 
the written and printed versions are noted below. Lawrence's 
letter terminates thus : — ] 

" The day after it [the suspension of arms, proclaimed 11th 
October, 1754] was declared I left the army and came down 
to the Settlements, not the same man in constitution as when 
I left them, after a campaign of two years and seven months, 
and never absent from the feild but six weeks in the whole 

" A truce for a year and a half, or till we could receive 
answers from Europe, succeeded the cessation. Since that 
time our troops have some times been employed in settling 
the country and assisting the Nabob to collect his revenues. 

" I have now gone through my narrative, in which my 
constant endeavour has been to give a true description of 
our military transactions for the amusement and perusal 
only of a few particular friends, who, I hope, will make allow- 
ances for the want of a proper stile and correctness. If the 
subject is clear and easily understood, the end proposed is 
fully answered. 

" I am, with the greatest esteem, Sir, your most obedient 
humble servant, 

" S. Lawrence." 

[Autograjjh, 2\0j)p-, ^to., and an Appendix of lljjp. des- 
criptive of the Island of Srirangam and its temples ; the zvhole 
bound in pajjer covers in hook forjn.] 

[Besides making verbal alterations, Cambridge omits several 
paragraphs and notes which occur in Lawrence's MS. narrative. 
The principal omissions are quoted below, and the positions 
of the lacunae in the printed version are indicated. Cambridge's 
Appendix to the narrative is not found in the MS. version.] 

MS. p. 4. Marginal note (Camb. p.2). " The Marattoes are 
Gentous, esteemed the best soldiers, except the Rashboot 
cast, in India. The Princes of the Indostan hire them, as 
European Powers do the Swiss. But now and then indeed 
they march without being desired, raise contributions and 
return to their own country. They are governed by a King, 
whom they stile the Nana or Shaw Rajah :<-> the capital of 
his kingdom is called Sattarah, about 800 miles north west 
from Madrass." 

(1) Footnote by Lawronco : — " Tlie rise and progress of this River may be 
seen in a map lately published, as well as the Country I am treating of." 
(-) Sahu Raja, (i1ul;ir I'uler of (lie Marathas, was a grandson of Sivaji. 

3 [No. 1. 

MS. 2^- 5. Marginal note (Caiuh. p. 2). " Tlio Carnatick 
about three centuries ago was all under the (ientou govern- 
ment. The King resided at \^izepoor ;<^' the Kiver Cianges '^' 
di\ided their dominions from tlie Mogul's, lloyallow was 
the lirst Gentou king that quarrelled with the Moors, who 
crossed the river, and after several turns of fortune they got 
some footing in the Carnatick ; which still increased under 
different JNIoguls until tlie time of Aurengzeb, who made all 
the Carnatick tributary to the Mogul. It was his great grand 
father Huckenbar"' that began the conquest. Nabobs were 
then first sent to govern the country, but notwithstanding, 
the Gentou form of government still remained in several 
places, and does now. The Marattoes, being all Gentous, are 
a great ballance against the ineroaehing power of the Moors. 
Such was the state of Tritchinopoly when Chunda took and 
changed its form of government." 

j\IS. p. 64 {Camb. p. 28). " Thus Chunda made his exit and 
paid the just price of his rebellion. In private life he is said 
to have been a man of great benevolence, humanity and 
generosity. And with regard to his publick character ; in 
this mighty ill-ruled empire custom makes a rebell, or any 
man that sets up for himself only, considered as he succeeds ; 
according to his success he is a great man, the idea of good not 
being necessarily annexed. Their ambition is generally 
better pleased with the former. If he fails, he is only reckoned 
unlucky. The rule of right is almost here defaced ; an 
attempt may be deemed unlawfull, but possession justifies 
the act, and makes it good and valid. Chunda thought him- 
self born to rule, and as nature had given him parts, he was 
willing to make use of them." 

MS. p. 131 (Camb. p. 48). " On advice received from Mr. 
Palk we continued our march near the Capital*^' at the King's 
request and promise of a speedy junction ; so well had Mr. 
Palk managed for our interest. Indeed I could expect nothing 
less from his unwearied attention to remove all diilieulties, 
which before prevented the assistance we so much wanted ; 
and this is not the only good turn for which we are indebted 
to this gentleman." 

MS. p. 154 (Camb. p. 55). " The King t'^* was hesitating, and 
very little was wanting to turn the scale against us. As my 
advice was not always properly attended to, it was sometimes 
given in vain. I wrote to Mr. Palk, who was willing to come 
on the least request of the (ioNcrnour. Again I renewed my 
request, begging at last, if they would not spare him, to send 
me some body else of character and judgment, or the alliance 

(1) An error for Vijayanagar, the capital of the ancient Hindu kingdom of the 
same name. 

(2) The Godavaii (Vriddha-Ganga). 

(3) Akhar. 
W Tanjore. 

(5) The King of Tanjore, 

No. 1.] 4 

of the King of Tan j ore was inevitably lost. After much delay 
they sent a gentleman, 'i' one of the St. David's Comicil, a 
good man, but as unfit a person for the business as they could 
pick out ; and had it not been for two lucky accidents in our 
favour, nothing would have prevented the King of Tan j ore 
from signing a neutrality. One of them was the French mis- 
carrying in their attempt on Trichenopoly ; the other the 
Marattos being obliged to retire from the Tan j ore country 
after having suffered considerably in their expedition, and 
leaving behind them 1,000 horse and many officers prisoners." 

MS. p.l59 {Camh. jj. 56). [The name of the gallant leader 
of the escalading party, omitted by Cambridge, was " Valgra."] 

MS. p. 178 {Camb. p. 62). [According to the MS., the disaster 
to the British detachment was due to the commanding officer 
" knowing but little of his business." Cambridge attributes 
it to " misconduct."] 

MS. p. 180 {Camb. p. 63). " I acquainted the Presidency 
with the misfortune : they could now find men quick enough 
to send a reinforcement when they were frightened. They 
sent therefore 180 men immediately to Deve Cotah, and Mr. 
Palk at last to Tan j ore to try once more his influence at that 
Court. His coming, indeed, would have been sooner, but on 
application to Mr. Duplex for a passport, he refused to grant 
any unless he gave his word that his journey should not be 
beyond St. David ; so that it took him 15 days to go by sea." 

3IS. p. 190 {Camb. p. 66). " 111 as I was, I had myself carried 
out to the top of one of the gateways of the Fort ;<^* but too 
weak long to bear the anxiety and uneasiness I was in when 
I saw our ticklish situation. I knew indeed our men were 
brave, but such odds were too much." 

MS. AjJpendix p. 5 {Camb. p. 19). "We have had many 
ridiculous stories about the origin of these Pagodas,''^* but the 
account most to be depended on is that they were Ijuilt by 
an order of the great Gentou King called Kishtna Royallqu, 
to whom all the rest of the Princes of the Carnatick were 
tributary : you will see mention made of him in the beginning 
of these sheets. The Moors in his reign first began the con- 
quest of the Carnatick. By his orders was Seringam built 
at the expence of foau* tributary Princes (who each were to 
erect the side opposite to the countries they governed), the 
east by the King of Tanjour, the nortli by the King of Gingee, 
the west by the King of INIaisure, and the south by the King 
of Trichenopoly." 

(1) Thomas Cooko, jun., a civil servant of 171(1, who was npjuiintccl in 1717 a 
Councillor at llio I'l'o.sidcncy of Fort St. David. 

(2) Tlu' Fori of Trichinopoly. 
(•^' Till' Siiiaiigaiu tcmiilcs. 

[No. 2] 
John Pye <^' to 

[Kiidorsc'd in Talk's hand. J " Jionibay. Mr. Pyc. 5th 
Feb., 1758. Reed. 17th April." 

1758, February 5th. Bombay. — " My dear Friend, I have 
the pleasure to aequaint you of our arrival here the 23rd 
of last month, all well, and that in a day or two we embark on 
board the SwaUuic for Gombaroon, (^* from whence we go in 
the Success to Bassorah ; but as I have very little time to 
spare now, will proceed to commune with you on business. 

" Your Respondentia Bond*"' on Capt. James I leave with 
Capt. Hough to be received the 13th instant, being then due. 
Your chest containing by your instructions ten thousand 
sonnauts,*^' but by ocular demonstration only nine thousand 
nine hundred and ninety five, I have sold by Capt. Hough's 
advice for nine thousand five hundred and ninety five Bombay 
rupees. I have settled your account with Hough & Spencer 
to the 31st January last, and inclose you a copy of it, by which 
you will see the ballanec due to you is thirteen thousand seven 
hundred sixty three rupees and fifty reas,'^' and that your 
Gheria'*^* prize money and Doidge's*"' Respondentia on the 
Livelcy is included in it. . . . The Governor and Council will 
give Hough bills for all the money we want, but not time enough 
for me to take one with me ; but I shall leave instructions 
with him to send two of your bills home by two of the European 
ships which depart in about a month. Your bills will be made 
payable to Charles Brett. (^^ As soon as I get home I will see 
Brett, and commune with him on your affairs. No account 
can be given of the 400 rupees paid to Smith, late supra cargoe 
of the Gramjnis. 

" The china of Japan and the third of a leager of arrack*^' 
given you in former days by Henry Doidge, Esq., are safely 
deposed in a godown'^^* in the Tank House under the charge 
of George England. Observe your jars are not separated from 
the rest ; either you or King of the Cumberland, Doidge says, 
must carry the whole home for him, and then yours are to be 

(1) John Pye was one of four Navy Agents in Julv, 1757. (Hill's Cat. Orme MSS. 
X.I (25) ). 

(2) Gombaroon, Gombroon or Bandar Abbas in the Persian Gulf, where the East 
Hidia Company had a factory. 

(3) Respondentia Bond, a bond on the security of a ship's cargo. 

(■*' Sonnauts, from Ar. sanwclt, pi. of nan, year; Rupees which had (k'leriorated 
in value after three years' currency. 

(5) Jieas, small money of account used in lioiul^ay ; tlic Ilupee contained 100 
reas. In Bombay accounts were kept in rupees, quarters and reas. 

(6) Gheriah or Vijayadrug, the stronghold of the pirate Angria on the coast 
south of Bombay, was attacked and destroyed by Admiral Watson and Colonel 
Ciive in February, 175(i. 

(") Henry Doidge, one of the four Navy ^Vgents. 

(8) Charles Brett, a friend of Palk in England. 

(9) Arrack, a fermented liquor obtained from the palm. 

(10) Godotvn, a store, from Tel. yidanyi through Malay (jadotuj, a storeroom. 

No. 2] 6 

rendered unto you. The cask of arrack has the noble name 
of Martin wrote upon the head with chalk. 

" I am sorry to tell you, in regard to your hoj^es of Doidge's 
drawing on you for forty thousand rupees, that Captain 
Hough having lain out for our and Mr. Steevens'<^> Squadron 
more money than was left liere, there is no such thing as any 
prize money to be got ; so nothing can be done in that affair. 

" For the six dozen of claret we had of you at Bengal, vide 
the following scheme — 

The 9995 Sonnauts brought here produced 9,595 
Your half of James's bond, principal and 

premium . . . . . . . . . . 10,800 

Hongh and Spencer's ballance . . . . 13,763 50 

6 dozen of claret at 48 per dozen . . . . 288 

Bombay Rupees 34,446 50 

" Thirty four thousand four hundred and forty six rupees 
at two shillings and five pence the rupee I humbly apprehend 
amounts to pounds sterling 4,162 4 6, which you are morally 
certain of getting home this year ; so as it can't be better, 
Avhy you must e'en be content 'tis well as it is — 
Si fortuna vestra te tormento 
Let sperato tc contento. 

" Ives<-> and Doidge send their best wishes. Mr. Shannon 
deserted us at Cochin, and one Mackintosh is come in his room. 
Alms'-^' goes with us, as does young Pigot.<*> I wrote to you 
from Anjango. 

" By advices overland the present Lords of the Admiralty 
are Anson, Boscawen, West, Hay, Eliott, Hunter and Forbes. 
Lord Holdernesse and IMr. Pitt Secretarys of State. Lord 
Temple has the Privy Seal, and Counccllor Henley is knighted 
and made Lord Kee]5er of the Great Seal. Of 34 transports 
French bound to America we have taken 32, and of 23 Martinico 
and Domingo ships 17 have fallen into the hands of the English. 
The Duke<^' has been beat in Germany and the city of Hanover 
is taken. The Prince of Hesse has lost all his dominions. Mr. 
Osborne*^' has 16 sail of the line and Mr. Saunders'"' 14 in 
the Mcditteranean. Fourteen capital ships and 20,000 troops 
were on the point of sailing from England about July last 

(1' C'funiiiodorc Chai-les Steevens, R.X. 

(-) .Siirf^cnii Edward Ivos, wlu) travelled t'l'oiu Basra (o Alcpim in 17,j8-.")it. 

(3) Lieutenant Alms, H.>J., lately commander of the Uardtrirkr, In<iianian, 
was an <dd friend of Dr. Ives. As Captain he commanded the squadruu of three 
ships whieh lirought General Medows's force to India in 1782. 

(■*) JJr. Pi^ot, late surtrcon of a l)oml)-vessel. 

(5) Tlie Duke of Cumlicrland, who was defeated at Ilastenheck and forced to 
sign the convi-ntion of Kloster-Zeven. 

(6) Admiral Henry Osborne was Coiuniander-in-Chief in the Mediterranean 
early in 17.57. 

(') Admiral Sir Charles Saundeis relieved Oslioi'ne in Mav 1757. 

7 [No. 2 

under Mr. Hawke and General Mordaunt*^' on a secret 

" Tlie Chcsterfcild, Fortfeild and Kdgcote, Indianicn, arrived 
at Limerick in June last. The Syren, sloop, Dick King, arrived 
in England the begiiuiing of June, by whom the Company 
knew of the capture and recapture of Calcutta. The Exj)eriment, 
man of war, engaged and took a French privateer of 36 guns 
and 400 men. Mr. Fox is Paymaster of the Forces. The Duke 
of Newcastle at the head of the Treasury, and I think Mr. 
Lcgge is Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

" Adieu, and believe me with all sincerity your faithfull 
friend, &c. 

"John Pye." 

" Doidge says 'tis doubtfull whether he shall write to you 
or no. His head achs ; he has a great deal to do. To be sure 
we have led fme lives since we have been here. Penible is a 
fine fellow at 3 in the morning, and laughs heartily at the story 
of Cousin Swinney. 

" Pray give my best wishes to Capt. Smith." 

[Holograph, 2| pp., flscp.] 

[No. 3.] 

VVill[iam] Fergusson'2' to Robert Palk, Esqr., 
at Mrs. Ray's in Tavistock Row, Co vent Garden. 

1700, November 10th. Ayr. — " I am favoured to-day with 
your letter of the 4th, and shall write to the two gentlemen in 
the north concerning the subject of your letter. They are 
not at all punctual in their answers ; for though I wrote them 
repeatedly of the necessity of returning an answer to the 
Gruff ees'^) at Fort St. George, and to Mr. Smith'^' at Canton, 
and transmitted them the letters and accounts you sent me, 
desiring after perusal they would be pleased to send me back 
the same, or copys of them ; and that they would either write 
what answer they thought proper or leave it to me to do 
it, yet I have not received any answer from them. . . . 

" Since it appears inconvenient that Miss Munro'^' should 
go in the same ship with you, I shall agree to her going with 
Capt. Glover or with any other 3^ou shall approve, since there 
are other ladys going out with her in the same ship. 

(1) Admiral Edward Hawke and General Sir John Mordaunt. co-operated in the 
expedition to Rochefort in 1757. The copy of Lawrence's Narrative wliirh is now 
in tlie British Museum was addressed to Mordaunt. 

(-) WilHam Fei'gusson, " Druggist and Chymist in London " and " tlie 
Reverend Mr. Robert Palk of Fort St. George " were two of five Executors of tiie 
will of Dr. Andrew Munro, who died at Madras on the 26th October, 1757. A 
copy of the will, formerly among the Palk papers, is not now found. Its substance 
is given in Indian Recordu Series, Vestiges of Old Madras, vol.11., pp. 45cS, l5iK 

(■^) Gruljees, consignees of gruff goods, i.e., any bulky articles of merchandize : 
from Dutch grof, coarse. 

W George Smith, then at Canton and afterwards a free merchant at Madras, 
was a nephew of Mrs. Munro. 

(3) Katherine Munro, elder daughter of Dr. Munro. 

No. 3] 8 

" As to what stocks it may be best to lay out the money in 
belonging to our Gruff, '^^ I caimot determine. Only I am 
afraid that trusting to the new supplys will be attended with 
delay and other inconveniences, especially as none of us are 
likely to be in London ; and therefore I should prefer eitlier 
South Sea or Bank Annuitys, which always keep pace with 
the other Stocks, and arc not liable to the same uncertaintys 
as the new supplys. When I recieve Mr. Munro'-' and JNIr. 
Robertson's'"^* answers, you shall be acquainted with them. 

" Will Fergusson." 

[Holograph, 1 |;., Uo. Wax seal,] 

[No. 4.] 

" Order for Restitution in the East Indies." 


1763, March 16th. Court at St. James.—" To our Trusty 
and Welbelovcd Major General Stringer Lawrence, 
Brigadier General William Draper,'^* Colonel Eyre 
Coote,'^' or to the Olhcer Commanding any Part of Oiu' Land 
Forces in the East Indies, or to the Commanding Oflicer in 
any Islands or Places which shall have been taken possession 
of by Our Army. 
" George R. 

" Trusty and Welbelovcd, We Greet you well. \Miereas 
a Definitive Treaty of Peace has been signed at Paris, on the 
Tenth Day of February last, by Our Minister Plenipotentiary 
and Those of Our Good Brothers The Most Christian King"^** and 
The Catholick King,'"' to which The Minister PlenijDotentiary 
of Our Good Brother The Most Faithful King'^' acceded on 
the same Day ; And Wliercas It is stipulated by the Eleventh 
Article of the said Treaty that Great Britain shall restore to 
France, in the Condition they are now in, the different Ftictories 
which that Crown possessed, as well on the Coast of Coromandel 
and Orixa as on that of Malabar, as also in Bengal, at the 
Beginning of the year 171U ; And that His Most Christian 

(1) Consignment of gniff goods. 

(2) John Muiu'o, oT Cullcarn, lalo of Bouil)ay, one of (lie I'^xccutors. 

(3) 'I'lic Hcv. Aii(li<>w l{()l)crtson, of Killcurn, Ross-shire, one of the Execulors. 
('i) Sir William Draper, I\.B., l*\>llow of Iving's College, Camhi'idge, envei'ed (he 

British Army in 174J, raised the 7i)lh Regiment and eominantied it al tlu^ siege of 
Fort 8t. George in 1758-5U. With ^Vdmiral Cornish lie led the Manila lOxpedition 
of 17(52. He served later as Lieut-governor of Minorca. 

(i^) Sir Eyre Coote, K.B., served in the llighlanil rising of 1715, eame to India 
in 1751, accompanied <_'live to Bengal, and as Ma.jor was jjresent at I'lassey. In 
1759, during Lawrence's alisence, Ccdonel Coote commanded (he Madras army, 
defeating Lally a( Wandewash in January, 17li(), and reducing I'ondicherry a 
year later. In .lul> , 1770, he arrived at Madras from home as Commander-in-Cliicf 
in India, liul resigned almost imnnHlialely in consequence of a dispute with the 
local Governmenl. In 1778 he again came to India as Commander-in-Chief with 
the rank of Lieut. -General, and in 178(1 left Calcutta for Madras to engage llaidar 
All, whom Jie defeated at I'orto Novo in 1781. Coote died at Fort St. George 
in 1783. 

(«) Louis XV. of France. 

(7) Charles III. of Spain. 

(8) Joseph I. of Portugal. 

9 [No. 4 

Majesty shall restore, on His Side, all that He may have con- 
quered from Great Britain, in the East Indies, during the present 
A\'ar ; .Vnd will ex])ressly eause Nattal and Tapanoully in the 
Island of Sumatra to be restored ; And Whereas it is stipulated 
in the Twenty Third Artiele ol" the same Treaty that all the 
Countries and Territories which may have been Conquered, in 
whate\er Part of the World, by the Arms of Us and of the jMost 
Faithful Kinjj, as well as bv those of the Most Christian and 
Catholiek Kings, which are not included in the ])resent Treaty 
either under the Title of Cessions or under the Title of 
Restitutions, shall be restored without Diiliculty and without 
requiring any Compensation ; And It being further stipulated 
in the Twenty Fourth Article of the said Definitive Treaty 
that the Factories in the East Indies shall be restored Six 
Months after the Exchange of the Ratifications of the present 
Treaty, or sooner if it can be done, Which Ratifications were 
exchanged on the 10th of this Instant March ; Our Will and 
Pleasure is that You do, pursuant to the Stipulations above 
recited, delixer or cause to be deli\ered to such Commissary 
or Commissaries as shall be named and authorized on the 
Part of our Said Good Brother The Most Christian King to 
receive the same, any of the Factories under Your Command 
which are to be restored to France in the Condition thev are 
now in, agreably to the Stipulations of the Eleventh and Twenty 
Fourth Articles of the Definitive Treaty abovementioned, and 
also that You do deliver or cause to be delivered to the Commis- 
sary or Commissaries duely authorized to receive the same any 
Countries or Territories wdiich may be to be restored to France 
or Spain in Consequence of the Twenty Third Article of the 
said Treaty ; And it is Our further Will and Pleasure that you 
should take the necessary Measures with the French Com- 
missaries that Nattal and Tapanoully in the Island of Sumatra, 
and all that France may have conquered from Great Britain 
in the East Indies during the present War, be restored agreably 
to the Stipulations of the said P^leventh Article of the Definitive 
Treaty, as well as with the French and Spanish Commissaries 
for the Restitution of any other Conquests which may have 
been made upon Our Establishments in the East Indies by 
the Arms of the Most Christian and Catholiek Kings, and w^hich 
are to be restored in Consequence of the Twenty Third Article 
of the said Definitive Treaty ; And that the same be restored 
at the same Time that Restitution is made of any Conquests 
which have been made by any of Our Forces under Your 
Command upon the French or Spanish Establishments. And 
for so doing this shall be Your Warrant. Given at Our Court 
at St. James's the Sixteenth Day of March, 1763, in the Third 
Year of our Reign. 

" By His Majesty's Command, " Egremont."'^^ 

[Autograph, 4| pp., flscp. Paper seal of George //.] 

(1^ Lord Egremont, a yecretary iu Bute's ministry of 1762. 


[NoT 5.] 

Brother Salvatoe, a Sanctis D'fon[se]ca to Governor Palk, 


1765, Sept. 27th. San Thome.*^' — Most illustrious and 
invincible Governor, Lord Palk, 

With the greatest respect I throw mj^self at your Lordship's 
feet and approach, in the only possible way by means of this 
letter, to kiss your hand and enquire after your health. If 
that be good, I have no doul3t that your Lordship will be crowned 
with yet higher honours due to the gifts and \'irtucs which 
you possess ; for, as I have always heard, all men acknowledge 
your piety, power and greatness. 

When I arrived on this coast, I went to your Lordship's 
residence on six occasions to deliver a letter of recommendation 
from Dom Loppo ; but being unable to obtain speech with you, 
I gave the letter to M. de Landreset, the senior officer of the 
Portuguese forces at Goa, that he might deliver it by other 

For your Lordship's satisfaction I will now be brief. I was 
sent out as the head of the Missions of the Spiritual 'Province 
of Portugal in the kingdoms of Jamseylon,*-' Achem'-^^ and 
Queda.<^' I accordingly remained on your coast to supervise 
necessaries coming from Portugal and Goa, so that the mission- 
aries in the said kingdoms might carry on their appointed 

Being myself quite worn out by persistent sickness, and being 
at present without means of subsistence, I suffer much. Like 
a lonely sojourner in Jerusalem I find myself in this place, 
where the power and honour of my kinsmen in Portugal are of 
no avail by reason of distance and my vow of poverty — a vow 
I find difficulty in observing in this country. Hearken there- 
fore, my lord, to the counsel of Cln'ist and the Apostle St. Paul, 
who says. It is more blessed to give than to receive. 

In fine, by the love of Christ, and for the honour and 
salvation of your soul, I humbly beseech your Lordship to 
bestow alms on me according to the measure of your greatness 
and charity. And I will ever pray to the utmost of my power 
for your illustrious house, that God will guard you and deliver 
you from your enemies for many years to come, so that you may 

(1) San Thoiud was originally a Pt)rtuguese fortified settlomont dating from 
about 1522, and the seal of a lii.sliojjrif from n)()(). Captured liy the King of 
Oolconda in H)()2, it was taken by the Fi-eneh ten years later. In 1(171, after a 
protraeted siege by Golcouda aided by the Dutch, it eaiiitulated, and the lortilica- 
tions were demolished. In l(i87 the place was resettled by the Portuguese under 
the native Government, and in 171!) it liecame British territory by a grant from 
Xawal> Muhammad Ah. San Tliom6 is situatetl on the coast three nules soulli of 
Foi't St. George. It possesses a cathedral and se\eral clmrches. Tiie cat bedral 
contains the shi'ine of St. Thomas. 

(-' Jamseylon or .iunkscylon (Ujuug Salang), an island nlT the west coast of 
the Malay Peninsula. 

(3) Achem (Achin) in Sumatra. 

(•*) t^ueda (Kedah) in the Malay Peninsula, near Penang. 

11 [No. 5 

attain to immortal glory. Amen. God knows with what 
shame I expose my necessities to you. But forgive me, my 
Lord . 

Your most humble servant and true well-wisher with all my 
heart ; now and always, and at all times and in every place 
I will remember you as your petitioner, 

Frater Magister Salvator a Sanctis D'Fonca. 
San Thome, at the hospice of St. Ritta,'^' 
2nli September, 1765. 

[Latin. Holograph, 'S pp.. flscp. The outer cover has a wax 
seal displaying a full length figure with aureole, and two 
acolytes below. The seal is inscribed sdarrard. The cover 
is addressed thus : — J 

" Illustrissimo Gobernatori de Madrasta Domino Palco, Dcus 
cum custodiat ad multos annos in Madrasta. 

" De Sancto Thoma." 

[No. 6.] 

[Nawab Walajah<-'] to the "Honble. Robert Palk, Esqr., 
Governor. • 

[Endorsed in Palk's hand] " Nabob's Letters to the King and 
Company per Pacific, 3rd April, 1766." 

1766, April 3rd. — " Enclosed I send you a letter to the 
Company enclosing one for his Majesty, which I desire may 
be translated into English, and the copies sent to me that 
they may accompany the original and be clearly understood. 

" I know you will highly approve of my doing this justice 
to General Lawrence, of whose glorious actions you ha^c so 
often been an eye witness. Be pleased also to repeat my 
attachment to the Company and my entire dependance, and 
above all I desire that what I have said concerning the General 
may be strongly recommended to the Company." 
[1 p., demy.] 
[Enclosure No. 1.] 

" To the Honble. The Chairman and Gentlemen of the 
Direction of the East India Company. 

" The many and great obligations I am under to General 
Lawrence induce me to request you will be pleased to present 
the inclosed letter to his Majesty, whom God preserve. I 
send a copy for your perusal. You are too well acquainted 
with General Lawrence's eminent services to need a particidar 
explanation. I have therefore only further to request that 
he may recei^•e from you annually on my account on the 1st 

of January Pagodas,''^' which shall be repaid here on that 

day to your Governor and Council ; and I desire you will 

(1' The Church of St. Rita, standing at the south end of the High Street of San 
Thome, was completed in 1710. 

(2) The title WaJajali was conferred by tlic Mogul in 1765 on Nawab Muhammad 
All of Arcot and the Carnatic. 

(3) The annuity granted was Pags. 3,75n, equivalent to about £1,50U. 

No. 6] 12 

prevail on him to acccjjt this from me as a gratefull aeknow- 
ledgmeiit to my great benefactor. By his Majesty's favor, 
your powerfuh assistance and his signal successes, peace and 
plenty have been happily restored to my country. It is 
therefore equitable that he should reap a part of the fruits of 
his own labor. He is grown old with toil, but his glorious 
actions will never dve. 

" By means of Lord Clive the Mogul Patcha has conferred 
on me great honors and made my Government independent 
of the Deckan, chiefly out of regard to my attachment to 
the Company. Thus under your favor and protection my 
Government is firmly established, and I am free from all manner 
of api^rehension. May your prosperity and your fame ever 

" What can I say more ? " 
[1 _p., demy.] 
[Enclosure No. 2.] 
To His Most Excellent Majesty George the 3rd, &c., &c. 

" I had the honor of addressing your Majesty by Admiral 
Cornish*^* and Colonel Monson,<-> and now the departure of 
General Lawrence, a servant of your Majesty as well as of the 
Company, induces me again to express my gratitude for the 
very great assistance I have on every occasion received from 
the unwearied vigilance and distinguished abilities of this 
excellent officer, whose sword has been often m}' only protector 
in the day of battle ; who for years together kept the field 
against a numerous ennemy, and by his courage and conduct 
surmounted every difficulty ; who comforted me continually 
in my distress, and with a spirit and perseverance peculiar 
to himself was almost the onlv man in Indostan that never 
dispaircd of my cause. No doubt Your Majesty is well 
acquainted with his important services, disinterested character 
and extraordinary merit, which are not to be described within 
the compass of a letter, but which I and my family abo\'e all 
others are bound to acknowledge. May your Majesty never 
want such an Officer to command your Armies. I have desired 
the Company to represent my firm reliance on your Majesty's 
protection, and to present this letter, intended to express my 
deep sense of your royal favor in giving mc such assistance 
as 1 have found in General Lawrence. May your Majesty's 
reign be long and happy. 

" What can I say more ? " 
[1 J)-') demy.\ 

(1) Admiral Samuel Cornish reiaforced Steevous at the siege of Pondicheri-y in 
17(51, and in the following year, in conjunction with General Di-apcr, conchH-tcd 
the exjiedition against Manila. 

(-) Colonel the Hon. George Monson entered the army in 175(1, came to India 
\\itli Draper's l{cj^iiuent anil .served at Wanih-wasli and I'ondiclierry in 17(30, 
Manila in 1702 and Madura in 1703. Eleven years later he came again to India 
as a member of the Supreme Council of Bengal, and united with Clavering and 
Francis against Ilastings until his death in 1770. 


[No. 7.] 

Memorondttm of miles run by the Shi]) Pacific (wisigned). 

17G6, October 18tli. — " Tlic minil)cr of miles run })er luoutli 

by the Sliij) Pacifie,^^^ having sailed IVoni Madrass the 4th A])ril, 

1700, and arrived at the Co^ e ot Cork the 18th day of October. 

From the 4th of April to the 30th . . Miles 1,183 

In May .. .. .. .. .. ,, 2,107 

In June . . . , . . . . . . ,, 2,830 

In July . . . . . . , . . . ,, 2,205 

In August . . . . . . . . . . ,, 2,058 

In September . . . . . . . . ,, 2,308 

In October to the 18th . . . . . . „ 1,248 

Total 14,005 " 

[IP; 4/0.] 

[No. 8.] 

The Secretary to the Court of Directors to Major General 

Stringer Lawrence. 

1700, December 4tli. East India House. — " It is with great 
pleasure I inform you that the Court of Directors yesterday 
came to an unanimous resolution that the annuity of five 
hundred pounds setled upon you for life, which ceased by 
your resignation thereof on returning to your station as 
Commander in Chief of the Company's forces in the East 
Indies in 1701, is to be continued from the time of yoiir 
leaving Fort Saint George for England, when your allowances 
for the abovementioned station ceased. Most sincerely 
wishing the Bath may have the desired effect, I remain, Sir, 
your most obedient humble servant, Robt. James, Secretary." 
[Autograph, 11 jj., -ito.] 

[No. 9.] 

Henry Moore to the Honorable Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1700, December 18th, Ship Osterley, near Anjengo. — 
" As the Osterl[e^y is now standing into Anjengo road, I write 
you half a dozen lines from on board her to advise you of our 
arrival thus far. I hope they will salute you and Mrs. Palk in 
good health. Mr. Vansittart*-' was well in Burlington street 
the middle of March last. Should the Anson and Devonshire 
be arrived with you, you must have heard of him much later. 
When we were at Cadiz we heard of the arrival of the Admiral 
Steevens at Lisbon in ninety days from Bengal : she arrived 
there about^the'middle of April. We sailed from Cales [Cadiz] 
the 3rd of May, but the repairs wc; got there proving ineffectual, 
we were obliged to put in to Saint Salvador upon the coast of 

(1) The Pacific carried the Nawab's letters to the King and Company. Vide 
No. 6. 

(2) Henry Vansittart, late Governor of Bengal. Vide p. 30, note 3. 

No. 9] 14 

Brazil, where we arrived under the 13th of June with a leak of 
five feet an hour. I need not to Mr, Palk paint our distresses. 
Heading down, and the giving our crazy ship a new bottom 
detained us. at that place untill the 20th of September. We 
have since continued quite tight, and are all very healthy, nor 
has any accident taken place during the remainder of the 
voyage except the carrying away topmasts and other trifes 
of that nature. Thanks to Providence, our voyage now draws 
near a conclusion. When I embarque on another outward 
bound one I hope it will use me worse than this has done. I 
beg my respects to Mrs. Palk. . . . 

" Henry Moore." 
[Holograph, 2|- pp., 4to.] 

[No. 10.] 

Rob[er]t Palk to [William Martin] Goodlad.^^' 

[Endorsed] " Letter from Mr. Palk, 25tli January, 1767, 
dated on board the Lord Camden, Nathaniel Smith, in Madras 
Road on the day he embarked for Europe." 

1767, January 25th. On board the Lord Camden, Madras 
Road — " Dear Goodlad, I am much obliged to Mr. Bourchier 
and vou for convcvino- the intelligence of Mr. Pownev's*^* safetv. 
At any rate he is likely to make a better voyage than I had 
reason to expect. 

" As I think I know the goodness of your heart full well, 
I could never doubt of the sincerity of its sentiments. I freely 
acknowledge that I have often felt a most particular satis- 
faction in your success and well known improvement, and 
those sentiments of honor and uprightness which I know will 
never fail to be your constant companions ; and you can have 
none that you ought to be fonder of. There is no good fortune 
that can possibly happen to its greatest favorites that I do not 
most heartily wish you, and it will at all times give me pleasure 
to hear from you, or to be instrumental in promoting it. 

" Mrs. Palk sends her most affectionate wishes, and I am, 
dear Goodlad, imalterably your sincere friend, 

" RoBT. Palk." 
[Holograph, 2 pp., 4/o.] 

[No. 11.] 

[Ensign] J. Carpenter to [Robert Palk]. 

[Endorsed in Palk's hand] " Mr. Carpenter, 25th January, 

1767, January 25th. Tritchinopoly. — " Give me leave to 
assure you that it is not in my power to express the sense 

d' William Mailin Goodlad, a Madras civil servant of ITlil, was Secretary in 
the Civil Di'parliuent. lEe was a protege oi Palk, who was a friend of the Goodlad 

(^) William I'owney had arrived iu the Sican at Tellicherry from Malacca. He 
was a younger son of Capt. io\\n PowTiey, a seafaring man of Madras, who died 
in 1740. 

15 [No. 11 

I have of the very kind letter you honoured me with, or 
how nuieh I am obhgcd lo you for the fa\()urs you have 
shewn nie. I most gratcfidly thank you, Sir, for your 
intentions to join my friends at home with your iiideaN ours 
to recover the rank my former commission gives me. Mr. 
Webber was the gentleman tliat gott me first appointed. Last 
year my friends solhcited and })rocured me the interest of 
Mr. Cruttendon and Mr. Harrison, both of which gentlemen 
expressed the greatest desire of serving me, and, I am pers waded, 
did every thing in their power then towards it. They likewise 
applied, Sir, to Mr. Barrington, Mr. Savage, Mr. Scrafton and 
Mr. Wheeler,*^' and engaged those gentlemen's interest in 
my behalf. As my present situation deprives me of the hopes 
of acquiring any thing farther than a maintenance suitable to 
the character we are in a great measure obligated to support 
at the expence of every thing valuable to us, and subjects 
me to such disagreeable inconveniences as to deprive me of 
serving me [sic] with that chcarfulness necessary to our duty, 
I ha^'e wrote my friends that my whole welfare depends on 
the success of their endeavours in the strongest manner I were 
able ; but as you, Sir, know the very great difference between 
my present situation and that of those gentlemen who were 
appointed Lieutenants at the same time, or even those gentle- 
men who were then made Ensigns, notwithstanding the}^ arrixed 
in the country but a few months before me, I flatter myself, 
Sir, that it will be in your power to get me restored to tlie rank 
I am conscious to myself of never having deserved to be de- 
prived of, and which I should be happ}^ to shew myself not 
unworthy of possessing. This is the only hope I have. Sir, 
of ever seeing again my friends with pleasure or persuing with 
satisfaction the service I am engaged in. Most sincerely 
wishing you and family health and every happiness, I am. Sir, 
your ever obliged and obedient humble servant, 

" J. Carpenter." 
[Holograph, If p., 4/o.] 

[No. 12.] 

George Vansittart'-* to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. Duplicate. 

1767, February 15th. Madras.—" Dear Palk, Two or 
three days after your departure I received letters from 
Russelh^) and Campbell'^' congratulating me on my being 

(1) With the exception of Williaiu Weljber, who was a Director from 17(12 to 
1765, the other patrons named, viz., Edward Holden Cruttendon, .)ohn Harrison, 
Fitzwilliam Barrington, Henry Savage, Luke Scrafton and Edward Wheler, were 
Directors between 1765 and 1767. 

(-) George Vansittart, Bengal civil service, younger brother of Henry Vansittart. 

(3> Claucl Russell, 6th Member of tlic Hengal Council. Russell entered the 
Madras civil service in 1752, and was transfei'red to Bengal in 1766. In 1775 lie 
returned to Madras as a member of Lord Pigot's Council, and mairied one of (he 
Governor's daughters. 

W Alexander Campbell, a Bengal civil servant of 1763, was 11th member oi 
Council at Calcutta in 1767. 

No. 12] 16 

appointed Resident at Midnapoor, and Campbell informs 
me that for this step I am entirely indebted to Lord Clive, 
who himself proposed it to the Board without solicitation, 
or even my name being mentioned to him. This is a favour 
which I little expected from his Lordship ; my obligation to 
him is therefore the greater, and I think that I may now with 
much propriety make him the acknowledgement which you 
proposed by way of advance towards a reconciliation. You 
know I am sensible that in some respects I have acted wrong ; 
I have no objection therefore to the making of such an acknow- 
ledgement on a motive of gratitude for the favour he has 
conferred on me, although, as there have been causes of com- 
plaint on both sides, I could not prevail on myself to do it 
through fear of his power. Inclosed is a letter to him on the 
subject. Consult with Harry^^' concerning it, and if you and 
he approve it, let it be delivered. We shall set out in a day or 
two for Bengal. The John and James schooner is to have the 
honour of carrying us. 

" Yours very affectionately, George Vansittart." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., 4^o.] 

[No. 13.] 
Rob[er]t Palk<-' [jmi.] to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1767, February 19th. Fort St. George. — " Dear Sir, I em- 
brace this opportunity of enquiring after your health and to 
thank you for your bountifull kindness to me. I hope that 
my future conduct will be such as to meet with your 
approbation, and that I shall have it in my power to make 
some return for the care you have taken of me from my 
infancy. I hope you will continue to favor me with your 
friendly advice, which hitherto has been of infinite service to 
me, and I do assure you it will always be gratefully received and 

" I most sincerely wish you and Mrs. Palk may have a pleasant 
passage, and a happy meeting of your friends in England. 

" Lord Clive (juitcd his Government the 26th ultin.o in the 
evening, and embarked on board the Brittannia very much out of 
order. Before he resigned the Government a great many promo- 
tions were made, and amongst the rest George''^' to the Chiefship 
of Midnapore. If nothing better offers for me after my arrival 
in Calcutta, I intend to ask to be appointed his Assistant, if 
he approNcs it. At j)rcsent George tells me I had better wait 
for something better, but I should be very well satisfyed with 
that and the prospect of succeeding him in that employ some 
years hence. As George is in a great hurry to get down, we 

(1) Henry Vansittai-t, Governor of Bengal, 1760 — 1765. 

(-) ]{(>l)crl. Palk, junr., a nengal civil servant of 17(i;5, was the second son of 
Walter I'alk (elder brother of Governor I'alk) by his second wife Mary Widdecombe. 
(3) George Vansittart. 

17 [No. 13 

have taken our passage on the John and James schooner, and 
are to set out from Trivatore the morning after to-morrow. 

" Mr. Pybus'i' has had a severe attaek of his old disorder 
since your departure, which made him resolve to follow you 
on the Anson, Captain Linox, who arrived here four days ago, 
but the people on board have the smallpox to such a violent 
degree tiiat numbers have died of it, and Mrs. Pybus insists 
on his not going on that ship, both on his own account and the 
child's, I believe he will be persuaded to wait till October. 

" Captain Richardson has come off with flying colours. It 
appeared in the course of the examination that cloth was on 
board, but the captain and officers knew nothing of it. In 
short, the blame was thrown on the doctor, who died before 
the ship arrived at Bengal, and the purser, who told the Com- 
mittee appointed for the enquiry that, since the blame was laid 
to him, he would not take up any of their time in contradicting 
it ; so it ended in Captain Richardson's being requested to 
dismiss him, which he did, and made the purser an acknow- 
ledgement for his great good nature.*-* Mr. Mackey's*^' account 
of their transactions at Tencriffe and Richardson's don't agree 
at all, notwithstanding Mr, McKey wrote him what he had said 
about it. The Pigot is expected here every day. 

" On our journey to Gingee, being the fourth person, [I] was 
under the necessity of playing at cards, and by bad manage- 
ment and ill luck was a considerable looser, which drove me 
to the necessity of applying to Mr. Morse'-'' for Pags. 100. 

" By a letter I have just received from my father I under- 

(1) John Pybus arrived in India as a Writer in 1743. After the capture of Madras 
by de Ir. Bourdonnais he went to Fort St. David, and in 1751 was one of the eight 
vohinteer officers who joined C'live in the attack and subsequent defence of Arcot. 
Pybus Supervisor at Fort Marlborough, Bencoolen, in 1754, and four years 
later, when in cliarge of the Fort St. George Mint, was taken into Council. In 
1702 he was sent on a political mission to the King of Kandy, and wrote ;in interest- 
ing journal of his proceedings. He was a Trustee for the Nawab's consolidated 
debt of 1767. Pybus married Martha Small in 1753. 

(-* George Richardson commanded the ship Pigot. Her surgeon was George 
Eethune, and i^urser Mark Carr. 

(3) George Mackay came out originally as a free merchant in 1738, and traded 
for many years at Madras. When in England in 1766 he was appointed Assay- 
master -at Fort St. George, and he joined his post in January, 1767. He was 
sliortly afterwards admitted to Council with the proviso that he was ah^ays to 
remain its junior member. Mackay took an active part in the subversion of Lord 
Pigot's government in 1776, and he was recalled to England in consequence. He 
married in 1756 Sarah, daughter of John Stratton. 

(■*' Nicholas Morse, Ijorn in 1700, entered the Madras civil service at the age 
f)f eighteen. In 1728 he joined the Council, and shortly afterwards became Deputy 
Governor of Fort MarII)orough in Sumatra, where he remained eighteen months. 
Returning to Madras in 1729 as a Councillor, he succeeded Richard Benyon as 
Governor in 1741. Two and a half years later Madras was attacked by the French 
under de la Bourdonnais, and capitulate<l under promise of ransom. The terms 
were repudiated by Dupleix, and Morse was carried prisoner to Pondicherry, but 
was released by exchange. He was summoned to England to render account of 
his actions, and eventually returned to Madras as a free merchant. From 1767 
he acted as one of Palk's attorneys. He married Jane Goddard in 1730, and his 
daughter I'^iuolia liecame tlie wife of Henry Vansitt;»rt. .Morse died at .Madras 
in 1772. 


No. 13] 18 

stand m}' brother'^' is coming out on the expected ships, but 
he doth not tell me whether he is coming here or to Bengal. 
Should he not come out in the Service, I hope you will interest 
your-self in getting him appointed to Bengal. All your friend[s] 
at this place are well, and every thing goes on just as you left 
them. I desire my compliments to Mrs. Palk, Mr. and Mrs. 
Van<-> and the General, '-^^ and am with great respect, dear Sir, 
Your most obliged and obedient humble servant, 

"RoBT. Palk." 
[Holograph, 4 pp., 4to.] 

[No. 14.] 
Chocapah'*' to the Honourable Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1767, March 3rd. Fort St. George.—" Honourable Sir, I 
shall be extreamly glad to hear of your Honour and family's 
safe arrival in England and enjoy [ment of] a perfect health 
in that delightfull country. 

" Since your Honour's departure Mr. Bourchier'^* carrys on 
his government in good order, and every thing going on at the 
same terms [as] when you was here. The Company's broad 
cloth on the 27th of last month [was] put up at publick outcry**" 
at the Sea Gate on the usual terms, and sold about 30 lotts, 
each lott consisting [of] 5 bales, [viz.] 3 bales of Auroras, one 
bale Popinju,'"' and one bale ordinary red, and in some lotts 
one bale ordinary yellow, at 585 to 591 Pagodas per lott, and 
some Purpatanues*^' at the usual prices, and the remainder they 
could not sell at that time. 

" Mupral Kistnayah, farmer of Beetle'"' and Tabacoa, having 
insulted with the Nabob and made demand [for] dutys for the 
trifling Beetle and Tabacoa bought for his Excellency's use, 
which the Nabob represented to the Governour and Council ; 
and then the Governour and Council examined this in con- 
sultation, and said to the said Mupral Kistnaya that he 
is not fit to be that farmer any longer, and took away the 
said Cowle*^*^' from him, and gave that farm to one Yidyanado 

(1) Tliomas Talk, son of W.iltcr I'.ilk l.> liis Ihiid \\ife Mary Mugford, was haU- 
brothor of Rolioi-t Palk, jim. 

(-' Mr. and Mrs. Ilcnry V'ansittart. 

(3) (Jciicral St linger Lawi-cnce. 

(•*) Cliokapjia Clic'tti was one of tlie " Conipany's Merchanls "" who were charged 
with " the Investment." Tlie Merchants made advances of the Company's money 
to the weavers, and were resjjonsiljh^ for the deUvery of the manufactured goods. 

(5) Charles Bourchier, st)n of llichard Bourciiier, Governor of Bombay, arrived at 
^ladi'as in 1711 as a Wtid-r. Ten >ears later he was Secretary, and in 1751, when 
Military Storekeepei-, Rental Cienei'al and Scavenger, was taken into Co\incil. 
JIc succeed(>d I'alk as Governor in 17()7. His period of oflice was marked by the 
occurrence of the first Mysore war, and by the execution of a permanent rampart 
around the Black Town of Madr.ts. Bourchier I'csigned antl retired to I"]ngland 
early in 1770. 

(<5) Rul)lio auction. 

(7) Ani-aras and /'opiiijai/n were varieties of woollen cloth imjiorled from England. 

iS) PerpehuiHOcs, a woollen clotli made in l-]ngland, so called from its diu'ability. 

(0) Beetle, the betel leaf, used for clie\\ing witii aieca nut and lime. 
'10) Coivir, grant, pei'mit, licence. 

19 [No. 14 

Modcly, who was agent to Pushpuiiado Nainar sometime, and 
one Moodu Kistna Modely, the kite Arraek farmer, for four years 
and five months from 1st of this month, at twenty tliree 
tht>usand Pagodas for every year. 

" I shall be cxtreamly obliged to your Ilonom- if you will be 
pleased to remember your old and faithfull servant Chocapah, 
and reconuucnd him to your friends both here and coming up 
from thenee. . . . 

" We ha\"e not received any further news from Manilah, what 
they have done with our ship and cargo ; and if we are permitted 
to send our ships there to trade, it will be a very good thing 
for the merchants at this Settlement. 

" Since your Honour's dcpartm-e, here is nothing materials 
that I can write to your Honour, but the Governour and Council 
deferred the new contract for the Honble. Company's Invest- 
ment for the present year untill first April. . . . 

" Chocapah." 
[Atitograph, 1| p.. demy.] 

[No. 15.] 
Mrs. Mary Powney'i' to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1767, March 12th. Fort St. George.—" Dear Sir, From 
the long acquaintance I have had the happiness to have with 
you flatters my hopes that you will pardon the intrusion of a 
few lines from an old friend to assure you of the greatfuU sense 
I shall always retain of the friendship and many civilities you 
have so kindly, dear Sir, shewn me, and that my prayers 
will be constant for your safe arrival in England and the 
continuance of all blessings to you and yours. I hope some 
time before this reaches, you will be enjoying yourself in 
your own country. Pray present my respects to General 
Lawrence and Calliaud,'-' and believe me to be with much 
affection, esteem and respect, dear Sir, your most obliged 
friend and humble servant, Mary Powney." 

" P.S. Sir, I have the pleasure to acquaint you of my son 
Wilh'^' being safe and well at Malacca. Since, I hear he was 
arrived at Tellecherry and was going to Bombay, and I am afraid 
it will be a ruiness Voyage." 
[Autograph, 2 pp.^ 4>to.] 

[No. 16.] 

Mooperala Kistnia'^' and Raiaia Kisna to Robert 

Palk, Esqr. 
1767, March 15th. Fort St. George.— " Sir, I hope this 
will find you safely arrived in England, and that you and 

(1) Mary Powney, daugliter f)f Capt. Gf>oi'g(^ ITci'on, inastor mariner and tnarino 
surveyor, was tlie widow of ('apt. .lolin Powney, master mariner. Siie dit-d a 
centenarian in 1780. 

(-' General John Caillaud. Vide No. T.'J, p. Iii2, note 1. 

(3) Cf. No. 10. 

(■*' ^liipei'ala Kislnnivn licld the mon-iTKiIy fi.i' (lie snle of held and tohncco. 
He was tlie uncle of Uamakrlshna. 

No. 16] 20 

your family have had the enjoyment of a perfect health . . . 
and that you will not forget your old faithfull servants who 
begin already to feel the want of your protection. 

" Two days after your departure the Nabob delivered a 
petition to the Governor and Council accusing me of want of 
respect to him, and other trumped up storeys that I demanded 
dutys from him on beetle and tobacco brought for his house- 
hold use. You may well remember, Sir, that I once informed 
you that on the Begum's arri\'al there was large quantitys 
of beetle demanded, of which the under servants made a job 
by selling at the market ; and you was pleased to order me 
to acquaint Nazeeb Cawn to take just so much only as was 
wanted for the use of the Nabob's family, and accordingly 
45 bundles of beetle (instead of 60) was determined to be 
sufficient for every day's expence ; and at the same time I 
shewed him the account of the beetle supplied to that time, 
amounting to twelve thousand fanams,'^> which he said he 
would see about. No more past between the Nabob and me 
untill the day after your departure, when some tobacco being 
imported for the Nabob was, according to custom, brought 
to my godown. The third day after it was brought, and when 
my Peons'2' carried it to Nazeeb Cawn, they carried also a 
memorandum at his own request of the dutys thereon, which 
amounted to a pagoda and odd fanams, and of this the Nabob 
made a handle as if I had slighted and made little account of 
him ; and the Governor and Council was pleased to reprimand 
me very much for it, and determined that it was a sufficient 
cause to forfeit my cowl, and the farm was disposed of to 
Vaydanadum and Moodukisna conicopoly<^' on the 23rd ultimo 
for twenty three thousand pagodas per annum for the 
remainder time that I was to have enjoyed it. 

" I delivered your letter of recommendation to Mr. Bourchier 
before the determination of Council, but it produced no favour- 
able effect. I would not have given up the affair so easily 
had not Mr. Morse seemed very desirous that I should be rid 
of this business. Besides, I was very sensible that I could 
have got no redress here, and that the only way to have 
righted myself would have been to have pushed the matter 
further ; but to a person of my time of life it would be too 
troublesome and vexatious. . . 

" Upon desiring Mr. Bourchicr's advice Av[h]at was best to 
l)e done, whether we should put in an answer into the Council, 
he told me the Nabob was so irritated that there was no other 
method of pacifying him but to surrender up my riglit quietly : 
that the Nabob had thoughts even of taking away the grant 
of the village that was allowed for the support of Ramaniaka's 

(1) The number of silver fanams to the gold pagoda varied with the exch.ange. 
At this iieriod it was 42. 

(-' Peons, olTicc-attoudants, orderlies, fooL-soldirrs, froui Port. peao. 

(3) Conicopli/, an accountant, from Tarn, kanakka, writing, and piJlai, person. 

21 [No. 16 

cliaritv flioullr\0 at Cliecrecoad, and that it was with dillicultv 
he (Mr. Boiirchier) dis[s]uaded hini I'roin it. . . . 

'' Th(> dianioiul business is growing worse and worse every 
day, and if the Gentlemen in England don't stoj) |the] making 
of remittanees,'-' they wdll lose a great deal. The prices at 
Moonimadgoo is risen since the purchase for last ship, and the 
demand for diamonds increases daily. Goeuh'^' laughs when 
he is asked for the 5,000 pagodas oi' diamonds he promised 
you to give Mr. Morse lor this ship, nor can Mr. Morse have 
any remedy whilst he [isj supported by gentlemen in station. 
Diamonds are carried now to Bengal and Surat, as there are 
people now who purchase at those places for Europe. 

" We desire you w'ill recommend us to your friends in power 
here that we may always have their protection. We wish only 
to live a quiet life. Please to present our humble respects 
to Mrs. Palk. We are very gratefully, Sir, your most obliged 
and obedient humble servants, 


" Rama Kisna." 

{Holograph of Rama Kisna, 5| pp., Uo.] 

[No. 17.] 
George Vansittart to Rob[ert] Palk, Esqr. 

17G7, March 16th. Calcutta. — " Dear Palk, Inclosed is a 
duplicate of my letter of the 15th of February. A strong 
north-east wind detained us at Madras from the 20th to the 
27th. We arrived here the day before yesterday, and the 
day after to-morrow I set out for Midnapoor, where I shall 
be very w^ell contented to remain quiet and undisturbed 
for some years. I believe I may be saved the trouble of a 
trip to I^urope even if their honours in Leadenhall Street 
should take it into their heads to dismiss me in consequence of 
our last year's rebellion ; for I ha^'e been positively assured 
by people who I should think must know' that in such case the 
Conmiittee will recommend me to be reinstated, and in the 
mean while continue me in the service till their further pleasure 
can be received. I am at present on perfectly good terms with 
all our rulers, and intend to adopt some of your prudential 

" What with 30,000 rupees which we have lent to Russell, 
and the 20,000 which we are to pay to Robin, your balance 
will be but a trifle. We shall keep it in our own hands at 
8 per cent, till we have a good opportunity of remitting it. 

" My love to Mrs. Palk and the little ones. Yours affection- 
ately, George Vansittart." 
[Holograph, 2 1 pp., Uo.] 

(1) Choultry, a shelter for travellers, from Tel. chavadi, a hall, shed. 

(2) A common mode of making private remittances from India was liy means 
of diamonds. 

(3) Gokal Tarvadi, diamond merchant, Cf No. 20. 


[No. 18.J 

Mrs. Rebecca Casamaijor'^' to Robert Palk, Esqr. 
[Endorsed in Palk's hand] " Mrs. Casamayor." 

1767, March 16th. Fort St. George.—" My dear Sir, As 
no distance of place can ever decrease the respect, esteem 
and gratitude that is due from me, I hope you will excuse 
the liberty I take in troubling you with a few lines to 
assure you of my ardent wishes that it may salute you 
in your native land after a short and pleasant voyage in 
health and a continuance of all other blessings. I suppose 
by this time you have reached the Cape or pretty near it, and 
hope Mrs. Palk and the little ones will be much benefited by 
its fine air and all other refreshments. As you, dear Sir, have so 
great a number of friends to write you all occur[r]cnccs, I shall 
only mention, what 1 know will give you pleasure, that our 
new Governor*-* goes on very well under the weight of go^•crn- 
ment, in great spirits, and with much polit[e]ness and chear- 
fulness entertaining his friends and company. I hope he will 
continue in health and strength to acquit himself to the satis- 
faction of all his well wishers. Gi^•e me leave to present my 
son's<^' best respects, and that I am, with all acknowledgments 
and regard, dearest Sir, your affectionate and much obliged 
humble servant, 

" Rebecca Casamaijor." 
[Holograph, Ih p., 4^o.] 

[No. 19.] 

[Colonel] John Call*** to Robert Palk, Esqr. Duplicate. 

1767, March, 19th. IMadras.— " My dear Friend, As I 
persuaded myself you will impatiently expect to hear of the 
progress of the Confederacy against Hydre Ally, so I take up 
the pen with the greater pleasure to give you the state of 
our military as well as civil transactions since you left us. 

(I' IJohecca Casaiiiaijoi-, daughtef t>f Caj)(. .loliu Powiioy, maslor marim-i', was 
the widow of Noah Casamaijor, a supercargo at Madras in 17:{2, who in 1711 was 
appointed to the office of Accountant, and, after rising to tlic tank of Factor, died 
in 17 1(). . 

('^) Charles IJourehicr. 

(•5) James llc-nry Casamaijor, wlio ciilcied tlie Madras civil service in 17()2, 
<anil was second of Council in 17S!i. 

(■*) John Call, member of a Cornish family, l)egan his Indian career in 1751 as 
an assistant to Benjamin Robins, F. R.S., I'higineor (leneral, and was gradetl as a 
civil servant. Working Mrst on the .St. David Itirlilications, \w succeeded Captain 
•lohii Hroliier in 1757 as I-^ngineer at h'ort St. Cicorge. lie developctl and extended 
tlie latter fort, and was largely resj)onsili|e for its successful defence during l^ally's 
siege of 1758-5U. He was then given military rank as Captain, and laid out the 
western extension of tlie White Town. In 17(31 he conducted the siege of 
Pondicherry, and became Engineer in Chief in India. In 1702 he was in the Madras 
Council, and two y(>ai's later was present at the siege of Madiu-a. In 17()S he was 
one of the I'McId i)ej)uties witii the army. He retired to England as Colonel in 
177U, became a tuember of p;»rliament in 1781, was elected a Fellow of the Iloyal 
Society, and in 17U1 was created a baronet. 

23 [No. 19 

" ^'e^}• boon after Colonel Sniith'^' arrived at Eiderabad, 
"vvhieh was the 15th or 16th January, the Subah'^* pitehed his 
tents without the city, and in a few days proceeded towards 
the Kistnah, which he crossed the 18th ultimo, having spent 
some time in settling with the Polygars''^' on his route. The 
19th Captain James Fitzgerald's battalion and Lieut. Povery's 
detachment joined Colonel Smith, who had been very uneasy 
at the delay of our troops ; but he will be obliged to wait 
nuich longer for those from the Circars, because it was found 
necessary to reduce the Zemindars*^' of Peddapore and Samil- 
cotah, which kept Major Thomas Fitzgerald's detachment 
till the loth February, and the 9th instant he was only advanced 
as iar as Sangaverum near Eiderabad, so that it will be the 25th 
instant or perhaps the end of the month before he can possibly 
join the Subah, who on the 26th ultimo was just entering the 
country of Adony. The troops from hence and Vellore were 
delayed in the beginning of February by exceeding heavy 
rain, which laid all the country under water and made it the 
18tli February before they joined at Lalapett. From thence 
they were to cross into the Cadapah country at a pass called 
Mungalpettah, but having been disappointed of provisions 
from Arcott, it was the 11th instant before they crossed the 
hills, and they are now only near Cadapah, from whence you 
may judge it will be the end of the month before they can join 
the Su ball's army. 

" Mahadarow*^) with his Marattas was early in motion and 
made very rapid advances to the southward, so that his troops 
entered the country of Adony and begun to plunder it by the 
end of January. After some threats and a little burning and 
fighting, which we suppose was by the Subah's connivance, 
Bazalet Jing"^' settled with Mahadarow, and the Marattas 
proceeded towards Sera.**^) One of Hydre Ally's Generals met 
them with a considerable body of horse, but he was defeated, 
made prisoner, and all his guns and baggage taken. Another 
smaller body met the like fate, and the Marattas by the last 
accounts we had were besieging Sera or Sirpi with their main 
body, while the rest scampered all over the country. Hydra 

(1) General Joseph Smith, son of Mr. Joseph Smith, who was Gunner and 
Engineer of Fort St. George in 1744, entered the Madras service as Ensign in 
1719. In 1757 he defended Trichinopoly against d'Auteuil, and was promoted 
JMajor in ITlJf). As Brigadier-General he commanded the Madras Army almost 
cimliiiuously from 1767 to 1775, conducting the campaigns against Ilaidar AH 
and the Raja of Tanjore, and the expedition of 1772 against tlie Maravars. lie 
retired to Kngland in 1775. 

(-) The Subah, the ruler of the Deccan, Nizam Ali Khan. The word signifies 
a province, but it was commonly used for subahdar, the ruler of a provuice. 

(3) Poh/i/ars, local cliiefs, the descendants of the old Xaiks. 

W Ze in in da IS, important landholders. 

(5) Miidhu Kao, fourth Peshwa, 1761 — 1772. 

(6) Basalat Jang, brother of the Nizam. Although the Northern C'ircai's had 
been granted to the Company by the Mogul in 1765, it was arranged in 1768 that 
Basalat Jang should hold Guntur for life. 

(7) Sira, formerly capital of a province of the same name, S.E. of Chitaldrug iu 
Mysore. It passed from Haidar to the Marathas, but was reduced by Tipu in 177 I. 

No. 19] 24 

Ally during all this time is at Syringapatani, cither collecting 
his forces or endevoring to compromise matters for money. 
The latter, it is said, will take place, because it is not the inten- 
tion either of the Marattas or the Subah to remain on this side 
the Kistnah longer than the month of May. 

" Allarmed at the apprehension of this event, and that all 
our project will be frustrated, we are going to send James 
Bourchier'^^ to make representations both to the Subah and 
Mahadarow how impossible it is to effect the overthrow of 
Hydre Ally in any year if they only cross the River Kistnah 
in January and recross it in May. For Hydre Ally, aware of 
this, need only garrison the places in the Sera Country and those 
of his late conquest north of the ancient Mysore country, and 
keeping behind Syringapatam with his main body, will never 
have any thing to apprehend but the burning and ruining part 
of the open country. Whereas if we proceed hand in hand 
and continue our operations during the whole year, there is 
no doubt but the expedition may be accomplished. Mr. 
Bourchier is also to endevor to bring about a formal Treaty 
between the Subah and Mahadarow, for which I lateh^ drew 
out the enclosed reflections and articles.'-* This Treaty 
we esteem absolutely necessary, for we cannot discover that 
any agreement at present subsists, and it is said that the 
Marattas proceeds on in the manner they do that they may 
have the first plundering of the country and possession of what 
places they can take. This is a system that must bring on 
disputes, and will save Hydre Ally if not prevented. 

" The Marattas, it seems, are jealous of the large force we 
are sending to the Subah, and from the delay of our troops 
conclude we never meant heartily to enter into the operations 
against Hydre Ally. In a conversation yesterday with the 
Maratta Vakeel*'^' Mr. Bourchier endevored to remove that 
opinion, and assured him it was so much our intention to pro- 
ceed to the utmost extremitys against Hydre Ally that if 
Mahadarow would either continue himself on this side the Kist- 
nah during the year, or leave Gopali Harry'-^' with 10,000 horse, 
we would do all we could to persuade the Subah to ])crsist, 
and exert our utmost efforts to expell Hydre Ally from the 
Mysore country. The Vakeel seemed much pleased with the 
assurance, and declared his master wished for nothing so nnich 
as to continue the expedition with us, and he would immediately 
acquaint hijn of our resolutions. 

" Thus stand affairs at present, and the jjrospect of accom- 
plishing our views in the ruia of Hydre Ally is very unpromising. 

(1' Jiininf? Mdiiffliioi', brothor of Governor Charles Bournliicr, onlored (ho Madras 
civil servi(te in 1 751 . Ten years later he was a Prize Commissary after the cai)ture 
of Pondicherry, and in 17(58 was a member of Council. He left India with his 
brother in January, 1770. 

(2) Vide infra p. 31 et seq. 

(3) Vakeel, agent, envoy. 

(•*) Gopal Ilari Pant, the Peshwa* Conmiander-in-Chief. 

25 [No. 19 

The SubaJi alTcct.s to say that the reason so httle lias been done 
is owing to the dehiy of our troops, which he expeeted would 
have joined liini tlie beginning of February ; that therefore 
notliing can be done this year, and it will be better to take a 
sum of money for the present, and return again early next 
year on a better plan of operations. To this it may justly be 
answered that unless the troops employed against Hydre 
.Vliy continue their operations the whole year, it will be im- 
possible to remove him from the Mysore government, because 
he has nothing to do but put good garrisons in his frontier 
places and avoid a battle with his main body. Three or four 
months \sill then soon be spent, and there ends all his fears. 
AVhereas if Sera, Chinnabollarum, Eengalure and the other 
countries and places north of the Mysore country be first 
taken, and the united forces proceed in a body to Syringa- 
patam, Hydre Ally must either try his fortune in the field or 
lose the capital, and therewith all his power and influence. 
I shall only add that we shall use every argument we can 
suggest to induce the Subali and Mahadarow, either in person 
or by part of their troops, to continue the campaign during 
the whole year ; and if we find they are determined to return 
in May, we must take care not to let our expences exceed the 
money agreed to be paid the Subah, and we shall know better 
what dependance to place on such Allys hereafter. To say 
that the Nabob<^* hath contributed all in his power by sugges- 
tions and jealousys to break our connections with the Subah 
would be ad\'ancing what I have no proof of, but if one may 
judge from conversation and appearances, he certainly does 
all he can to disgust us with Nizam Ally, and to bring about a 
closer alliance with the Marattas, in hopes, I suppose, by their 
means to share in the conquests to be made on Hydre Ally. 
However, he will be mistaken, for except the country of Dinde- 
gull and other places on this side the hills, he never shall have 
possession of any other while I can help it. 

" The disturbances in the Tinnevelly count rys still continue. 
Major Flint, <^' after taking two heavy guns from Polamcotah 
and a quantity of stores proper for a siege, marched against 
the Etavaram Polygar, w^hich lays near Yeypar on the east 
of that province. He breached the Fort and assaulted it, but 
w^as again repulsed with loss. He then determined to blockade 
it, but the Polygars making a sally in the night and being 
roughly treated, they abandoned that place, Pannyallum 
Crutch and Veypur, and fled no one knows where ; at least 
we shall probably hear no more of them till our troops are 
recalled. On the west side of the province the rebell Polygars 
are still very numerous and in possession of many places, such 
as Shatore, Rajapollam, Collangoody and Nadcutch, so that 
while they remain there is no chance of peace. Considering 

(1) Nawab Walajah. 

(2) William- Flint, sen., held the rank of Colonel in 1775. 

No. 19] 26 

therefore that keeping Major FKnt's party always in the field, 
and that party not being sufficient to crush the rebells or 
protect the country, ^^•ill not only incurr a considerable expence, 
but the Nabob will still suffer the loss of great part of his 
revenues, we have resolved to send 200 Europeans more to 
join Major Flint's party, some sepoys and guns, intending 
that the whole shall be 400 military with 6 guns and 2,000 
sepoys of the Company's, besides the Nabob's troops and the 
Auxiliarys of Tanjore, Tondeman 'i' and the Maraw^ar. '^^ 
Donald Campbell, (-^^ as the next eldest officer to Colonel Smith, 
is to command, and part of his regiment is gone from Vellore. 
The Nabob has been very pressing for this party to be sent, and 
by some hints occasionally let fall he seems to have in view 
the quarrelling with the two Maraw^ars''*' and taking their 
country. However, to prevent such a measure he has been 
positively told that while he keeps Madurah it is necessary 
these people should be his friends, and Donald Campbell has 
instructions not to enter the Marawar country under any 
pretence, nor suffer any of their places to be attacked. His 
operations are to be confined to the rebell Polygars, and these 
he is directed to extirpate, to demolish every fort, to make 
severe examples of those he takes, and to establish a canton- 
ment in such jDart between Madurah and Polamcotah as will 
best answer the purpose of keeping the country in peace. 
Donald's knowledge of these parts and the honesty of his 
disposition will answer our purpose in sending him, and soon 
put an end to the troubles. 

" About the middle of last month the Nabob came to the 
Fort, and having desired to speak to Mr. Bourchier and me, 
confessed to us that he was quite tired with troubles raised and 
complaints made to him every day by his managers in the 
country s of Warriarpollam and Arielore. He therefore desired 
that we would again take those places under the Company's 
protection and raise another battalion of sepoys out of his 
troops at these places for the defence of them, but to be com- 
manded, disciplined and paid by the Company, though made 
good at the end of the year by him. He then said he w'ould 
withdraw or dismiss the rest of his troops, and leave the 
suppressing Polygars and establishing peace and security 
entirely to us, in which he said he hoped the King of Tanjore 
would give more effectual and ready assistance. As we hoped 
a tryal made of these plans of reconciling the Nabob's manage- 
ment of the revenues with our command of the forces might 

(1) Tondinian was the designation of the ruler of a small territory, now the 
Pudukottai State, lying immediately south of Trinchinopoly. 

(2) Marairar, the ruler of the Marava country. His territory lay on the coast 
south of TanjoiM' and cast of Madura, its cliief (own ln'ing llamniid. 

(^) Donald (,'aiu|il)cll, lirothor of Colonel Cliarlos Campbell, was present at the 
fii-st siege of Madura in 17(>:5. He conducted tlic campaign of 1767 against the 
rebel Poligars of Madura and Tinnevelly, and subsequently served in the first 
Mysore war. 

(*) The Great and Little Marawars, of Raninad and Kalaiyarkoil respectively. 

27 [No. 19 

induce liim to come more readily into the same measure for 
the Tinnevelly country, and by degrees dismiss all his sepoys, 
or at least turn over the best of them to the Company, we very 
willingl}- agreed to his proposal and have chosen C'aj)tain 
]\Iathews*^> with two subaltern|s] of the best dispositions and 
characters to form this new battalion, to be called the 16th, 
and to settle the country. Captain Mathews has very 
l^articular instructions for his behavior, and is fully acquainted 
of our hopes and views, and we have such an opinion of his 
honor and good temper that we flatter ourselves we shall 
be able to convince the Nabob that good men under proper 
orders are capable of protecting instead of injuring his affairs. 

" After much trouble and some altercation with the creditors, 
we got the form of a general Assignment and new bonds agreed 
to, and having collected in all the outstanding bonds and 
calculated the interest to the 31st January, new bonds were 
made out for e\'en sums of money, and all the odd pagodas, 
fanams and cash*-' paid off, so that we find the Nabob's real 
debt to his private creditors the 1st January, 1767, amounts 
to 55,800 Porto Novo and 22,29,650 Star Pagodas. <-^» To 
discharge this the Nabob has engaged that his Naib<^' at Areott 
shall remit us from certain countrys during this year 8 Lacks '5' 
of pagodas, and that the King of Tanjore shall pay us his 
tribute, so that we are to have above 9 lacks of pagodas. All 
this is very well, but three months of the year are nearly 
elapsed and not one single pagoda is yet come to our hands, 
nor can I say when these will. The Gentlemen from Bengali 
who are creditors write in very strange terms, and tax the 
Council here with having been very arbitrary and gone much 
beyond the Company's orders, and add that they are allowed 
by the regulations there to take the usual interest till the 
30th April, and after that 12 per cent., which they expect to 
have, or else demand immediate payment of their money. 
This is very fine in speculation : I may as well insist on it that 
I should have 8 per cent, for my money in England because I 
liv^e at [a] place where it is the common rate of interest. And 
as to demanding their money, why every body else would do 
so could they get it. It is necessity that has pointed out the 
present regulation to put every body on a footing, and not 
any orders of the Council, and I do firmly believe that all the 

(1) Richard Mathews served in the first Mysore war, and commanded al I lie 
attack of the hill fort of Mull)agal in 1768. In 1783, when Brigadier General in 
Malahar, he was besieged by Tipu at Bednore. The place surrendered after a 
protracted defence, and Mathews was taken to Seringapatani, wlierc lie died in 

(2) The Cash was a coin of account, 80 going to the silver fancini. 'riie Paijodu 
at this period contained 42 fanams. The smnjlest copper coin stitick appears to 
have had the value of 4 cash of account. 

(■^' The Star Paijoda, first struck in 1741, was a gold coin with tlie device of a 
star on the reverse. Its stoi-ling value was about 8s. The Porto Novo Pagoda 
was coined by the Xawal) and was of lower weight and value. 

(*) Naib, deputy. 

f5) Lack, lakh. 100,000. 

No. 19] 28 

Avise heads in India could not have devised a more equitable 
or simple method than we have established. The Nabob now 
knows what he owes and to whom (which he never did before) 
and every body knows hoAv much he owes and the measures 
taken to pay off his debts fairly and equally to all as the money 
comes in. We keep an open diary of our proceedings and a 
regular sett of books open to the inspection of every creditor, 
so that the most obstinate may be convinced of the justice 
that is done them. 

" The Nabob has sent part of his baggage to the Mount*^' 
and proposes to leave us about the 23rd instant. It is high 
time he was gone, for he never will be easy himself nor let 
others be so while he stays here and listens to every tale that 
is brought him. Nazeabeaur Cawn<^' has been playing some 
tricks at court, and he has got the Subah to forbid the Nabob's 
Vakeel from going to the Durbar or from going near Colonel 
Smith. This same chap too affects to assume the management 
of all our affairs, and lets Colonel Smith know just what he 
pleases. The Nabob is much displeased at this, and begs we 
will get him removed, for he will otherwise spoil all his and our 
affairs. The fifth lack is not yet gone either in bills or money, 
nor do I hear when it is to go. 

" Lewin Smith'-^* hath recovered half the old ballances from 
Hussein Ally, and therewith supplyed the northern factorys 
with Madrass pagodas, (^> which we cannot get here at any rate. 
He is now at Setteavaram settling with Sittaramrauze,<°' 
but it seems that chap is very untractable, and does not seem 
inclineable to pay even two lacks of pagodas for the Chicacole 
Circars. The first point Lewin sticks on is bills for the 3rd 
Kist"'' of last year, and he says he hopes to get them in a day 
or two. Then he will proceed to the conditions of this year. 
Sittaramrauz wants assistance to reduce more Zemindars. 
This we are determined not to giyc, for the more powerful he 
is made by our means the more troublesome he will prove to 
us hereafter, and I think I see already that he must be reduced 
next year or the latter end of this. 

(1) St. Thomas's Mount, a hill 8 miles S.W. of Madras, capped by an ancient 
Portuguese cliapel, is the reputed original burial place of St. Thomas. The East 
India Company cstalilished a garden-house at the Mount in 1685, and the place 
became a sanatorium and holiday resort. From 1770 it was the headquarters of 
the Madras Artillery. 

(2) Najib Yar Khan. 

(3) John Lewin Smith entered the Madras civil service in 1752, and two yeare 
later was a momljcr of the Vizagapatam Council. He accompanied the expedition 
of Cornish and Draper to ilanila in 17G2asone of tlie Company's representatives. 
In 17()7 he was serving as Chief at Masulipatam. 

(4) The Old Madras Pagoda bore figures of Vishnu and his two wives on the 
obverse, and had a granulated reverse. It was replaced by the M.M. Pagoda in 
1730, which gave way in its turn to the Star Pagoda. The Old Madras Pagoda 
liowever continued to be struck at Fort St. George for use in the Northern 

(^) Sitaram Raz was a powerful Zemindar of Chicacole in the Northern Circars, 
who tyrannized over his weaker brethren. 
(6) Kist, Ar., instalment of revenue. 

29 [No. 19 

" We have made Bandarnialanka'^' an independant factory 
of Maziilipatani, and given Wliiteliill*-' leave to send one of 
the servant[s] to Madapolhmi in h()])e.s of getting more cloth. 
Sulivan'-^* is gone with liim as an assistant. Charles or James 
Bonrchier will tell yon a long story of the Vizagapatam Invest- 
ment. I fear that part of the CmnderVs cargoe is in the same 
condition ; if so, it may spoil the sale of all the other goods ; 
therefore it should he hinted to the Directors to examine the 
Vizagapatam bales. Tlie discovery has retarded the dispatch 
of the ship mnch, and given us abundance of trouble, for some 
of the Council attend every day to examine every bale and 
every piece. Nor is this all the inconvenience we have to 
apprehend, for many other bales from the nortlnvard not 
being arrived, w^e fear we shall not have tonnage enough for 
the Pigot. 

" We have yet received no further news of our Manilla ship, 
nor of the sepoys from Zoloo.^*' The Minerva from Pegu is 
just come into the road, but I cannot say what kind of voyage 
she is likely to make. The Szvan, after many perils and adven- 
tures, got safe to Malacca, and from thence sailed to the Malabar 
coast, where, we hear, she arrived the middle of January, and 
Will Powney<^' was then very well. The Devonshire'' s packet 
and recruits were landed at Anjengo and sent to Palamcotah, 
from whence we received our letters, and among them several 
for you, which Mr. Morse took in charge. This ship w^as at 
anchor in our road during part of the gale of wind, and suffered 
much in the masts and rigging, so that she was obliged to bear 
away for Galle after trying to reach Madrass again. 

" I have now written all the publick news I can recollect. 
As for private anecdotes I have none but such as you will have 
elsewhere, especially of George, <•'* who left us about three weeks 
ago. A sly chap he was never to drop an hint or let me dis- 
cover by any means what he was about. Though I knew it 
very soon, yet we never exchanged a syllable on the subject 
to the time of his embarking from [? for] Bengali. Poor James 

(1) Bandarnialanka. Vide No. 69, p. 94, note 2. 

(2) John Whitehill entered the -Madras civil service in 1752, and was one of 
the Prize Commissaries for Pondicherry in 1761. When Chief at Masulipatam in 
1776 he visited England, and on his return in the following year found himself 
provisional Governor pending Thomas Kumbold's arrival. He again acted as 
Governor in 1780 until suspended l)y the Governor General for disobedience. 

(3> John Sulivan was one of three brothers who served in Madras. The eldest, 
Benjamin, arrived in India as a barrister in 1777, and was appointed successively 
Government Advocate, Attorney General, and a Judge of the High Court. The 
second brother, John, entered the civil service in 1765, successfully tendered in 
1771 for the erection of the Madras Arsenal and new Hospital, and afterwards 
served at Masulipatam and Tanjore. From 1801 to 1805 he was Under Secretary 
.for War at home, and he survived until 1839. His younger brother, Richard 
Joseph, became a Writer in 1768, was afterwards Secretary in the Military Depart- 
nient at Fort St. George, and was created a baronet in 1804. 

(■*' Zoloo, Sulu, a group of islands in the Kastern Archipelago, whither Alexander 
Dalrymple had been sent in 1762, to open up trade with Madras. 

(5) Vide No. 10, p. 14, notei2. 

(6) George Vansittart and James Bonrchier both souglit the hand of Miss Sarah 
Stonhouse. The lady accepted Vansittart. 

No. 19] 30 

was greatly hurt at first, and is still very dolorous, though he 
declares he will not think of any closer connection. 

" Government seems to set very easy on our Friend. He is 
very desirous of making every boddy happy, and of pleasing. 
I ease him as much as possible of all military plans and details, 
and indeed I am never happier than when I can be of use to 
him or the publick. I shall be perfectly easy till I hear from 
you or see Mr. Du Pre<^' arrive, and then I shall consider about 
returning to England, but I Avill do nothing rashly. My concerns 
in the Nabob's hands will keep me at least till the end of next 
year, let what will happen, for I must get home some more 

" Lord Clive writes me, just as he was preparing to embark, 
that he should endevor to send Dupre to Bengali if he was not 
appointed to this place before his Lordship got home. For 
my part I am as indifferent about it as ever I was about any 
event of my life, and I think I should rather rejoice than repine 
at a good reason for going home. 

" I hope you have found England every thing you expected 
or could wish it. Perhaps the introduction of Mr. Pitt — I 
should sa}' Lord Chatham — and Lord Shelbourne to the Ministry 
may have brought JMr. Sulivan'-> again into the direction, and 
consequently Mr, Van.'"^' I wish all my friends well and 

(1) Josias Du Pr^, son of the Company's Secretary of the same name, entered 
the Madras civil service as Factor in 1752 at the advanced age of 31. He served 
as Secretary and Solicitor to Government, and in 1761 was Tenth of Council and 
Import AVarehousekeeper. After a period spent in England, during which he 
married Rebecca, sister of James Alexander of the civil service, he returned to 
Madras in 1768 as second member of Council. He negotiated the jDeace of 1769 
with Haidar Ali at St. Thomas's Mount, and in January, 1770, succeeded Mr. 
Bourchier in the chair. His period of office was marked by a great development 
of the fortifications and buildings of the Presidency town, by improvement in the 
pay and position of the Company's ser%'ants, and by difficult relations with the 
Xawal) resulting from the action of the Crown. Du Pre resigned in February, 
177.'), and retui'ned to England to reside at Wilton Park, Bucks. 

(-) Laurence Sulivan was appointed a Factor in the Bombay civil service in 
1741. Ten yeai'S later he entered Council, but returned to England in 1752 on 
account of ill-health. In 1755 he was elected a Director of the Company and 
served four years, l>ecoining Deputy Chairman in 1757 and Chairman in 1758. 
Thereafter he was repeatedly re-elected to tlie Directorate, and he held office as 
Deputy Chairman in 1763, 1772 and 1780, and as Chairman in 1760, 1761 and 1781. 
From 1760 h(» was in conflict with Clive's party, who opposed his great influence 
(111 Indian iiolicy. When invited by a resolution of the Court of Proprietors to 
I'd urn to India, Clive made his acceptance conditional on Sidivan's exclusion from 
the Chaii'inanshii) in 17til. From 1765 to 1768 Svdivan was out of the Direction, 
but his impecunious circumstances and love of power impelled him to bid for office 
again and again. He was on good terms with Hastings, and was an intimate 
friend of Robert Palk. Sulivan sat as M.P. for Taunton from 1762 to 1768, and 
for Ashburlon from 1768 to 1774. He died in February, 178(5. 

(■5) Henry X'ansitlart, son of Arthur Vansittart of Shollesbrook, Berks (whose 
daughter Anne married Robert Palk) was born in 1732. His mother was a daughter 
of Sir John Stonhouse, Bt. Apjjointed to the Madras civil service at the age of 
thii-teen, Vansittart ai'rived at Fort St. David in 1746, narrowly escaping captm-e 
ofl" Madi-as, which had lie(>n taken by the French. He studied Persian assiduously, 
and rai'ly in 1751, when Secretary and Translator at Fort St. George, he joined (he 
Rev. Roller) I'alk in a mission to Sadras to confer with the French regarding a 
siispension of iiostilif ies.' In the following December he accompanied Palk lo 
Pondicheri'y in connexion \vi( h 1 he Treaty of Peace with the French. In the same 

31 [No. 19 

happy, and I know of none wlio partake more sincerely of my 
best wishes than you and Mrs. Palk, to whom I desire my most 
respeetful comphments, hope all the little family is well, and 
desire you will believe me, my dear Sir, your most oblige[d] 
and affectionate 

" John Call." 
[Autograph, 21 f pp., 4to.] 


[Memorandum by Colonel John Call.] 

" We are now entering on a very interesting and expensive 
expedition, but the expence will be well laid out if the grand 
object can be accomplished. This object is the entire overthrow 
of Hydre Ally Cawn, who has usurped the government of the 
Maysore country, and being at the head of a large body of 
forces, in possession of a considerable treasure and revenues, 
and ambitious of extending his conquests, appears ready to 
take the first opportunity of invading the Carnatick and dis- 
turbing the tranquility of that part of the country which it is 
our principal care and interest to maintain and preserve in 

" The Marattas, it is imagined, are equally desirous of reducing 
Hydre Ally's power, and fortunately for us Nizam Ally Cawn, 
Subah of the Decan, hath desired that the assistance of our 
troops, which we are bound by treaty to give him, shall 
immediately be employed for the same purpose. Nothing 
could tally more exactly with our own interest and inclination 
at this juncture ; and though we ought to be exceeding cautious 
how we contribute to aggrandize the power of the Marattas, 
yet as it is not possible for us to act against them in conjunction 
with the Presidency of Bengal, agreeable to Lord Clive's grand 
plan of reducing the Maratta power in general, till we have 
reduced Hydre Ally and secured peace to the Carnatick while 
we are employed elsewhere, so on this occasion we must tem- 
porise and seem to fall in with the views of the Marattas, who 
are the avowed and natural enemies of Hydre Ally. 

" The grand point we have to obtain at the first setting out 
is to bring about a formal Treaty between the Subah and 
]\Iarattas, by which the pretensions of each party may be 
ascertained, and the disposition of the conquered countries 
fixed. For unless this is done it is hardly possible that 
two powers acting from different motives and independent 

year he had married EmeUa, daughter of Nicholas Morse, hite Governor of Madras. 
He was a member of Mr. Pigot's Council in 1758, and in the following year was 
nominated Governor of Bengal in succession to Clive. \'ansittart assumed office 
in July, 1760, and ruled Bengal until 1764, when he returned to England. He 
purchased a house at Greenwich and property in Berkshire. Entering Parliainent 
in 1768, ho was elected a Director of the K;ist India Company in 1769, and was 
appointed one of tliree Commissioners to effect reforms in India. Tlic 
Commissioners sailed in the Aurora in September, 1760, and the ship was never 
heard of after she left the Cape in December. 

No. 19] 32 

of each other should persist in the prosecution of an enterprise 
where many events may be expected to embroil them with 
each other, or to divert one of thein from the undertaking. 
With us it is quite different : we only seek to procure tranquility 
for the possessions we have, and we think that point cannot be 
obtained while Hydre Ally Cawn continues to govern the 
Mysore country. No offers, no concessions, no opposition 
ought to divert us from our purpose if it can be effected : on 
the other hand we had better never engage in it unless we can 
make sure of our Allys and fix them steady in the same pursuit. 

" The Subah, it may be supposed, will be the most easily 
prevailed on to abandon the expedition, provided Hydre Ally 
makes large offers of inoney, because the Subah's treasury is 
quite empty, and there is a strong party at his court, w^ho, 
actuated by the same motive, will plead strongly in favor of 
Hydre Ally. Should we discover this to be the case, and the 
Marattas continue firm, we must endevor to form a closer 
connection with them, for it may be regarded as certain that 
with their assistance the object of the expedition may be 
accomplished though the Subah should not take any part therein. 
Nay, more, it is highly probable that the Subah, seeing us and 
the Marattas determined to persist, will rather fall in with our 
views than risque the loss of his importance by withdrawing 
from the Alliance. 

" But should the Marattas, either by the force of money or 
from a political motive founded on the apprehensions they may 
entertain of ours and the Subah's designs against them after 
the downfall of Hydre Ally is effected, be induced to accom- 
modate matters with Hydre Ally, and, while the Subah is 
engaged on the expedition, form designs on any part of the 
Decan or threaten the Carnatick with an invasion, it is beyond 
a doubt that we shall be obliged to relinquish the enterprise. 
This event then is to be guarded against by every precaution 
we can suggest, and in order to accomplish the establishing 
a Treaty, as well as to reconcile all jcalousys and apply in 
time proper argimicnts to prevail on both parties to adopt our 
sentiments, it appears highly necessary that some person of 
conse(jucnce sliould be scut to attend the Subah and Mahadarow 
while Colonel Smith is engaged in his military operations, who 
by his address and attention to e\"ery turn and event may 
manage both parties in such a manner as to keep them steady 
in prosecuting imanimouslv the expedition against Hvdre 

" One maxim must be laid down as positive and without 
deviation (viz.) That as httle territorial possession as possible 
be ceded to the Marattas, and in case the cession of some part 
cannot be avoided, then it should be in that part of Hydre 
Ally's possessions most remote from the Carnatick, that they 
mav not become our neiohbours. To obviate anv discontent 
on this head, a larger sum of ready money nmst be given by 

33 [No. 19 

the Siibali, and the future Choutc"' be engaged to be punetually 

" On these principles it is to be wished that the following 
articles could be agreed to between the Subah and the JVIarattas 
under our guarantee. 

" 1st. The contracting Powers, assisted by the English 
forces, shall nuitually and vigorously act in conjunction against 
Hydre Ally Cawn till he falls in action, is made a prisoner, or 
quits the government of the Maysore country and all other 
countries he has usurped ; and neither party shall withdraw 
their forces or make a separate peace without the consent 
and approbation of the other party. 

" 2nd. Whatever forts or towns may be taken during the 
course of the expedition shall be garrisoned and kept by the 
Subah's troops till disposed of as hereafter stipulated ; and 
in case any treasure is found therein or otherwise taken, it 
should be equally divided between the contracting parties. 

" 3rd. When Syringajiatam is taken and the country of 
Mysore entirely reduced, the government of it shall be restored 
to the ancient family of the Rajah upon their agreeing to pay 

annually a tribute or peshcush'-' to the Subah of lacks of 


" 4th. The country dependant on Sera or Sirpi being an 
ancient domain of the Subah of the Decan, he shall be at 
liberty to appoint whom he pleases to the government thereof, 
and fix the peshcush at what sum he thinks proper. 

" 5th, The country lately conquered by Hydre Ally Cawn 
from the Queen of Biddanore shall be given up (if it cannot be 
avoided) to the Marattas, to be by them restored to the late 
family that governed, on such terms as the}' can agree on. 

" 6th. All the other countrys and districts on the Malabar 
coast conquered by Hydre Ally shall be restored to the late 
possessors on such conditions as the Subah shall think proper ; 
unless under this article the Subah, in return for the services 
we may have rendered him, shall so manage that the English 
Company may have certain grants and privileges near Calicut, 
Tillichery, Onor,'^' or at other places most convenient for their 

" 7th. The country of Bangalure, that of Chinnaballabaram, 
and that formerly possessed by Mararow'^' near Cadapanattam'"'' 
shall be disposed of as the Subah shall think proper, and the 
peshcush to be paid for them shall be settled by him. 

" 8th. The country of Dindegul shall be restored and ceded 

(1) Choute, tribute levied by the Marathas of one-fourth of the revenue ; from 
Mar. chauth, a fourth part. 

(-' Peshcush, tril)ute ; from Pers. pesh-Kashlv, to place before (a person), to offer. 

(3) Onnr, Honavar, a port on the Malal);u' const. 

f-^' Mo-ari Rao, a Maratha freebooter, Cliicf of Gooty, served as a niei'conary 
in 1750-51, sometimes with, l)ut generally against the British. He declared himself 
independent, but was compelled to submit to the Peshwa. 

(•'*' Kadapanattam, (iO miles west of Volloi-e, 


No. 19] 34 

in perpetuity to the Nabob of the Carnatick as a dependance 
on Trichinapoly, and all the countrys on the east of the hills, 
such as Ahture, Chilnaick, Gegadevy, Yaniambady, &c., and 
all the passes near them, shall be put into the said Nabob's 
hands and ever hereafter be deemed a part of the Carnatick 
Payen Gatte,*^' in consideration of his having paid part of the 
seapoys with the English troops on this expedition. 

" 9th. That part of the country taken by Hydre Ally Cawn 
from the Cudapah Nabob shall be restored to him, and the 
peshcush of that country fixed on reasonable terms, provided 
he assists with all his troops on the expedition. 

" 10th. A provision of some country, either what he at 
present holds, or elsewhere to a larger amount, shall be made 
for jNIararow in consideration of his services, if he assists against 
Hydre Ally. 

" 11th. Bazalet Jing and the Nabob of Canoul shall acknow- 
ledge the Subah's sovereignty over the countrys they now hold, 
shall always be obedient to him, and pay annually such a sum 
for peshcush as the Subah shall agree to. 

" 12th. In consideration that Mahadarow faithfully agrees 
to all the above articles, and assists the Subah to establish 
his authority over the above countries, he shall be paid at the 

end of the expedition the sum of lacks of rupees, and 

shall receive annuallv from that time as a lawful choute one 
fourth part of all the peshcush the Subah receives from the 
countries south of the Kistnah." 
[10 pp., 4to.] 

[No. 20] 
[Colonel] John Call to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1767, March 21st, Madrass. " My dear Sir, By the Anson 
I have sent you, on your own account and risque, with some 
diamonds of my own and Gocull's*-' 2,000 Pags. worth, the 
produce of which will be paid you by Mr. Cotsford,'" and 
you will also receive herewith a bill at 8s. 9d. the pagoda 
for 1,800£, being an equivalent for Pags. 4, lit 9f. 05c. 
more, which you run the risque of home ; so that your 
whole risque on the Anson is Pags. 6,1 14 9f. 65c., and 
would have been about 8,000 Pags. but that I was obliged 
to spare some to Mr. Morse in retiuni for some he gavG you on 
the Camden. If any more diamonds come in before the Pigot 
sails, which I imagine will be in fifteen days at farthest, I shall 
endcvor to send some on your account, or to get bills. 

" The remains of your money advanced to Gocull for 
diamonds is Pags. 7,885 321'. 15c., which you may be assured 
I will get in diamonds or bills as soon as possible, or make him 

(1) Payen Galie, the territory l)olow the Eastern Ghauts ; from Pers., 
))elo\v, and Hind, ghat, a raiifj;e of liills. 

(2) Gokal Tai'vadi, diaiiinnd im^rcliant. 
(:J) Willian-i C.itsford. 

35 [No. 20 

pay the interest between the dispatch of the Pigot and the 
October ship. 

" The Marattas, it seems, have taken Sera, Meddighery, 
formerly belonging to Morarow, and Rani-beddalure, where 
the Queen of Biddanore was confined, and are now advancing 
to Syringapatani. I only wish they may continue their 
measures, and that we may not quarrell by and bye with them 
to take out of their hands what they thus lay hold of before 
we and the Subah join them. 

" Lewin Smith hath got Soucar'^* bills from Sittaramrauze 
for his third kist of last year amounting to 1§ lack of rupees, 
but he still writes that he is apprehensive he shall not prevail 
on the Rajah to pay two lacks of pagodas for the next year 
without assisting him with troops, which we are utterly against 
and hope to avoid. 

" Mr, Law'-' some time ago returned to Pondichery, and 
the moment he landed put Mr. Bayellan and all or most of the 
Council under an arrest for their very refractory conduct 
during his absence. He brought Nicolas and other Councillors 
back with him to occupy their places, and it is said he is deter- 
mined to send them all home on a ship now ready to be dis- 
patched from Pondichery. We hear they have at present 
no money to advance for an Investment. I can recollect 
nothing more to add but to repeat my assurances of being, 
my dear friend, your very obliged and affectionate 

" John Call." 
[Holograph, 3 pp., 4/o.] 


GocuLL Tarwaddy to Messrs. John Call'^' and William 
CoTSFORD, General Post Office, London. 

" Exchange for £sl800 at 8*. 9rf. and 30 days. 
1767, March 21st, Madrass, " Gentlemen, Thirty days after 
sight of this my second bill of exchange (my first and 
third of the same tenor and date not being paid) and 
upon the safe delivery to you of two bulses of diamonds 
sealed with my seal and marked No. 17 and 19, value as 
per invoice sent you Pags.l9,204< 23f. 50ca. please to pay 
to Robert Palk, Esq., or his order, at whose risque so mucli 
of the said bulses of diamonds is to be conveyed to you, 
the sum of eighteen hundred pounds sterling out of the 
produce of the said bulses of diamonds. But in case of the 
loss of the said bulses or any part thereof, you are then only 
to pay to the said Robert Palk, Esq., or his order, at the rate 
of 8s. 9d. for every pagoda's worth of diamonds of my concern 
delivered to you according to the price in the invoice, and you 

(1' Soucar, a native banker. 

(-' Jean Law, Chief of C'ossiiuliazar and brother of Jacques Law wlio surrendered 
at Srirangain, returned to France in 1702. He was subsequently appointed 
Governor of Pondicherry. 

(•■5) Father of Colonel John Call. 

Ng. 20] 36 

will place the whole of this transaction to the account of, 
Gentlemen, your most obedient humble servant, 

" GocuLL Tarwaddy." 
[Autograph, \ p., demy.] 

[No. 21.] 

Ch[arle]s Bourchier to [Robert Palk, Esqr.] 

[Endorsed in Palk's hand] " Governor Bourchier." 

1767, March 22nd, Fort St. George. " My dear Friend, 
I am almost too late to send you even a line b}' this ship, 
the Anson, though she has been detained much longer than 
I expected by a lucky discovery of some torn and darned 
cloth in some Vizagapatam bales overset in the surff, which 
led us to an examination of some others, and to our 
astonishment above a 6th part of their whole Investment 
has been found in that condition, which is above 130 l^ales. 
We thought it therefore most prudent to land near 800 bales 
that had been shipped on board, and they being in the same 
state with the rest, it is well we did so, or we might 
have incurred severe resentment from home. I think they 
will not disapprove this proceeding, though it has occasioned 
the ship's detention, as such a quantity of torn cloth must 
have prejudiced the sale of the rest, and the freight on it 
would have come to as much or more than the demorage 
incurred by the dela}^ 

" I have had scarce a leisure hour since you went, so much 
has the ceremonials on my coming to the Government, the 
correspondence with officers on conmiand, frequent visits to 
and from the Nabob, who is still here, and much other business 
engrossed my time and attention. You must forgive me there- 
fore if I do not give you a detail of our political affairs since 
your departure. This I am the less anxious about, as Call tells 
me he has wrote you fully on the subject. It is one I must 
own I am not fond of. but our engagements with the Soubah 
have led us into such a scene [? skein] that it will require more 
of my attention than any other part of the Administration. 
His Excellency'^' can't avoid still shewing his enmity to the 
Soubah, but as I have already foimd that being a little austere 
sometimes, and insisting on his compliance with what is right, 
has a proper effect in keeping him within bounds, I hope to 
prevent his being so ridiculous as to let his idle conduct be 
known so as to reach the Souba's ears. I have indeed, my 
dear friend, a heavy burthen to support for some time. I 
have, however, the pleasure to tell you my friend Call is kind 
enough to assist me very essentially, and I hope, if I enjoy 
my health as well as I do at present, I shall rubb through it 
tolerably well and see you at furthest in the year 1770. 

" At the Nabob's desire I have sent you a letter from him 

(') Nawab Walajah. 

37 [No. 21 

inclosed. He imagines Mr. Van Sittart can explain it, and 
therefore would not have it wrote in English. 

" 1 send you one also for Mrs. Palk from Miss Stonhouse.'^' 
I believe it is on a subject that you little imagine, and that it 
will therelbre surprize you both. I confess to you I wish she 
had never made her appearance in this Settlement, for she gave 
me much uneasiness before you went on account of my brother's*^' 
attachment, and this has been much increased by George Van 
Sittart's paying his addresses to her, which he did within a week 
after you was gone. After he had in a manner engaged her 
consent, which, however, I must say she told him she would not 
give without I approved it, he came to talk with me about it. 
I candidly made him acquainted with my objections, indeed as 
freely as I did my brother, and assured him, as I was persuaded 
it would give you and Mrs. Palk uneasiness, I never could 
concurr in it. He endeavored all he could to induce me to 
determine otherwise ; but as you and Mrs. Palk seemed averse 
to my brother's being so attached, I could not imagine otherwise 
than that you will be much more affected at George's desire 
to be so intimately connected with her.*^* I therefore persisted 
in assuring him I could not alter my resolution, which he took 
in very good part, as he said he perceived it proceeded from the 
affection I bore you and Mrs. Palk. In what manner he repre- 
sented it to the young lady I can't say, but she has never even 
hinted to me a word of what had passed between her and George. 
Since he left us I ha\ e heard that they are so farr engaged that, 
if he is not ordered home for his behavior to Lord Clive, which 
he suspects may happen, he is under a promise of marrying 
her. I have taken an opportunity of letting her know that I 
imagined such a step would not be looked upon by you and 
Mrs. Palk as a handsome return for vour kindness to her here. 
This has in some measure embarrassed her, but still I lind she 
thinks her honor is too farr engaged with George to retract 
with credit to herself ; that is, according to my idea of the 
matter, that she would not willingly have you and* Mrs. Palk 
displeased, but finds it too good a match to be relinquished ; 
and if you are so, she can't help it. I may be too severe in my 
sentiments of her possibly, and I shall be sorry if I am so, but 
I can't divest myself of the opinion I once told you I had of her, 
that she is mistress of too much art for so young a woman, 
and in many circumstances relating to her conduct I am con- 
firmed in it, as are many other people here. 1 shall leave no 
endeavors untried to prevent their coming together that I can 
decently pursue, persuading myself that you and Mrs. Palk 
will be pleased if 1 succeed. Poor Jim cannot divest himself 

(l> Miss Sarah Stonhovise, daughter of the Rev. Sir James Stonhouse, 7th Bart., 
a physician who afterwards took lioly orders, becauie the wife of Gieoi'gt> Vansittart. 
She and her husband were remote cousins, his mother iiaving been Martlia Ston- 
house, daughter of Sir Jolm Stonhouse, 3rd Bart. 

(-' James Bourchier. 

(3) Mrs. Palk was Vansittart's sister. 

No. 21.] 38 

of the prejudices he had in her favor long before you went away, 
although he yielded to my persuasions and yours to decline all 
thoughts of her for a wife ; indeed he has been more affected 
since George became her admirer than before, arising both from 
his affection for you and Mrs. Palk, and his regard for the young 
lady, and what will be the end of it I don't know. I wish he 
may not run away with her from George, and yet he is so 
different from what he used to be that I had rather see him 
married to her than that he should continue under so great an 
anxiety of mind as he now does. At the same time I shall be 
extreamly sorry if she is ever married to George, for I much 
doubt from the short acquaintance they haAe had together if 
they have realy much affection for each other, and she seems 
to be ill calculated to make a discrete wife for so careless a chap 
as George is. In short, my dear friend, the whole affair has 
perplexed and vexed me to a very great degree, and I am not 
likely to be relieved from this situation for some time. I 
sincerely wish you and Mrs. Palk may suffer much less about 
her than I have done. I have desired Mrs, B. will send me no 
more female recommendations, and I must entreat the same 
favor of you and Mrs. Palk. 

" Of the two pipes of madeira you left here to be sent home, 
Capt. Lennox has taken one, as will Richardson the other. 
Lennox's receipt is inclosed, and as he is a very obliging, good 
kind of man, I cannot avoid, as it is [his] particular request, 
recommending him to your kind offices if it should at any time 
lay in your power to assist him in geting a good voyage. 

" As you was so kind to give me leave, I have desired Mrs. B. 
and Cotsford to consult you in the disposal of some money I 
remitted home by the Camden and now do by the An.son, and 
I shall be obliged to you to favor them with your advice on 
the occasion. There are great complaints of the bad quality 
of the diamonds now sent, which makes many people appre- 
hensive they will sell very ill. In this you are interested as well 
as myself. If they should do so, how are we to get home any 
more of our money at a better exchange than 7s. 8d. ? Pray 
favor me with your sentiments about this matter. 

" My being obliged to neglect Mrs. Palk by this conveyance 
concerns me much, but you are so powerful and [?an] advocate 
that I doubt not you will readily pre\ail on her to forgive me. 
Let me beg you will assure her that, although I make but an 
awkward figure in her place at the head of the table, a remem- 
brance of her civilities is too strongly imprinted in my mind 
for me ever to think otherwise tiian that I am under the greatest 
obligations to her, and my best wishes always attend her. 
Be assured, my dear friend, I have as deep a sense of gratitude 
for your innumerable favors conferred upon me, and can never 
cease to acknowledge myself your most sincerely obliged and 
affectionate ' " Chs- Bourciiier." 

[P.vS.] " The Pigut will sail in about ten days or a fortnight." 
[Holograph, 7| pp., Uo.\ 


[No. 22.] 

W|illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to | Robert] Palk, [Esq.] 

1767, March 22n(l, Fort St. (ieorgc— " Dear Sir, I embrace 
the very first opportunity, my dear Mr. Paliv, of returning you 
my unfeigned tlianks for the favors you heaped on me during 
vour stav in India. There is not, I assure vou, a dav passes 
but they occur to me, nor do I ever reflect on them without 
earnestl}' wishing you will give me some opportunity of shewing 
the grateful sense I must ever retain of them. 

" Nothing material has occurred in the Company's affairs 
since your departure, and the operations going forward will 
be so nuich better related by your other correspondents that I 
shall avoid troubling you with anything on the subject. 

" I have received a bond from the Nabob for the thousand 
pagodas he promised to Withecombe's'^' father. It becomes 
due the 1st Febrviary, 1768, and bears interest at 10 per cent. 
As you left me no instructions concerning it, I know not whether 
you would chuse the whole to be remitted when it becomes 
due, or whether the bond is to be renewed and the interest only 
sent home annually. I beg you will write me on this subject. 
I shall remit the first year's interest without waiting your 

" There is one circumstance, my dear Sir, on which I must beg 
your advice. I remember you once mentioned to me that the 
reduction of the Nabob's interest would be a considerable 
drawback to my mother's income. It struck me so much 
that I could not make an ingenuous reply, for you must know 
that I have never allowed her more than 8 per cent, and my 
reasons were these : — When my mother offered me this money, 
it was with a view of being of service to me as well as herself, 
and she repeatedly wrote me that she should be well satisfied 
with 8 per cent. When I put it into the Nabob's hands I 
concluded the risk to be mine, and therefore never wrote her 
that it was there. I declare solemnly that, had the Nabob 
failed, I should have thought myself accountable for the money 
(as indeed I do to this moment), and I so far concluded the 
interest to be mine that I remember to have once wrote her 
tliat I cleared 12 per cent, by the money. I beg, my dear my 
[?]\Ir.] Palk, you will favor me with your opinion on this matter. 
If you think the 20 per cent, should go to my mother, I will 
chearfully pay it, for I shall be then convinced that I have acted 
wrong, though without any intention of doing so. It will, 
I confess, be some disappointment to me, but I would pay fifty 
times the sum rather that it should be imagined I could enter- 
tain a thought of keeping to myself what is the right of another. 

" The dispatch, which we thought would be nothing, has 

(1) This Withecombe, who had probably been in the Nawab's service, may have 
been a connection of Robert Palk, whose brother Walter married into the family 
of Widdicombe (or Withecombe). Robert Palk, jun., left a legacy to one Tiiomas 
Withecombe. Cj. Xo. 414. 

No. 22] 40 

proved very heavy, and fagged me confoundedly. It is in a 
good eause, and I shall probably continue writing in the same 
post these ten years. . . . 

" I flatter myself this will find you happy to the utmost of 
your wishes, rewarded with ease and tranquility after a scene 
of care and trouble. You know not, my dear Mr. Palk, how 
well I wish you. I beg you will present my respectful 
compliments to Mrs. Palk, and believe me with real esteem and 
regard ^'our infinitely obliged and obedient humble servant, 

" W. M. GOODLAD." 

[Holograph, 3| pp., Uo.] 

[No. 23.] 
George Yansittart to Mrs. [Anne] Palk. 

17G7, April 3rd, Midnapore.— " My dear Mrs. Palk,— Here 
I am, safely moored for I hope four or five years, and perfectly 
well pleased with my new abode. I wrote to Palk the middle 
of last month by the Nottingham. If the Mercury, which is 
now just ready to sail, should chance to arrive first in England, 
pray acquaint him that I believe I should be saved the trouble 
of a trip home even if the Court of Directors, through their 
great impartiality and clemency, were to rout me out of the 
service by their answers to the Grenville. I have been assured 
by some members of the Select [Committee] that I should be 
maintained in my station till their further pleasure could be 

" My present place of residence is very different from the 
greatest part of Bengal. Instead of being a low, rich soil, it is 
a high spot, very hard and rocky, and looks as if nature had 
intended a hill but miscarried ; and at this season of the year 
land winds prevail similar to those which you used to be so 
fond of at Madras. 

" Three days ago I wrote to Harry,' i' but I forgot to inform 
him of a piece of news ; so I must employ you to communicate 
it to him — an office which, as you are so well versed in the revolu- 
tions of Hindostan, you will doubtless have pleasure in executing. 
The Abdallee'-' haxing thrashed the Sics<'' and obliged them to 
pay him a large sum of money, is advanced to within a few 
cose'''^' of Delly at the head of 100,000 horse. He has written 
to the chiefs of the empire to attend him with money and troops, 
and it is said to be his intention to seat himself on the throne 
of Hindostan. So our old friend Shah Aulum'-'' is like to lose 
his kingdom. Yours most affectionately, 

" George Yansittart." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., 4io.] 

(1) Henry Vansittai't. 

(2) Ahiuad Shall Alxlfili, otliorwiso called Ahmad Shah Duifmi, approached 
Delhi witli an arniv in -March, 1707, but retreated in tlio following month. 

(3) The Sikhs. 

(j) C'oKC, cons, a varial)lc' measure of distance, generally about two miles. 
(5) Shah Alant, the titular emperor. 


[Nof 24] 
Chocapah to the Honourable Robert Palk, Es(jr. 

1767, April 3rd, Fort St. George.—" Honourable Sir, I had 
tlie honour to write a few lines under the date of the 3rd of last 
month j)or sliip ^inson. . . Last Monday the Governour and 
Council was pleased to settle the present year's contract for the 
Honourable Conipan\''s Investment the same as last year, but 
only took the long cloth medlin'^' from Dessoo Rcddy and gave 
to Mootaniary Chitty. Dessoo Reddy and Moota Chitty have 
not behaved well in their duty of bringing their cloth agreeable 
to their contract. . . The Governour and Council was pleased 
to tell me in consultation that I have behaved very well, and 
they are willing to give me some more articles, but there is none 
at present, and therefore I must be contented with the 
Salempores*-' fine, the same as last year. 

" We have, not yet received any further news from Manilah, 
which we expect every day. The Nabob still remains in the 
Company's Garden, and it seems that he will go to Triclmaply 
in a day or two. . . . 


[Autograph, 2 pp., 4 to.] 

[No. 25] 
[Colonel] John Call to [Robert Palk, Esqr.] 

1767, April 6th, Madrass. — " My dear Sir, By this ship you 
will receive a duplicate of what I wrote you by the Anson. I 
believe I shall not be able to get any more diamonds to send 
you till next October. If any should come they will be sent 
partly on your account to Mr. Cotsford and my father as before. 

" All the detachments of our troops having been very near 
the Subah the 25th ultimo, Colonel Smith waited on the Duan<-^' 
and acquainted him that he was very uneasy at the Subah's 
dilatory manner of proceeding, and the reports which were 
spread of his intention to return very soon to the Decan and to 
make up matters with Hydre Ally. He therefore desired to 
be informed without evasion what were the Subah's real 
intentions, that he might judge how far it was consistent with 
his orders to conform thereto. After many excuses the Duan 
declared that the Marattas having deceived the Subah and 
already ])lundered all the country of what was to be got, and 
the season of the year being far advanced towards the period 
of repassing the Kistnah, the Subah for these reasons was 
resolved to accept Hydre Ally's offer of money if he would pay 
50 lacks of rupees, and proposed to defer the prosecution of the 
expedition till next year, when he should set out much 

(1) Middling, of medium texture. 

(-' Salempores, a variety of cotton cloth, made chiefly in South Arcot. 

(3) Duan, diivdn, the Nizam's minister. 

No. 25] 42 

" This was an event we most apprehended would ruin all our 
project, and you may imagine Colonel Jo<i> was very much 
chagrined. He urged a thousand arguments to induce the 
Subah to persevere, and above all assured him that there never 
was a finer body of troops sent out of the Carnatick than we had 
sent out on this occasion, and that perhaps it might not be 
in our power to assist him so effectually another time. Both 
the Duan and Subah seemed deaf to all that could be urged, and 
only rcplyed that the Marrattus had always deceived them, 
and that in future they would entirely be guided by our advice, 
being persuaded of our real inclination to support the Subah's 
authoritv. Thus matters stand with Jo and the Subah ; but 
we do not yet give up the point, and James Bourchier with 
Stracey'-^ sets out to morrow to try whether he can be more 
successful in the persuasive strain, or else to insist on the 
Company's possessions and the Carnatick being included in any 
arrangement that may be made with Hydre Ally. 

" About the same time we received Jo's letter a Vakeel 
arrived from Mahadarow, acquainting us of his master's success 
in taking Sirpi and all the country north of Bengalure, asking 
Choute for the Carnatick, and expressing a surprise that we 
should have joined the Subah with such a powerful body of 
troops without acquainting his master. To the first part we 
rcplyed that we were Aery glad to hear of his master's success ; 
to the second, that we never should consent to pay any Choute 
for the Carnatick after the King'-^* and the Subah had confirmed 
it as an Ultumgan<^' or free gift to Serajah Doulah,'^) and after 
we had fought so much to maintain it in its present state : he 
would therefore do well to touch no more on that subject. To 
the third we obser\'ed that the Subah had assured us of a solid 
and firm agreement made between him and the Marattas to 
attack Hydre Ally, and that we had readih^ joined him in 
consequence, and even acquainted jMahadarow of our intentions, 
though he affected to be surprised at it. The Vakeel then 
complained of the Subah's dilatoriness, and said that his master, 
finding the Sul^ah was resolved to make up matters and return, 
had been necessitated to adopt the same jjlan, though much 
against his inclination. 

" We told the Vakeel that we had still hopes of engaging the 
Subah to persevere, and therefore desired he would Avrite his 
master to defer the intended acconnnodation and wait till our 
army came up. To this he observed that his master could not 
depend on the Subah, but was apprehensive that with our 

(1) Jo.scpli Smith. 

(2) lOdwai'il Stracoy, a Madras civil servant of 175S, was Persian Translatm- in 
ITiilt, wlion lio accompanied Du Pr6 to St. Thomas's Mount to settle tonus of peace 
willi Uaidar. 

(3) The Mogul. 

W Ultumxiaii, from Turk, and Hind. ullai)u/ah, red seal, i.e., a royal grunt under 
red seal. 

(5) Siraj-ud-daula, one of (he titles of Nawah Wal-i jah. Cf. No. 3(), p. 5S. 

43 [No. 25 

assistance \\v iwlvndvd to (juarrcll with the Marattas. IT we 
would engage to join Maluiciarow and act with him, lie would 
readily stay and prosecute the expedition to the utmost w^e 
could wish, without retaining any countries in his hands. After 
nuich other diseoiu'se it aj)peared clearly that Mahadarow was 
\ery suspicious ot" the Subah's designs, and would not wait till 
he came near him, but that he would be very glad to have our 
friendship, and act, as the Vakeel expressed it, under our orders. 
There is no saying what quantity of truth there is in all these 
declarations, but that we may lose no opportunity of coming 
at the designs of the iNIarattas, I am to set out privately 
to-morrow imder pretence of visiting and providing for the 
defence of the passes, and when arri\ed at Cadapanattum or 
Palameleru,*^' Mahadarow himself, as the \'akeel says, but I 
suppose some person deputed by him, is to come thither and 
connnunicate to me the Marattas' real intentions, and if 
anything can be effected to gain our point against Hydrc Ally, 
I hope to accomplish it without interfering wdth the grand 
plan laid down by Lord Clive. 

" If both the Marattas and Subah (with whom we are deter- 
mined not to break, and risque the tranquility of the Circars) 
are resolved to go back next month, we shall then so far change 
our project as to endevor to bring about a peace between the 
Subah and Hydre Ally exclusi\'e of the Marattas ; to confine 
him to the ancient Mysore dominions, settle the future Peiscash, 
and engage him to assist us against the Marattas if there should 
be occasion hereafter. 

" Mr. Bourchier seems a good deal affected with this 
disappointment of his hopes, and many of the members of the 
senate cry out, ' I said it would come to this, and a pretty figure 
we cut trulv.' For mv part I think verv diffcrentlv, and see 
nothing more in it than this : — The Subah by treaty is entitled 
to our assistance ; he asked it, and we gave it to him. He told 
us he should attack Hydre Ally, and we rejoiced because it 
coincided with our interest. We even went farther and sent 
a poW'Crful body of troops, hoping by that step to engage the 
Subah to root out Hydre Ally entirely ; but he ne\cr promised 
us any such thing, and perhaps never intended to do more 
than draw a sum. If then we are disappointed, we have nothing 
to blame but our own sanguine hopes, which flattered us that 
everything would go on as we would have it. Another time 
we must endevor to know what w^e are going about before we 
set out ; an.d at present comfort ourselves that we have faith- 
fully adhered to our engagements and have 7 lacks of the 
Subah's to make good the expence, besides 10 lacks of rupees 
left clear to the company out of the C'ircar revenue, Lewin'-' 
having at length let the Chicacole country to Sittaram and 
Ragorauze for 8 lacks of rupees clear of charges. 

(1) The Pass of Paluianer in the Eastern Ghauts is 10 miles N.E. of the Pass of 
Kadapauattam, wh.ich is itself 50 miles due W. of \'eIlore. 
(-) John Lewin Smith, Chief at Masulipatam. 

No. 25] 44 

" We are Ibrniiiig a part}^ of observation at Vellore, and I 
propose to reconnoitre Gegadevy*^' and Vaireanibady,*-' so 
that if a good opportunity offers, I ha^■c lca\"e to attempt 
to gain possession of these plaees. 

" The Nabob goes away in three days to Arcott. His money 
begins to come in from the 1st instant to pay liis private 
creditors, and I hope he will not fail in his engagements. He 
is still as jealous as ever of Nizam Ally, and at variance with 
all his own family. 

" My respects to Mrs. Palk. I have not time to say more 
than that I am, my dear friend, your most obliged and 

" John Call." 

[P.S.] " Pray show this to General Caillaud ; I have not time 
to Avrite to him." 

[Holograph, 8 pp., 4^o.] 

[No. 26.] 
George Purnell'^) to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

17G7, April 7th, Fort St. George.—" Sir, I take the liberty 
to trouble you with enclosed duplicate of my last respects to 
you of the 22nd of last month, and now beg leave to . . repeat 
my most earnest request that you will interest yourself and 
influence your friends on my behalf. I present my humble 
respects to Mrs. Palk. 

" George Purnell." 

" P.S. — Sir, Since writing the above I have transcribed 
sundry letters from Mr. Morse, dated the 2nd instant, to his 
correspondents in England, wherein he acquaints them of his 
design to withdraw from business after the dispatch of the ship 
in March, 1769. It is therefore most humbly submitted to you, 
Sir, whether, for divers reasons too obvious to need repeating, 
it be not the more necessary to make immediate application 
to your friends in my behalf, lest any delays might be 
prejudicial to my interest. I flatter my self. Sir, that you will 
be so good [as] to excuse this sollicitude in me. 

"G. Purnell.'* 

[Holograph, 1 p., demy.] 

[No. 27.] 

Rob[er]t Palk [jun.] to Robert Palk, Esqr., London. 

1767, April 7th, Fort William. — " Dear Sir, T deferred writing 
to you by Captain Howe as I was in the hope of having something 
satisfactory to write you regarding myself. When 1 left Madras 
I thought I should not meet with any difficulty in getting 

(') Jegadevi Puss, thnnigh which flows the Palar River, is (id miles S.W. of 

(2) Vaniambadi, on the Palar River, where there was a fort, is 35 miles W.S.W. 
of Vellore. 

l-^) George Purnell was a free merchant of Madras. 

45 [No. 27 

appointed Goorge's'^' assistant to Midnapore in case nothing 
better offered. On my arrival here I found that vacancy had 
been filled up by one three years younger in the service tlian 
myself. I was told on my arrival that gentleman should be 
removed if possible to make room for me, but now I am told it 
can't be done. I have been assured by persons to whom you 
have recommended me that I shall be provided for the first 
opportunity ; so that I can give you no better account of mysell" 
than that I am living in Calcutta at a great expence without 
anything coming in. 

" When I arrived here I foimd the money you lent me laying 
dead in your attorney's hands, notwithstanding the particular 
request of George that it should be employed to the best 
advantage. I am now employing it to the best advantage, but 
I fear I am rather too late to expect much from it this season. 

" Mr. Kelsall'-' is appointed Chief of Dacca in the room of 
Mr. Cartier,^'" who resides in the Presidency as Second [in 

" Two of our brigades are marched towards Illiabad on a 
report of the Abdallah's^^' coming down from Delly against us 
by the particular desire of Shuja Dowla,'-^^ as it is asserted, who 
in all probability will join them against us. 

" I will (for many reasons) defer writing any thing of the state 
of affairs here in this Settlement, &c. You will hear from other 
hands how matters go on. I hope you will not forget to send 
me Chambers's Gardenner's Dictionary. 

" Mrs. Plowman'6) has been delivered of a child, and is so ill 
that the doctors think she will not get over it. I desire my 
compliments to Mrs. Palk, and am with great respect, dear Sir, 
vour most obliged and obedient servant, 

" RoBT. Palk." 
• " P.S. — I wrote to you and Mrs. Palk, before I left Madras, 
by the Anson.'' 

" 12th April, Mrs. Plowman is no more." 

[Holograph, 2f pp.. 4-to. iVax seal bearing the Palk arms.] 

[No. 28.] 

Ja[me]s Johnson*"' to [Robert Palk, Esqr.] 

1767, April 11th, Fort St. George. — " Sir, You kindly promised 
to use your influence in my behalf with the Court of Directors 
for my admission into their service, and though I have little 

U) George Vansittart. 

(-) Thomas Kelsall, a Madras civil servant of 1755, was transferred to Bengal 
in 176(5. In 1707 he was 9tli member of Council. 

(3) John Cartier succeeded Verelst as Governor of Bengal in 1769. 

(4) Ahmad Shah AbdaH. 

(5) Shuja-ud-daula, Xawab Vizier of Oudh. 

(6) Wife of Henry Plowman, George Vansittart's partner in private business. 
(") James Johnson, a free merchant from 1761, was associated with W. M. 

Goodlad, the Civil Department Secretary, in private business. He was afterwards 
employed by the Nawab. 

No. 28] 46 

pretence to such an act of friendship from you, the encourage- 
ment you ever gave me induces me to solhcit your good offices. 

" The Nabob's debt is at last settled. The amount of the 
new bonds is Porto Novo Pags. 55,800 and Star 22,29,650. 
Payments of the revenues began the first instant, and 29,000 
pags. and a bill for a lack and ten thousand rupees are already 
received. 'Tis imagined when the Tan jour tribute of 4. lacs 
of rupees are received there will be money sufficient to make 
a general dividend of 10 per cent. Mr. Ross,'^' who you know 
is busy in all affairs but his own, has endeavoured, contrary to 
the general voice of the creditors, to obstruct the proceedings 
of the trustees and alter their plans. His remonstrances were 
too unreasonable to merit even an answer. 

" Some bales of Vizac[apatam] cloth were in landing 
accidentally damaged. Being opened, it was discovered that a 
very considerable part was torn. All the bales being examined 
were found in the same condition. John Davidson, '2) the 
Warehousekeeper, we fear will bear the whole censure at home. 
His letter on the subject, far from vindicating him, acquaints 
the Council with more truth than prudence that inexperience 
makes him unfit for that employ. 

" I must not forget to thank you for your promise to Goodlad 
of recommending us to the Coral consigners. I think it a 
valuable branch of business if early entered into, and it cannot 
be very desirable to persons high in the service, as you have 
already experienced.'^' 

" I desire you will present my compliments to Mrs. Palk. . . 

" Jas. Johnson." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., Uo.] 

[No. 29.] 
J[ohn] M[axwell] Stone'*' to Rob[er]t Palk, Esq. 

1767, April 15th, Fort St. George. — " Dear Sir, I could not 
avoid by this conveyance enquiring after your's, Mrs. Palk's 
and your family's health, particularly as it gives me at the same 
time an opportunity of expressing the sense I have of the many 
obligations I am under to you ... 

" With regard to publick affairs, I make no doubt but you 
will have a full account of them from Mr, Bourchier and Mr. 
Call. I shall, however, do myself the pleasure of acquainting 
you with the most material occurrences since you left us. 

(1) Andrew Ross arrived as a free merchant in 1752. He took a prominent 
part in civic affaii-s, and uKiinatcly died at .Madias after a continuous residence 
of 45 years. 

(2) John Davidson, a civil sci-vaut of 175.'5. 

(■'' Coral was originally iiii|Kirtcd from ]<au'()pe l)y licensed merchants vmder a 
bond that tlic sale proceeds siuudd lie devoted to the (inrchase of diamonds. From 
17t)l (lie Governor of .Mndras was i)ermi)ted to receive a consulage oi- conmiission 
on the coral so imported. The privilege was rclinqidshed in lSt)U. 

(■*' John Maxwell Stone, a civil servant of 1755, was Secretary in the Military 
and Pcditical J)ep;irlment. He entered Council in 1771 and afterwards supported 
Lord I'igot's party. He married Mary Scale in 1757. 

47 [No. 29 

" The detachments from V(»]l(nir and tlic Circars, on acconnt 
of the many nnforeseen dillicidtics they met with from the 
badness of the roads, could not, by the last advices, have joined 
the Soubah before the 10th instant. Mr. James Bourchier set 
off from hence a few days ago for the Soubah's Court to assist 
Colonel Smith in endeavouring to prevail on him to persevere 
in the expedition, as he has already given proofs of his back- 
wardness under pretence that it cannot be finished in time to 
return before the rising of the Kistna. He had only advanced 
as far as Raydrugiu'e [?]'^* on the northern confines of Hyder 
Ally's covmtry, and it is much to be feared a small sum of money 
will induce him to march back without even attempting any 
thing to Hyder Ally's prejudice. Maudharow, on the other 
hand, has been very active, having already over-run great 
part of the Biddenore country, taken Shirpi and several other 
places, and was marching towards Bengalore. He has had large 
offers from Hyder Ally, who remains at Syringapatnam, to 
withdraw, but what his intentions are we know not. The 
different conduct of Nizam Ally and the Morattas was a 
convincing proof that they had not agreed on any settled plan 
of operations, and indeed Ruccun Ud Dowla'-' at last acknow- 
ledged as much to Colonel Smith. It was therefore a part of 
Mr. Bourchier's and Colonel Smith's instructions to luring them 
if possible to some certain determination with regard to their 
proceedings, as well as concerning the disposal of the countries 
that may be conquered from Hyder Ally, regarding which such 
proposals were laid down as were thought would be agreeable 
to both parties. After all, it is much to be apprehended that 
Hyder Ally will escape for this time on paying a sum of money, 
as the Soubah's poverty, with the rapaciousness of his ministers, 
will probably, in spite of every argument that can be urged, 
induce him to make up matters and return. Lest this should 
be the case, a detachment of 200 infantry, four guns and a 
battalion of sepoys is ordered to be posted near the passes to 
oppose Hyder Ally, who will, if he has leisure, most probably 
attempt to disturb the Carnatic. Or, if the expedition goes on, 
and Hyder Ally should be obliged to withdraw his troops from 
any of the posts near the passes, we may get possession of 
such as it may be of importance to secure. 

" This is the present state of affairs. A few days more will, 
it is hoped, determine the fate of the expedition. The general 
observation is how necessary it was that the Soubah and the 
Morattas should have been brought to some fixed and settled 
plan before General Caillaud left Hydrabad,*^' as Maudharow 
has not been within 200 miles of the Soubah since Colonel 
[Smith] joined him, and the Soubah seems so much incensed 
at the Morattas having got the start of him, that it will probably 

(1) Probably Rayadrug, a hill-fort close to the Mysore frontier. 

(2) Rukn-ud-daula, Minister and Commander-in-Chief to Nizam AH. 

(3) In 1766. 

No. 29] • 48 

be difficult to bring them to act with that unanimity so necessary 
for insuring success. 

" The Circars of Ellore, Rajahmundry and Mustaphanagur 
are entirely settled in peace, and all the Zemindars have been 
brought to acknowledge the Company's authority. The 
Chicacole Circar is lett for eight lacks of rupees for the present 
year. Sitteramrauze has only taken the district of Vizianagram ; 
the other part of the Circar is lett to one Ragorauze. 

" Mrs. Stone continues in but an indifferent state of health. 
She joins in the sincerest wishes for your's, Mrs. Palk's and 
your family's health and happiness, and in best respects to 
General Lawrence, with him who is, with the greatest gratitude 
and esteem, dear Sir, your most obliged and obedient humble 

" J. M. Stone." 

" P.S. I need not say how happy I should be in receiving 
a line from you. My little girl is very well, but I cannot prevail 
on Mrs. Stone to let me accept of your exceeding kind offer." 

[Holograph, 4 jjp., flscp.] 

[No. 30.] 
John Pybus(^) to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1767, iVpril 15th, Mount.'^)— " My dear Friend, Having 
finished all my publick business for this ship, I am come out 
here to spend a few days with my good woman and her boy 
before she takes leave of this delightful retirement, which must 
now be soon, for the weather begins to be uncomfortably warm. 

I had hopes of His Honor's''^' company to celebrate with a 
few more friends my dear little Patt's birthday, but he has yet 
many letters to write to England, which will detain him in town, 
where he suffers from the longshore winds'^' and wishes for an 
opportunity of getting relief from this purer air. His Excellency 
the Nabob, with much seeming reluctance, left us the day before 
yesterday for Arcot, where he proposes making a short stay 
and then proceed[ing] to Tritchanopoly. Money comes in but 
slowly from him for discharging his private debts, and you may 
suppose his creditors are consequently clamarous. The vicinity 
of the Morattoes has given the Nabob some disquiet (though I 
think he has nothing to fear from them) and the apprehensions 
of an incursion into this country from those maroders alarm 
])eople whose only hopes of recovering their fortunes from 
the desperate state in which they at present consider them 
are wholely founded on it's tranquillity. Call has, I make no 
doubt, given you a minute detail of all military and political 
transactions since you left us. He is at present on the look 
out at Cuddapanatam Pass for a Vakeel from the Moratta 

(1) Vide No. 13, v 1'^, note 1. 

(2) St. Thomas's Mount. Vide No. 19, p. 28, note 1. 

(3) The Govornoi', C'liai-les Bourchier. 

(4) An enci'vating S.S.W. wind. 

49 [No. 30 

Mahadarow in hopes of diving into his designs. His'^' progress 
in the Mysore covnitry has been very rapid and success astonish- 
ing, having taken Sirpi, Medgeri and many other small forts 
Irom llyder Ally without the least opposition. The Queen of 
Biddanore*-' and most of the principal people of distinction 
belonging to that country were prisoners in Medgeri, and have 
been set at liberty by Mahadarow, Hyder Ally is in Siringa- 
j)atam ])reparing for a vigorous defence should the place be 
attacked, which will depend on the Subah's resolves. James 
Bourchier is gone to him*-^' with a view of leading him on, but 
Colonel Smith seems to apprehend the influence of Hyder Ally's 
money will be more powerful than all the arguments which he 
or James can urge. The Morattoes, we heard some time ago, 
were about settling for a sum of money, but as they still con- 
tinue their ravages 'tis plain no treaty can yet have taken place. 
Todd '^* has had a most laborious, tedious and fatiguing 
march from Velloiu' towards the Subah. He moved the 23rd 
February, had not joined Colonel Smith the 5th instant, and 
judged it would be still six or seven days before he could. 
Fitzgerald*^' with the detachment from the Circars joined Smith 
the 2nd. Want of provisions has been an universal complaint 
from all quarters, and as the Morattoes have scoured the whole 
country through which our troops are to march if they move 
farther south, and the Subah's army consists of a most numerous 
rabble, I think this will prove an insuperable obstacle to our 
operations, unless by moving towards the passes it should be 
in our power to furnish supplies of grain from this country. 
The Subah seems unwilling to remain south of the Kistna during 
the rains, and unless he does, all the past w^ill be labor lost. 
Hyder Ally writes to us submissively and sues now for the friend- 
ship he before rejected. If we can make use of his fears to 
get possession of the forts which command the passes leading 
into this country, and to secure such priviledges for the Company 
on the Malabar Coast as the gentlemen there have sollicited, 
'tis all we nmst flatter ourselves with hopes of from the 
expedition, and more, I fear, than we shall be able to accomplish. 
You know it never was a plan that I could think well of, but 
my best wishes for it's success have kept equal pace with those 
who were the most sanguine for it. 

(l» Maclhu Rao. 

(-' Bednur, a tf>vvn and district in the north-west part of Mysore. The last 
Raja dying in 1755, left an heir, Clien Busvaiya, under the guardianship of his 
widow. Tiie Rani compassed tlie deatli of tlie heir, and in 1763 Haidar attacked 
Bednur, ostensibly to avenge the nun-dei-. The Rani cai)itulated and was im- 
prisoned, and for some time Haidar contemplated making Bednur his capital under 
the name of Haidarnagar. 

(3) The Subah, Nizam Ali. 

(*' Charles Tod was, as Captain, Coiumandant of Sepoys during the siege of 
Madras of 1758-50, and subsequently Town ^Nlajor of Fort St. George. In 1707, 
as Lieut-Colonel, he was placed in control of the whole of the native infantry. He 
served in the first Mysore war. 

(5> Major Thomas FitzGerald. Vide No. 141. 


No 30] . 50 

" Donald Campbell'^' is gone with a detachment from the 
garrisons of Vellour and Tritchanopoly to settle the southern 
countries, and Major Bonjour'^) is out with a party to prevent 
if possible any incursions from the Morattoes through the 

" Smith'^' has settled with Sittaramrauze for the Cicacole 
country at eight lacks, and soucar security has been given for 
the third kist of last year. Nothing more from the northward 
since you left us. 

" A sad discovery has been made of negligence in embaling 
the Vizagapatam Investment, and I fear that part which went 
by the Loi'd CambderjL was in no better condition. We have 
exculpated poor old Smith,'*' and Davidson <^) is ordered up. 
Humanity has saved him from dismission, which he well 

" Madge'^' wrote to me to endeavour to get home for him a 
chest of table china intended as a present for Colonel Monson,*^' 
which he said you would clear from the India House. Capt. 
Lennox of the Anson was so obliging as to carry it. The mark 
or any thing else relating to it I am ignorant of, but I suppose 
Madge has wrote to you about it. 

"George Vansittart, you will no doubt have heard from other 
hands, has made a bold stroke for a wife, but James Bourchier 
seems still to maintain his influence with the young lady, and 
'tis yet a doubt who will be the happy man. I shall leave this 
subject to be treated on more at large by those who know more 
of the matter than I pretend to do. 

" You will by this time, I suppose, be about leaving the Cape, 
where I think it likely you would meet Lord Clive if he recovered 
his health. India affairs would afford you a large field to 
expatiate on. He, you and Van'^' must go hand in hand, and 
take upon you the whole management of the Company's con- 
cerns at home, and then some regular plan and system may be 
laid down for conducting them abroad, where they begin to 
require very able heads and honest hearts for supporting with 
honor and advantage the whole vast superstructure which has 
been so suddenly and successfully raised. The most rigid 
rules of abstinence are still observed in my family that no 

(U Vide So. li), p. ■2(\, nolo ."5. 

(-' Major A lira ham Umi Jour. In 1772, as Lioiil. -Colonel, he liold a coniniand 
under (Jenorai Jo.sopli Siiiil li in Ihe Marava expedition, when owin^ <<> a miscarriage 
of ordei'S great slaughter took place among the unresisting onomy at Kaliyarkoil, 
the capital of tlie 'lattle Marava.' Malignantly attacked in I'higland hy Sir 
Rohoi't fleicher, IJonJour was completely exonc'ralcd liy Ihc .Mathas ( Ion (Minucnt . 
He lelt India in 177;) and settled in S\\ if -/Airland. 

(•') John Lewin Smith, Chief at Masulipatani. 

'■^' .lohn Smith, Chief at Vizagaiiatani. 

(•'>> .lohn l>avidson, rirfe No. 28, /<.!(). 

W Captain Thomas Madge, into, lieutenanl in Il.M.'s !)(ith Ileginxent, entered 
the Con\pany's service in 17(!l. lie comm.imli'il a batl.'ilion of native infantry 
in the Norther'n Ciroars. 

(") Vide No. 0, p. 12, note 2. 

l'^' llenrv Vansittart. 

51 [No. 30 

impediments; may prevent the execution of our plan for leaving 
India in October next ; so that, let what will happen, you may 
be assured of seeing me in England about this time twelv^emonth. 
We are looking out hourly for a ship from Europe, and are told 
that Du Pre'^) may be expected as a successor to Mr. Bourchier. 
Such an appointment after a service of four and twenty years 
would iuu-t mc, I confess, because 'twould be disgracieux to 
go home imdcr so disagreeable a circumstance ; but so much 
is my heart set upon being with my young family that no 
consideration upon earth shall keep me another year in India 
if my boy is able to undertake the voyage, which I thank God 
we have at present great encouragement to hope will be the 
case, as he continues stout and jolly, and is almost weaned 
already. I shall hoj^e the pleasure of finding a letter from you 
either at the Cape or St. Helena in my way home, for I shall be 
anxious to know how poor Mrs. Palk passed the first two or 
three months of her voyage, which must, I think, have tried her 
patience, spirits and constitution unless that unhappy woman 
you carried with you was either soon relieved from her misery 
or recovered ; and I am most heartil}" vexed to think she should 
have had so little feeling or consideration for her mistress as 
not to have accepted the offer made her of being accommodated 
here. Mrs. Pybus desires most affectionately to be remembered 
to you, and joins with me in the same to Mrs. Palk. I hope 
your dear little ones got well over the voyage. Our kind 
compliments if you please to Harry Van and his family and 

General Caillaud 

" John Pybus." 
[Holograph, 6 jip., Uo.] 

[No. 31] 

Henry Brooke (2) to Robert Palk, Esq., at the East India 

House, London. 

1767, Aprill 16th, Fort St. George, per the Pigot, Capt. 
Richardson. — " Dear Sir, I have the pleasure of acquainting 
you that a few days after your departure Mr. Bourchier and 
the rest of the Gentlemen did me the honour of calling me to 
a seat in Council. Sensible of this, mv utmost endeavours 
shall not be wanting to render myself worthy of it, and I flatter 
myself that, had you been present, your concurrence would 
not have been refused, especially after so strict a scrutiny into 
the Manila disputes had been made, in which I was unhappily 
concerned. I hope nothing has been determined in your 
opinion but Avhat will prove my attachment to the Company's 
interest throughout the whole of that expedition. Had I been 

(1^ Vide No. 19, p- 30, note 1. 

(-' Henry Brooke entered the Madras civil service in 1751, and eleven years 
later joined the expedition of Admiral CornLsli and General Draper against Manila. 
He was admitted to Council in 17(37, and in 1776 took an active part lq the de- 
position of Lord Pigot. In consequence he was recalled to England, prosecuted 
and fined. He married Marv Allhoarv in 17til. 

No. 31] 52 

deficient in my duty or conscious of any failure in my integrity, 
I would not dare to entreat your good offices for me in the 
House when those affairs come before them. The great bulking 
of those papers will frighten the members from a reading of 
them : they will of course refer to you, who have had that 
trouble. Your opinion as chief judge here will undoubtedly 
carry the greatest weight with them ; and as you have allready 
exculpated me from any capital error, I hope for a continuance 
of your favour. I am the more induced to this as I am given 
to understand Mr. Bean is sent home on the Anson by Mr. 
Drake' ^' in the nature of a solicitor, who boasts not a little of 
his interest at home, the power of Sir George Pocock,'-' Sec, 
his relations. 

" Since your departure I have ad[d]ed a little daughter to 
mv familv, and I have the satisfaction to sav that Mrs. B. is 
perfectly recovered, who joins with me in wishes for yoiu" and 
Mrs. Palk's happiness. . . . 

Henry Brooke." 

[Holograph, 2| jjp., Uo.] 

[No. 32] 

W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1767, April 16th, Fort St. George.—" I shall never be able 
to let a ship go, my dear Mr. Palk, without paying my respects 
to you, for I must ever be mindful of your favours. 

" The copies of letters'^' which I promised you have been 
brought up only to August, 1765. The remainder shall be sent 
by the October ship. Captain Richardson will deliver you 
what are done. 

" I am much hurried, and therefore unable to write long 
letters, but beg you will tell Mrs. Palk as a piece of news that the 
agreeable Mrs. Maitland'^* of Cuddalore is engaged to Doctor 
Buchanan. , . . (■^' 

"W. M. Goodlad." 

[Holograph, 1 p., 4/o.] 

(1) Dawsonne Drake, a Madras civil servant of 1712, was in Council in 1759, and. 
in 1762 was nominali'd iJi'Dspcct ive Govor'iinr of .Manila, lie eventualh' ln'caine 
a free meroliant. 

(-' Admiral George Pocock .servi-d undi'i' Admiral Walsun at the cai)!!!!'!' of 
Ghcriali in 17y() and of Calcutta in 17.")7, and on Watson's death succeeded to the 
command of the East liulia .S(|uadron. lie fought actions witii d'Aelie off Cuddalore 
in 1758 and off Ceylon in 17o!». He subsequently commanded in the West Indies 
and was present at the capture of Ha\'ana in 1702. 

'■'' Tliese copies are probably those now jireserved in the Hrilish Museum, 
(Add. MSS. .'51,688). 

(*' Jane de Morgan became in 1761 tlie wife of Lieut. Richard K. F. .M.iitland, 
who dii^d of wounds .it tin- siege of .^ladui-a in 176-1 (7./.s7 o/ 1 tiscrijitions, 
J. J. Cotton). 

^■''' Dr. Duncan Huchanan married Mrs. Jane Maitland in 1767. 


[No. 38.| 
George Smith <^^ to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1767, October 30th, Fort St. (ieorge. (Received per Hector, 
22nd A})nl, 17()cS.) — " Sir, I did myself the pleasure of writing 
you by the Gluten, Capt. Dov^eton, whom I fell in with in the 
Straights of Banca last January, and informed you of my 
fortunate escape from Manila and the treatment I had met witli 
there. The Nabob writes the Company on this subject, and 
sends them a copy of my memorial and an estimate of the losses 
arising to him from the iniquitous measures of the Spanish 
Governor, which amovmts to Spanish dollars 144,650, which if 
paid we shall make a good voyage. I am not so sanguine in 
my expectations as to hope for this sum, though no more than 
we have a just claim for, yet I think the justice of the C[atholic] 
King will order us a restitution of the presents extorted from 
us and the ship's denun-rage during her illegal detention in his 
port. If the Company views this matter in its proper light, it 
will appear interesting to them, because they have not only a 
large duty on the goods provided and sent to Manila, but out 
of the specie, the produce of said goods, they are supplied with 
silver for China ; and if this is not imported from Manila or 
Europe all the rupees in the country will be drained for China, 
and in a short time none to be had, which would be attended 
with serious consequences unless they send silver to Canton 
from England, which they have not done for some years past. 
In this ^'iew I hope they will regard the matter, and apply to 
his Majesty for his good offices, through his minister at the 
Spanish Court, for redress of our losses, and that the trade be 
put on a more certain footing in future ; that is, to obtain 
permission for the Nabob to send his ships to Manila under 
the direction of such Europeans as he may appoint ; for if the 
C[atholic] K[ing] employs foreigners in his service, why may 
not the Nabob ? I hope you will use your influence to bring 
this about by the Company, as well as with his Majesty's 
ambassador at Madrid." 

Various circumstances have prevented me from making 
remittances to you either from China, Batavia or Madras, but 
" I have told Mr. Morse that I would pay him the sum T owed 
vou on demand, or continue it at interest untill I could remit 
it to you ... I hope you will pardon any disappointment which 
may arise to you from this money's not being paid in England 
when due, as it arose from a series of events which I could 
neither foresee nor prevent ... I have however the satis- 
faction to -inform you that the sum I owe you is as good as any 
in India, malgre Dom Joseph Raon,'^) whom if he had 
succeeded in his avaritious views would not have incapacitated 
me from paying my debts. I therefore account myself rich. 

(1' George Smith came to Madras as a free mierchant in 1754, and subsequently 
spent several years in China. 
(-) Governor of Manila. 

No. 33] 54 

1 recei\'ed from the General of Batavia the greatest marks of 
pohteness and civihties, and obtained a valuable and well 
assorted cargo at that port to the amount of 70,000 rix dollars, 
and could the Sultanissa ha.xe carried goods for all the silver 
on board her, I could have had them, and no questions asked. 
But all the advantages I expected from this indulgence were 
frustrated by Capt, Scott's want of judgement and experience 
in steering an improper course for Ceyloan, which obliged us to 
bear away for Atcheen, finding it impracticable to fetch any 
part of this coast, not even Point Palmeiras. We were so far 
to the East of Ceyloan when in its latitude, and blowing hard, 
the south west monsoon having broke on us the 18th May, we 
were obliged to bear away for Atcheen, which we could not fetch, 
so were forced to go to Queda, which we reached in great distress. 
We arrived here only the 21st September, and unfortunate as 
our voyage has been, I hope we will still get our principal 
concern if the Sultanissa can get a freight to Bombay from 
Bengal, where she is now gone ; and I hope Mr. Russell will be 
able to obtain this for us. If the C[atholic] King is just and 
generous we will get the interest on our capital. 

" The money which you lent Messrs. Jourdan,*^' kc, I have 
delivered to Mr. Morse : this sum and that lent Capt. Scott " 
I was unable to remit during my voyage, and I could not think 
of leaving it " in the hands of any person at Batavia (where a 
man to day exists and to-morrow is no more) until October, 
when it would be received into the Company's cash. 

" I brought several curious pieces of Japan ware and china 
from Batavia, and made a tender of some of them to Mr. Morse 
for you, but he told me that you had been amply supplied before 
you departed from hence. 

" I am favored with a most friendly letter from Mr. Vansittart 
this season, wherein he very kindly desires me to communicate 
my views as to myself, should not m\' Manila voyage 
have answered my expectations ... I have taken the liberty 
of hinting to him that I should be greatly obliged to him for 
an introduction into Mr. Morse's house on his return to Europe 
or retiring from business ... as I intend residing here untill 
I can go home on the terms I have always proposed for myself. . . 
£20,000 realized in England is the extent of my present wishes, 
and but for Dom Kaon, I should now have been of this value. 
As matters have turned out ... I must labour some \ears 
more ... so have dropt my thoughts of seeing England so 
soon as I hoped ; and now I have my hands at the oar I must 
even pull away untill I have got my vessel) into port . . . 

" Mrs. Munro<2' desires her compliments to you and Mrs. 

(1^' F'rancis Jourdan joined as a Writer in 1759, and accompaniod the Manila 
expedition in 1702. In 1776 he entered Council and held tlie appointments of 
Land Customer, Rental General and Scavenger. lie sided with the majority 
against Loi'd I'igot, and was recalled to England in 1777. 

(-' Frances Mary Munro, widow of Dr. Andrew M\inr() and aunt of George Smith. 
She resided at Madras until her death in 1771. 

55 [No. 3.3 

Palk, and says she hopes you have assisted in getting Aurora'^* 
sent to her under eare of a proper person. I have reeeived 
Bob's'-' dividend ol" the Nabob's debt to him, and will eontinue 

• . . . 

to receive any more wliich may be made him, whieh I fear will 
be but small and slowly paid. His mother is very anxious 
about hers, and no wonder, as almost all her money is in those 
funds. It Avill, I hope, in time be paid off. 

" I was happy to hear of your and Mrs. Palk's safe arrival 
at St. Helena, and hope this will find you happily setled in Old 
England, where that you may live long in health and prosperity 
I most sincerely wish . . . 

" George Smith." 

" P.S. The money I had in the Nabob's hands was 
fortunately paid off in the currency of 1766 as my bonds 
became due." 

[Holograph, 7 jjp., 4/o.j 

'[No. 34.] 

John Calland'-^' to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1767, November 3rd, Fort St. George. — " Sir, The many 
friendly offices I have received from you, added to the assurance 
you gave me on leaving India, induces me to take this oppor- 
tunity of writing you, as it will inform you of a circumstance 
the most interesting to me that has ever yet happened, since it 
not only effects [sic\ my character but future expectation, and 
has badly rewarded me for so many years' service . . . 

" You can be no stranger to the malicious disposition of the 
gentlemen that I had for my Counsel at Cuddalore, who by 
encouraging every thing that could oppose me and giving ear 
to every story that was told them without foundation or 
enquiry, I must greatly attribute what has happened, flattering 
themselves that if they could but get me removed, their frauds 
could not be detected . . . 

" Shortly after your leaving Madras, the old Investment 
being at an end, a new one was to commence, when I proposed, 
as the most effectual means of making the Merchants fulfill 
their future contracts, a penalty of 10 per cent, on failure. This 
the INIerchants consenting to, a few days after were called to 
execute them ; but instead of complying, not only refused 
doing of it, but denied having agreed to any such thing. As a 
letter had been wrote to the Presidency immediately on our 
engagement, I was under the necessity of representing this 
behaviour, when the Merchants were directly ordered up to 

(1' Margaret Aurora Munro, yoiinger daughter of Dr. Munro. She la irried her 
cousia George Smith in 1769. 

(2) Robert Duncan Munro, son of Dr. Munro, was a Madras civil servant of 17o5. 
He married Elizabeth Williamson in 1782. 

(3' John Galland, a civil servant of 1751, was Chief at Cuddalore in 17U7, whuu 
he was suspended. 

No. 34] 56 

Madras. But previous to their setting out, Mr. Dowsett'^' sent 
for Irshapah Chitty, the leading man of the whole and asked 
him what he had done to me to occasion my being so inveterate 
as to occasion my writing to Mr. Bourchier in particular 
against him, to take away his Palankeen and turn him out of 
the contract. This had the effect which was expected and 
desired of enraging this man against me, and by that means 
the others from his influence o^'er them." 

Dowsett having obtained leave, hurried to Madras to repre- 
sent to Mr. Bourchier that Irsappa Chetti was the cause of 
the trouble. When the ^Merchants arrived " the GoAcrnor 
was of course extreamly angry with them, but in particular 
with this Irshapah Chitty, and laid the whole blame on liim fyr 
the trouble they had given. This confirmed him in what had 
been so falsely told him, and fearing the disgrace of having his 
Palankeen taken from him and turned out of the contract, 
and the others, not knowing what might happen to them, 
thought it advisable to fall on some method to appease the 
Governor's anger, and of course made their application to 
Narrain Pillah and Chocapah Chitty'-' ... as ha\ing the ear 
of Mr. Pybus . . . What ^vith preparations for the expedition 
to Golcondah and other matters, the Merchants continued for 
six weeks, if not longer, at Madras without anything further 
passing ; which gave them all tlie time they could wish in 
preparing and making good their story, and visiting Mr. Dowsett, 
who was all this time there with them, daily." 

Eventually the Merchants were received by the Governor 
and Mr. P\'bus, and directed to submit their complaints in 
writing. At the next Council meeting four of them handled in 
petitions, which were entered in the proceedings ; the remaining 
three said they had no cause of complaint. I was then ordered 
to Madras. " On my arrival I visited the Governor, who 
received me as he had always done and . . . with the same deceit, 
his tongue saying one thing and liis heart another. However, 
from the favourable reception I met with 1 freely told him 
every thing . . . expressing my astonishment that any com- 
plaint whatever should be made against me by these people, 
as I had never given them any cause that 1 knew of, or e\er 
heard tliey were dissatisfied. From the Go\ernor I went to 
Mr. Pybus to pay my compliments, who, instead of receiving 
me with even connnon politeness or ciAility due to a stranger, 
absolutely insulted and abused me, comparing me to Governor 
Macraey,'^) and telling me that if what the merchants alledged 
against me was true, and which he made not the le[a]st doubt 
of, I ought to be dismissed the ser\ice with infamy (for these 
were his very words and expressions). . . . 

(1) Robert Dowsett, who entered the Madras civil service in 1754, was 2nd in 

the Cudiljilorc Cnuiiril in 17(i7. 

(■^) Narayan I'illai and L'hokappa Clictti, Madras Merchants for tlu> Company. 

f3) James Macrae, (lovernor of Madras 1725-30, was, on his supersession, charged 
by cei'tain natives witli lyraimy and acc<'i)tance of brilics. {Madra.i Conttultation, 
2nd June, 173U.) The charges appear to liave been unfounded. 

57 [No. 34 

" Some (laNs after my arrival the petitions were sent me by 
the Seeretary (another advocate for the cause by his connexion 
with UoAvsett and Cuming'^') to answer whicli I did accord- 
ingly ; but foreseeing . . . that I should ha\e tlie worst of it . . . 
I went frequently and breakfasted with Mr. Bourchier, and 
desired him to accommodate the matter, since it must hurt me 
at any rate if such a thing aj)pcarcd on record. But all was to 
no purpose. His answer was, that as it was now in c\cry one's 
mouth, the only way was to go through with it . . . 

'' It's unnecessary to repeat what arc in the proceedings, as 
I haxf s.iit them to Colonel Campbell with direction to get 
them drawn out in another manner, and to make the whole 
j)ublick, since 1 not only think myself extreamly injured, but 
tliere isn't a person in the Settlement acquainted with the service 
but thinks so too." Suffice it to say that I hope you will use 
vour influence with the Court of Directors on mv behalf. 
"Though I intend to proceed to Phigland, 'tis not by choice, 
but necessity that obliges me to if, and therefore shall perhaps 
be glad to return again if I can do it with credit . . ." 

" John Calland." 

[Holograph, 8 pp., 4^o.] 

[No. 35.] 

• MooPERALA Kistnia'-> and Rama Kisna to Robert Palk, 


1767, No^•enlber 4th, Fort St. George. (Received per Hector, 
22nd April, 1768.) — " Sir, We had the pleasure of addressing 
you per Anson, and the duplicate of which went per Pigot, 
wherebv \'ou would have been fullv informed about the Beetle 
and Tobacco farm is end[ed] to us soon after your departure . . . 

'' Old Kistnia hinted to you several times that after your 
government this poor country and the inhabitants would not 
be so happay and quiet as during your. time. Just it has 
happened accordingly, every body wishing for your goodness 
and care that lived in peace with all the Powers of the country ; 
whereas latch' a small body of the enemj^'s horse rode up to the 
Governor's Garden House, (=^* burning and destroying all that 
came in their way.''*' Numl5er[s] of poor innocent people from 
St. Thome, the Mount, Conjevcram and other places were 
killed, wounded and carried into captivity without one soul 
going to their defence, which has occasioned such a general 
consternation in our Black Town that most of the inhabitants 

U) William Cuming, a civil servant of ITfiO, was at Cuddalnro in 17(i7. 

C^) Vide No. 16, p. l!l, nolo I. 

(•5) The Governof's (or ('oiii|iany's) Garden Imuse was situated one luile S.\\'. >>{ 
the Fort. It is now Government House, Madras. 

(■*' This raid on the suburbs was made on the 28tli and 2!)th September l)y about 
8,000 of Haidar's cavalry. Madras lieing denuded of troops, the civil servants 
and other Europeans, as well as the Portuguese and Armenian residents, were 
armed for the defence of the Fort and To%vn (Madras Letters to England, 8th Oct., 

No. 35.] 58 

have sent out their familys to places of security, which is a 
great hinderance to all trade and business. God send us peace 
and queetness, for otherwise the poor country will be entirely 

" It will give us great pleasure to hear of your safe arrival 
in England, and that you and Mrs. Palk and General Lawrence 
enjoy a good .health, to whom please to present our most humble 
respects ..." 


" Rama Kisna." 

[Holograph of Rama Kisna, 3 pp., 4fo.] 

[No. 36.] 
Nawab Walajah to General [Stringer] Lawrence. 

" Nabob Waulau Jau, Ummeer Hind, Umdetul Molck, 
Seerajah Dowla, Anaverden Cawn Behauder, Munsoor Jung, 
Sepoy Sardar, 


" Shum Sool Mulk, Hisamood dowla. General Lawrence, 
Behauder, Hous Bur Jung." 

1767, November 5th, Fort St, George. — " Sir, The Company's 
ship Hector being now under disjiatch for England, I embrace 
with pleasure the opportunity of enquiring after your welfare, 
as well as to acquaint you of the receipt of your letter, with the 
tcllescope which you was so extreemly good as to get repaired 
for me. I return you many thanks for the great care vou 
have taken of it. 

" I am sorry to acquaint you that the house and furniture 
you was so kind [as] to leave me at the Mount was plundered 
by our enemy, and particularly the cot you used to sleep upon 
and the diamond cut globe were entirely destroyed. The loss 
of these two articles gives me great concern ; but as this is a 
subject of which you will hear of from some of your friends, 
excuse me from mentioning [it] any further. 

" Believe me I shall be ever ready of embracing ever}^ oppor- 
tunity that presents itself of serving you, as I shall be ever 
sensible of the many great obligations I lay under to you. Give 
me [leave] to conclude. Sir, by saying I am and ever shall be 
your sincere friend. What can I say more ? " 

[2^ pp., Uo.] 

[No. 37.] 
The Young Nawab'^' to General [Stringer] Lawrence. 

1767, November 5th, Fort St. George. — " Sir, My father by 
this conveyance does himself the pleasure of writing to you. 

" I have received your letter, and am glad to hear of your 
safe arrival in England, and hope your native air agrees with 

[ you]- 

(1) Aiiiir-ul-Uiuara, Walajah's second and favourite son. 

59 [No. 37 

" Wishing- you every joy this life affords, I remain, Sir, your 
sincere friend ever to eonniiand. What can I say more ? 
[P.S.] " My two brothers*" present their respects to you." 
[1 ^;., 4/0.] 

[No. 38.] 
Rob[er]t Palk to [William Martin] Goodlad. 

1767, November 15th, Spring Gardens. (Received 8th May, 
1768, per Watson.) — " Dear Goodlad, By the ships lately arrived 
I have recei^•ed two letters from you which ga\e me nmch 
satisfaction. I shall always expect and I shall always be glad 
to hear from you, as I take great part in your success and 

" I saw Mrs. and Miss Goodlad yesterday, and was happy 
to find your mother's health so well reestablished. She men- 
tioned to me her intention of remitting j^ou one thousand 
pounds, and I promised to give a bill for that sum Avhenever 
it was convenient to her. 

" I am settled in a town house at least for three years, and 
whenever any thing offers to my likeing, I shall make a purchase 
in the country : for in this very expensive land it becomes 
necessary to get into a settled way of life as soon as possible. 

" Capt. Martin has left a fine family, and in good time I hope 
we shall be able to send you one of them. We are selling out 
the India stock ; by the present price the estate wall be benefited 
upwards of two thousand pounds. 

" I ha^•e been well recei\ed both by His Majesty and the 
Company. IMrs. Palk and the children are well, and I expect 
soon to have an addition to the family. 

" So many gentlemen returning to the Council will not be 
very acceptable at Madras. Mackay's bar'^) was also intended 
to be taken off, but that is dropt, for the present at least. Lord 
Clive has exerted himself for Mr. Call, but Mr. Dupre has carried 
it.'-^' Annual salaries are settled on the Governor and Council 
of Bengal, and perhaps at Madras. No European is to trade in 
salt, &c., and the Governor of Bengal is not to trade at all. 
Such regulations as these, however, cannot be lasting. 

" I have endeavoured to get you Coral consignments, but 
with no success I fear. Tell Mr. Johnson'*' that I am sorry to 
say that all my interest, with Lord Cliv'c's added to it, cannot 
get my nephew (•^' out a w'ritcr. I hope, however, we shall be 
more successful after the departure of the Watson. I am, dear 
Goodlad, your affectionate and sincere friend, 

"RoBT. Palk." 

" Mrs. Palk sends you her best wishes." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., 4/o.] 

(1) Umdat-ul-Umara, VValajah's eldest sou, and Saif-ul-Mulk. 

(2) George Mackay was barred by the conditions of his admission to Council 
from rising above the position of junior member. 

(3) The Directors determined that Du Pr6 should supersede Call in Council. 
W James Johnson, cide Xo. 2S, />. to, note 7. 

(5) Thomas Palk, son of Governor Palk's brother Walter. 


[No. 39.] 
[To the Editor] " For the Morning Chronicle." 

N.D, [?1767] — " You are desired to assure the writer off a 
false and scandalous letter in your paper off yesterday, addrest 
too L. S. Esq.<^) and signed Pericles, that fame was never more 
mistaken than in what is alledged concerning 10,000 being given 
too procure a Govcrmnent for a gentleman formerly in the 
Church. The appointment at that time met the general appro- 
bation. He had been long in the service, and without ever 
applying by himself or freinds too any Director had been made 
a member off the Select Committee, and had been ordered the 
publick thanks off the Company and a present as a mark off 
their approbation near the same time that General Laurance 
and Lord Cli\e had been rewarded and distinguisht. 

" Mr. Palk almost at the commenceinent off the war on the 
coast of Caromandel had been deputed with General Laurance 
too consert measures for its success with the powers from whome 
assistance was expected, the Misoreans, Marattas, Tanjorins, 
Maravars, &c. He was in several campains with General 
Laurance, and in consert with him formed those military regu- 
lations which have effectually almost ever since kept down the 
great expence off the army on the coast of Caromandel. He 
kept the Rajah off Tan jour in freindship and alliance with the 
Nabob. He had the honoiu' of being appointed too meet the 
French deputies at the congress held at Sadrass in the time of 
Mr. Dupleix, when with the assistance of Mr. Vansittart a 
forgery was discovered in the Mogul's saned.*^' He was also 
deputed to conculde [sic] the truce with Mr. Godeheu, and his 
appointment to succeed Lord Pigot was never solicited on his 
part : it was freely and graciously offered, and given without 
fee or reward." 

[2 2^P', 4^0.] 

[Note. The foregoing eccentrically spelt letter is written by 
an unknown hand. It is endorsed in a different handwriting 
" Mr. Palk's services." The file of the Monii)ig Chronicle 
preserved in the British Museum is incomplete, and neither 
the letter signed Pericles nor this reply can be traced.] 

[No. 40.] 
Robert Palk to [(?)Thomas Saunders.] 
[Endorsed in Palk's hand] " War with Hyder Aly. Draft 

of a letter to Mr. S."(^) 
N.D. [cir. 1767.] — " Dear Sir, It having been said that the 
treaty '^* with Nizam Aly was the cause of the present war with 

(1) Laurence Sulivan, who was Chairman of the Court of Directors when Talk 
became Governor in November, 176^. 

(-' Saned, Ar. annad, a deed of grant. 

(•'" Mr. .S. was probably either Thomas Saunders or Laurence Sulivan. 
Saimders is the more Hkely, as he was Deputy Chairman of the Court of Directors 
in 17ti7, while Sulivan was not on the Directorate. 

l^) The Treaty of I7GG, negotiated l)y Caillaud. 

61 [No. 40 

Hyder Aly. wlu'cli it was intended to prevent, T sliall give you 
very brielly my sentiments on this sidjject, from memory and 
recollection only, as my papers are in town. 

" When I took possession of the Government in 1703 after 
an unsuccessful attack on Madura, I saw the necessity of keeping 
on good terms with Ilyder Aly, not only as he was grown very 
powerful, hut that he might not intermeddle in the troubles 
caused by Cawn Saib ; '^' and in this I succeeded so well that I 
doubtetl not of kee})ing the peace between the Nabob and him, 
till the surrender of Madura, when manV of his letters of 
encouragement and promises of assistance were found amongst 
the papers of Cawn Sahib ; on which I remonstrated to the 
A^aquil, who assured me his master would in future alter his 
conduct and by our means hope to live in peace with the Nabob, 
with whom however he did not correspond. At this time Hyder 
Aly was attacked by the Marattas, and after several obstinate 
engagements obliged them to retire from the Misore country. 
Inuuediately after this he reduced the province of Shirpi*-' and 
a part of Currapah, and the Nabob of the former with the 
principal men took refuge with Mahomet Aly.'-^> I endeavoured 
often to prevail on him to send them away, and he promised 
they should be carried to Mecca, though Hyder Aly had given 
like protection to Chunda Saib's son '^' and many others who 
had been rebels to his government ; and after that Mauphus 
Cawn, the elder brother of our Nabob, under the pretence of 
going over land to Bombay and proceeding from thence to 
Mecca, took shelter with the Misore Usurper. 

" In this manner things went on till the French arrived and 
Hyder Aly had sufTiciently alarmed the Gentlemen of Bombay, 
reduced the whole Malabar Coast from Sunda. east of Goa, 
to Travencore and enriched his treasury with the immense wealth 
of Bidnoor.'"'* He then came round in the rainy season to the 
neighbourhood of Caroor, west of Trichenopoly, and fmding 
that place too strong to be carried by a sudden attack, he 
desisted from that enterprize ; but he spread so much 
disaffection by sending Mauphus Cawn**"'' toward the Madura and 

(1) Muhammad Yusuf Khan, commonly known as " Cawn Saib," attracted 
notice in 1752 by his gallant behaviour under Captain Dalton at Utatur. In 175^1 
he received a commission as Commandant of the Company's native troops, and he 
did good service Avith the field force during the siege of Madras in 1758-59. He 
subsequently became Renter in the Southern districts, and the power he wickled 
tempted him to aim at independence. Obtaining French assistance, he fortified 
himself in Madura, where he was besieged by Donald Campbell in 1703 and Ciiarles 
Campbell in 1701. The place ultimately capitulated after a protracted defence. 
Yusuf Khan was delivered up by M. Marcliand and was executed as a rebel. 

(-) Sira or Sirpi. Vide Xo. li), p. 2;5, note 7. 

'3) Muhammad Ali Khan, Nawah of Arcot and the Carnatic, who received the 
title Walajah in 1705. 

(*) Chanda Sahil> had been supported by the French in his claim to be ruler of 
the Carnatic in opposition to ISluhammad Ali, who was backed by the British. 
Chanda Sahib fell into the hands of tlic Tanjoi-c general in 1752 and was beheaded, 
but he left a son, Raza Sahib, who was natui'ally regarded with disfavour by the 

(5) Bednur. Vide No. 30, /). 19, note 2. 

(6) Mahfuz Khan, elder brother of Nawab Muhammad Ali. 

No. 40] 62 

Tinnavilly Polligars that those very large districts scarce paid 
the expence of the troops we were obUged to keep there. I 
should before have said that Caroor had been taken from the 
Misorians when they endeavoured to relieve Pondicher}', and 
though frequently demanded, nobody judged it ought to 
be ceded, especially as Dindagul, which formerly belonged to 
Trichenopoly, had been added to the Misore Government. 

" The French were now at Pondichery and the great number 
of prisoners from Trichenopoly and [Madras delivered up to 
them, unable to pay them or willing to create troubles and 
encourage their old allv Hvder Alv, thev suffered their officers 
and men to desert to him ; and when the Nabob remonstrated 
against so suspicious a conduct they said Pondichery was open, 
and therefore not in their power to prevent desertion. 

" In 1765, after Nizam Aly's disgraceful attempt on the 
Arcot Province, and demanding 17 years' tribute, great court 
was paid to him by Hydcr Aly, Mauphus Cawn sent to Hidrabad, 
and a saned obtained for the Carnateck. 

" It now became necessary to set on foot a negotiation with 
Hyder Aly, to which we were the more encouraged as we had 
all along to all appearance kept on very good terms with him. 
I therefore prevailed on the Vakil to make the proposal 
as from himself ; and it was determined that Mr. James 
Bourchier, one of our Council, should be deputed to him, and 
he accordingly set out with proper instructions and presents with 
the Vaquil, who was to meet his master on the other side of 
the hills and advise Mr. Bourchier at Velloor of the place of 
interview. But after waiting an unreasonable time he returned, 
and Hyder, having changed his mind, gave in excuse that 
troubles on the Malabar coast called for his immediate presence. 
The Vaquil confessed to me that his master and his Dirbar'^' 
were so intoxicated with their success that they seemed to 
think even the Europeans could not stop their career. 

" In this situation I prevailed on the Nabob to send a trusty 
person to Nizam Aly to insinuate to him the bad consequences 
which would attend the seat of the Dekkan Government from 
our neighbourhood in the Circars if he persisted in encouraging 
Hydcr Aly, and this messenger had instructions on the part 
of the Nabob and us to estabhsh harmony and a good under- 
standing ; but Nizam Aly was so much exasperated against 
the Nabob that he would not listen to any proposals. I was, 
however, at the same time acquainted that if I applyed for a 
gentleman of our own to come, he should be furnished with a 

" Accordingly General Caillaud went and concluded the 
treaty'-) which gave us quiet possession of the Circars and, 
what we judged of equal consequence, an easy method of putting 

(1' Dirbar, durbar, ministers, Coiu-t, hall of audience, lev^e : ivom Pers. dar-bdr, 
within the court -yard. 

(-) The Treaty of Hyderabad of 12th November, 170C. 

0.3 [No. 40 

an end to the views of Hydcr Aly on tlic Carnatcck, witlioiit 
making ourselves ]:)rineipals, hy obliging him to pay his long 
arrears of tribute to Nizam Aly, to eonline himseli' within the 
bounds of the antient kingdom of Misore and to leave the Nabob 
in possession of the passes, wliieh it was our intention, as well 
as the Company's orders, to take possession of as soon as 
possible, but which would- never be done without coming to 
hostilities, most of them ha\ing been formerly surprized by 
Hyder Aly ; and without these it was in the power of every 
petty PoUigar to disturb the peace of the Nabob's country from 
Tinnavilly to Cadapa, a length of 700 miles. 

" Many unforeseen accidents happened to prevent the speedy 
success of this expedition, which was intended to be undertaken 
with all possible dispatch, and it was reasonably imagined that 
20,000 horse of Nizam Aly's joined to [a] reasonable body of 
our Europeans and sepoys, with a good train of artillery, would 
in a few months happily finish the expedition ; but unfortunately 
Nizam Aly was so tedious and dilatory in joining that when [he] 
entered the hills which divide the Carnateck and the Misore 
country, it was almost time to return to save his passage over 
the Christna ; and the rains soon coming on, in which the army 
could not act effectually, the want of subsistence and pay for 
his troops induced him through necessity to change sides and 
accept the offers of Hyder x\ly ; though the army in the Circars. 
soon made him repent of that measure so contrary to treaty 
and his own true interest." 

[Holograph, 5 pp., Uo.'\ 

[Note. The al)ove draft letter is in Palk's handwriting, but 
is imsigned.] 

[No. 41.] 

[Mcmorandimi by Laurence Sultvan.] 

N.D. [17G7, July — December.] — " Governor Palk to apply 
to the following : — General Calliaud ; (^) Mr. Pechell and friends; 
T. and C. Brett, Esqs., and friends ; the Vaughans ; A. Chorley ; 
E. Mason ; R. Home, &c., formerly qualified ; Mr. Pybus, 
w^ien he comes ; (2) the Boscawen familly ; Mrs. Boscawen*-^) 
kindly qualified as well [as] Mrs. Judy Levy at her desire ; 
Colonel Charles Campbell(^) and friends ; R. Fairfield'^) and 

(1) General John Caillaud. Fiiie'No. 73, ;). 10:2, note 1. 

(2) John Pybus was expected to arrive about April 1768. (Cf. Xo. 30, p. 51). 

(3) Frances, widow of 7\dmiral tlie Hon. E. Boscawen. 

(■*' Colonel Cluirles Campbell, l)rother of Colonel Donald Caiuiibell, served as 
Captain with the Madras European Regiment in 1758. As Major he successfully 
conducted the second siege of Madura in 1764. In the two following years Colonel 
Campbell commanded the force acting against the Poligars north of Trichinopoly. 
He wrote a join-nal of his operations, which is preserved among the Oriue MSS. 

(5) Richard Fairfield entered the Madras civil service in 1716. In 1758 he was 
one of the signatories to the articles of capitulation of Fort St. David, and in the 
following year was a Councillor at Fort St. George. 

No. 41[ 64 

friends ; Captain Kilpatrick and friends ; R. Starke <i' and 
friends ; A. Preston and friends ; Mr. Line ; Mr. Lind ; 
Cotsford deceased, his stock to be transferred and made a 
vote ; Vantellingen to buy largely ; Rev. Erasmus Sanders ; 
Sir Harry and George Bridgeman*-* through Mrs. Martin ; 
Mr. Palk and Mr. Brett's bankers to be made a point — they 
can do much. 

" Van'-^' has several memorandums in which Mr. Palk can 
greatly assist, particularly with J. Boyd<^' and Mr. Somner." 

[Holograph, 1 p., 8do.] 

[Note. The above memorandum is in the handwriting of 
Laurence Sulivan, but is unsigned. It names friends of Palk 
who were qualified (by the possession of not less than £500 of 
India stock) to vote for candidates for the Directorate.] 

[No. 42.] 
Captain T[homas] Madge to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1768, February 20th, Camp near Combammett. — " Sir, The 
permission you were pleased to indulge me with, at taking my 
leave of you at Madrass, of writing you by exevy opportunity 
emboldens me to embrace this first opportunity since you left 
India " ; for sailings have hitherto been notified too late to 
permit of my writing, " owing to the great distance I was at 
these times from any of our Settlements. 

" I am sorry to acquaint you that the command of the troops 
stationed in the Circars, which you procured the promise of 
my being appointed to, never took place, as notwithstanding . . 
the assurances made you by those who had it in their power . . 
you were no sooner out of sight of Madrass than an entire 
alteration in their measures occasioned me no longer to hope 
for any favor from those I had been recommended to . . . 
Indeed I met with some difficulty at Masulipatam in getting 
Mr. Palk(^) appointed to my battalion, which I could not effect 
till I wrote Mr. Bourchier on the occasion. 

" As soon as I found my disappointment certain by the 
Governor's declaring the command in the Circars was never 
intended for me, I wrote my friend Mr. Pybus on the occasion, 
desiring him to acquaint you in his next letters that this contempt 
of your recommendation had not been owing to my misconduct. 
At the same time I desired him to procure a conveyance for a 

(1) Richard Starke, a Madras civil servant of 1735, was Deputy Governor of 
Fort St. Gi-opfjc for a short period in 1752, and thereafter Deputy Governor of Fort 
St. David until 175(>, when he resij^ned the service. 

'-) Sir Henry Biidjieiiian, Bt., was created Baron Bradford. TTis brother (ieorgo 
died in December 17(57. The date of Laiwenco Sulivan's Memorandum must 
therefore lie between the 13th .luly, 17f>7, wlien Palk arrived in England, and the 
end of tlie year. 

(•" Henry Vnnsittart. 

(•*) .lolin Boyd, formerly a Director. 

(5) Lieut. Thonuis Palic, a kinsman of Goveiiior I'alk (probably grandson of 
an uncle of the latter), not to be confused with Thomas Palk, son of Walter Palk 
and nephew of Governor Palk. 

65 [No. 42. 

box of cliina, wliich T had wrote to my Unkle to send me from 
China, as a present for my old friend Colonel Monson,(i> and 
Avliieh T assumed the Hherty to desire miglit be direeted to your 
care in Enirland . . . But he never vouchsafed to send me 
an answer till within a day or two of his leaving the country. 
This neglect of his prevented my sending you a letter with the 
box , . . 

" About a month after my retm-n from Madrass, on the troops 
designed for the Ilydrabad service leaving the Circars, I was 
sent up to the Chicacole province with a small detachment to 
assist the newly appointed Renter in plundering the country, 
for his method of collecting the revenues could be construed in 
no other light. As a particular favor I was allowed to take 
Mr. Palk with me, which I thought more for his interest than if 
he remained at Ellour, as the morals of most of the officers left 
in the Circars were such as would not have improved his by 
following their example. I did not find the Chief of Masuli- 
patam(2) was willing to do any thing for him, as he would not 
consent to his having the command at Condapillee, though it 
was garrisoned only by a part of my battalion, and the other 
lieutenant chose to be with me in the field. 

" The impropriety in the choice of the Chicacole Renter for 
the last year surprised every body, and gave the country powers 
no very favorable opinion of the abilities or penetration of the 
person who entrusted him with it, as after a great many frivolous 
excuses for the non-performance of his engagements, his 
intentions began to be suspected and Jague Pundat was sent up 
to settle accounts with him. He left me to settle some affairs 
in the Ichapour country, whither he said there was no necessity 
for my attending him ; and on Juggo Pundat's arrival at my 
camp he took care to amuse him with idle stories till he had 
collected the revenues of the Circar. Which when he had 
secured, vmder pretence of coming to settle his accounts with 
Jague Pundat, he pursued a different rout through the hills and 
threw himself into Vizianagaram, and put himself under the 
protection of Sitteramrauze,'-^) who had the insolence to insist 
on being arbitrator in the dispute between the Company and 
the Renter, which, I am almost ashamed to tell you, was tacitly 
consented to. 

" I left the Renter and Jague Pvmdat at Vizianagaram in 
December last in dispute before the Raja, on my way to join 
the army intended to act in the Deckan ; since when I have 
been informed that the Renter has compromised his affairs with 
the Company at the expence of some individuals from whom 
he has received large deductions, to make good which it is very 
probable he will be again entrusted with the management of 
the Circar ! 

(1) Vide No. 6, p. 12, note 2. 

(2) John Lewin Smith. 

(3) Sitaram Raz, Vide No. 19, p. 28, note 5. 

No. 42.] 66 

" As you will undoubtedly receive a better account of the 
war with the Soubah and Hyder Ally in the Carnatic than I can 
pretend to give you, I shall decline the task, and confine myself 
to what has been doing in this part of the Deckan, which has 
brought the Soubah to a proper way of thinking for himself, 
as he pretends to be heartily tired of his alliance with Hyder 
Ally, from whom he has withdrawji himself, and is now negotiat- 
ing with the Council at 'Madrass for a new alliance, which, it is 
reported, is nearly finished. 

" At the commencement of the war in the Carnatic applica- 
tion was made to the Presidency of Calcutta for a body of troops 
to be sent to Masulipatam, who were to act against the Soubah 
in the Deckan, Accordingly three battalions of Bengal seapoys 
were landed at Vizagapatam in the month of October, and 
notwithstanding the urgent necessity that appeared for their 
immediate proceeding to Masulipatam, they could not be put 
in motion till the month of December for want of conveniences 
for transporting their stores and baggage, which I was obliged 
to furnish them with at last from Chicacole. 

" In December three companies of Bengal infantry arrived 
at Masulipatam, with whom, and two companies of the Coast 
infantry, some artillery, and my battalion of seapoys. Colonel 
Hart(^' was ordered to take the field. I had been ordered from 
Chicacole to go with the expedition as soon as it was concerted, 
unless I preferred the command I then enjoyed ; but by a 
private letter from the artfuU Chief of Masulipatam I could 
easily perceive he wished I would join the army, hinting as if 
Colonel Hart was not equal to the command of so important 
a service. Though the 'remaining at Chicacole was certainly 
more to my advantage, I never hesitated a moment about 
resigning it, and accordingly repaired to the army with Mr. 
Palk, who I was allowed to bring with me from Chicacole. 
On my arrival I found Mr. Smith had ordered Hart to appoint 
me his Aid de Camp and Secretary ; and to add to the affront 
I was actually put in orders without being consulted whether 
or no I approved of the ajipointment. 

" By representing to the Chief the impropriety of my acting 
in the capacity of a staff officer whilst I remained second in 
conmiand, together with my resolution of acting as a private 
officer, he accjuiesced in my declining it ; when Hart offered 
me to dispose of it to whom I pleased — a favor I had no right 
to expect. I however procured it for Mr. Palk, who was 
appointed accordingly. 

" We marched the 10th of December from Ellour towards 
Combammett, the Phousdahr (-' of which had bargained for 
the surrender of the Fort and Circar with the Chief of Masuli- 

U) Simon Hart, who entered the Madras Army as Ensign in 1754, and, as 
Captain acconipMiiicd Caillaud to Bengal in 1759. He was serving at 
Triohinopoly in I7(i2. 

(-) I'limt.sclur, ;i magistrate, native goveincir, I'idiu I'ers. jaujddr, a military 

67 [No. 12. 

patain some time before we took the field. Hut so indiscreet 
was the Chief's conduct on the occasion that, had the Soubali 
any trooj)s at Hydrabad, wc could not have taken it, as lie 
could ha\e thrown in a sufTieient force to have defended it 
against all the troops in the Circars long before we could have 
taken advantage of the disposition of the Phousdahr in our 
favor. However, circumstances proved more lucky than we 
had a right to expect, and we reached the place in time to secure 
it, though a body of the Soubah's rabble had been assembled, 
and on the march to dispossess the Phousdar of his charge. 
They halted within twenty coss of the place on hearing we had 
got possession of it, and as soon as we were joined by the Bengal 
seapoys from Vizagapatam we advanced upon them and 
came up with their main body, consisting of 4,000 horse and 
foot, which had taken post under the walls of a small fort. They 
made a few flourishes with their horse, but on our advanced 
guard's attempting to close with them, they walked off in such 
a hurry that we had not time to lire three shot from our field 
pieces till they were put of sight, nor did they ever stay within 
two days' march of us afterwards. A desperate sett of them 
had thrown themselves into the fort, which they resolutely 
defended for two hours, and did not surrender till I brought up 
my battalion to the gateway, which we had nearly burst open 
with our field pieces, wdien they threw down their arms. 

" The resolute behaviour of our troops at this place so 
intimidated the Zemindars, who were before assembling to stop 
our progress, that they all sent letters desiring our favor and 
protection to the commanding officer. And we took possession 
of the fort of Worrangele and the Circar which bears its name 
without seeing the face of an enemy. 

" The progress of our arms in the Deckan began to alarm the 
Soubah, w^ho never imagined we could bring an army into the 
field against them from the Circars, from the accounts he had 
received of our small force and the hopes of opposition to our 
Government he had reason to flatter himself with from the 
refractory Pollygars. But as soon as he found out his mistake, 
he applied to Madrass for an accommodation, which has been 
in some respects attended to, and we in consequence of it stopt 
in our career, with the prospect of the plunder of Hydrabad 
almost within grasp, without hopes of being allowed to make 
use of the opportunity. We arc now within 30 coss of the city, 
and notwithstanding the Soubah's son<^' has been exerting his 
utmost endeavours to persuade the Zemindars dependent on 
his family to join him, he has not been able to collect together 
above 5,000 bad horse and Sibbendy,*-' and these so badly paid 
and provided, and at the same time so frightened, that we might 
expect to find the place abandoned before we could come within 
a day's march of it. 

(1) Nawab Sikandar Jah, son and eventual successor of Nizam Ali. 

(2) Sibhendji, from Hind, slhandi, irregular soldiery iiuiintained for garrisons 
and guards. 

No. 42] 68 

" Colonel Peach, '1) who joined the army the last month with 
the Grenadiers and colours of his regiment and assumed the 
command, seems greatly chagrined at our being ordered to halt, 
as he had promised himself great things by prosecuting the war 
with the Soubah. It is supposed, should peace be the conse- 
quence of the present negotiation, that he will either be ordered 
to join Colonel Smith in the Carnatic, or be immediately sent 
back to Bengal by land ; when he may on his way call the famous 
Narrain Dew*-' to account, who since I left his neighbourhood 
has withdrawn his allegiance from the Company in consequence, 
as he says, of the Soubah's positive orders, and has been for 
some time raising contributions and laying waste the country. 

" I am sincerely concerned to acquaint you with the death of 
Captain Cranch,*^) who died some time in August last of the 
gout at Trichanapoly, regretted by all who knew him. He left 
a will amongst his papers, in which he has nominated me one 
of his executors. The other two are officers of the late 79th 
Regiment, and both in England. On receiving information 
of his death I wrote to the officer commanding at Trichanopoly 
(Major Flint) desiring him to send the will to my attorney at 
Madrass that it might be proved in the Mayor's Court, and 
attested copies of it taken for the satisfaction of his family. I 
at the same time desired him to dispose of his effects, the amount 
of which and other particulars of his estate as soon as collected 
I will take the liberty to remit to you by the first opportunity, 
as there appear some circumstances in his private connexions 
as make me cautious of pay[ing] the legacies or disposing of his 
estate lest it should give umbrage to his family, with whom I am 
entirely unacquainted . . . 

" Long ere this I flatter myself you are happily settled in 
England, and experience in the society of your friends and the 
frequent opportunities of doing good an adequate recompense 
for the many years of business and fatigue you have known in 
this country. And that health, content and every other blessing 
requisite to perfect happiness may long attend you and Mrs. 
Palk will always be the unfeigned wishes of, Sir, your much 
obliged, faithful, humble servant, 

[Holograph, Q\ pp., Uo.] " T. Madge." , 

[No. 43.] 
Rob[er]t Palk to [William Martin] Goodlad. 
[Endorsed] " Received 8th August, 17G8, by the hand of 
Mr. HelHng." 

(1) Joseph Peach entered tlie Bengal Infantry as Major in 17G4. Late in 1767 
Colonel IVaoli condiictod a force sent from Calcutta against the Nizam. Joining 
Colonel llart'is detachment from the Circars, he took command and apiJroached 
Hyderabad. Nizam Ali sued for i)eace, anil l\>ach rctui'iicd to Bengal, where he 
died in 1770. 

(■-) Narayan Deo, insurgent zemindar of Kimedi, was attacked and dcfealed 
by Colonel Peach near the fort of Jelmur in Ganjam in May, 1768. 

(•^) Lieut. Peter Cranch joined the Company's service from II.M's 79th (Draper's) 

69 [Xo. 43. 

1768, March 1st. — " Dear Goodlad, I thank you for your 
letters since my departure, and I beg I may always hear from 
\ou. Give, I desire you, my nephew Tom your advice and 
assistance. I intended him for a Writer, but was refused. 

" If you can help the bearer, jNIr. Helling, to the command of, 
or a birth in a country vessell, you will oblige a very capable 
deserving man, and also your sincere and faithful friend, 

[Holograph, 1 p., Mo.] " Robt. Palk," 

[No. 44.] 
W[illiam] Aldersey (1) to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1768, March 28th, Fort William.—" Dear Sir, I did myself 
the pleasure of writing to you by Mr. Campbell,'-' who embarked 
for England in the Europa, and cannot omit the last opportunity 
I shall have this season of repeating my sincere acknowledgments 
of your friendly offices in this part of the world. 

" Under the care of Captain Riddle I have sent a parcel 
directed to jMr. Phipps, in which is a piece of silver specked 
muslin, which I hope Mrs. Palk will do me the favor to accept 
of for her little daughter,*-^' whom I shall hope to salute in Old 
England one of these days, though the prospect yet appears 
at a distance. 

" Since our last dispatch the Gentlemen at Madras have con- 
cluded a treaty with Nizamally, and Hyderally has walked off 
to his own country, the particulars of which you will no doubt 
be fully informed of from that quarter. The situation of affairs 
here has not undergone the least alteration since our last 

" My best respects attend JMrs. Palk, General LaAvrence and 
General Caillaud. I have already paid my compliments to 
Mr. Vansittart this season, but request you will take the first 
opportunity of repeating my acknowledgements for his many 
favors. I am . . 

" W. Aldersey." 

[Holograph, 2^ pp., Mo.] 

[No. 45.] 

John Calland to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1768, April 25th, Fort St. George. — " Sir, It being the advice 
and opinion of every one acquainted with the Cuddalore 
3Ierchants' complaints against me, and the severe usage I have 
met with in consequence, that I renew by all means my applica- 
tion to you ... I beg leave to enclose you duplicate of my 
letter per Hector, copies of the four petitions given in against 

(1) William Aldersey, a Madras civil servant of 1754, served for several years 
as Secretary in the Political Department. In 1766 he was transferred to Bengal, 
and entered Council. 

(-' Alexander Campbell. Vide Xo. 12, p. 15, note i. 

(3) Anne Palk, born 1764. 

No. 45.] 70 

me, my answer thereto and refutation of the whole, which are 
the material papers of the proceedings. The remaining part, 
containing little more than the examination of the witnesses . . . 
I have sent to Colonel Campbell,* i' who will shew them to you 
if you will please to take the trouble of asking for them. 

" As Mr. Saunders(-) will in all probability be Chairman when 
this affair comes under consideration, I cannot avoid looking 
upon it as the most propitious circumstance for me that could 
happen ; being in the first place a man of sense and who has 
a thorough knowledge of the service, and in the next that you 
are intimately acquainted with him ; from which I hope the 
complaints made against me will be so far mitigated that I shall 
be restored, by their being looked upon ... as malicious and 
ill-grounded, and merely in consequence of my imposing the 
penalty of 10 per cent, on failure of contract, and thwarting the 
ambition and evil practices of the most considerable Merchants, 
but Irshapah Chitty and Moodo Kistna in particular . . . 

" Had I robbed or defrauded the Company (as it seems those 
who were in Council with me are judged to have done), or had 
the service in the le[a]st suffered, I should have thought myself 
justly deserving the treatment I have received. But on the 
contrary, did I not bring the Cuddalore Investment to fifteen 
hundred bales, which was more by some hundreds than had been 
got for many years before ? . . Besides, is there a man in the 
service that can accuse me of ever wronging the Company the 
value of a fanam, or not doing my duty in every office I have 
been employed during the seventeen years of my servitude, which 
brought me the next to Council ? . . .1 flatter myself you will 
interest yourself so far in my behalf with Mr. Saunders as to get 
justice done me and every prejudice removed by my re-instate- 
ment . . . yet, should it happen otherwise, and the reward of 
so many years' diligent and faithful services be cancelled . . . 
I shall then think it incumbent on me to use those materials I 
am possessed of in taking a laudable satisfaction of those men 
who have so cruely injured me . . . The materials I have got 
I have neither spared money or trouble in procuring, and which 
are such as, without ostentation or deceit, must inevitably ruin 
Mr. Pybus, and give such an insight into things as will hurt 
the servants in general. 

" Mr. Bourchier, I hear, accuses me of using him ill and being 
ungrateful. But sure, not upon reflection ? Let any one read 
my letter to him of the 23rd March, and the Merchants' to me 
a month afterwards, and be told the repeated sollicitations I 
made him to compromise the affair, to no purpose ; and then 
judge of the reason he has for saying so, and if I have not had 
suflicient cause and provocation for every thing I have said and 
ten times as nmch more. Words are nothing. 'Tis the actions 
of a man that another is to judge by, either of his friendship or 

(1) Colonel Charh'S Canipljell, ride No. 41, p. 63, note 4. 

'-' Thomas .Saunders was Deputy Chairmau in 1767, but did not succeed to 
the Chaii' in the following year. 

71 [No. 45. 

sincerity . . . T hope for my own sake, as well as the invidious 
Mr. Pybus's, and in short every other person connected with 
the service, that you will use your influence with Mr. Saunders 
and others so as to make further proceedings unnecessary. . . 

" John Calland." 
[Holograph, 7 pp., 4^o.] 

[No. 46.] 
T. Orton'I) to [Robert Palk, Esqr.] 

1768, April 28th, Velloor. — " Sir ... A few months after your 
departnre I experienced my loss, and to speak with confidence 
to you, a very rash effort was made to ruin me. It may suffice 
to say I am sorry the country could afford such a glaring instance 
of credulity on one hand and malice on the other. It consisted 
of a letter from Colonel Smith at camp to the Board in the most 
aggravated terms of complaint ' that were an abominable 
shame and ought to be rectified,' which evidently appeared 
to have so little foundation that I acquired credit instead of 
the intended infamy. 

" Mrs. Orton came up here directly after you embarkt and 
has remained here ever since ... If any oppertunity offers, I 
beg leave to request your favorable mention of me to any 
gentleman coming out, where you may think it proper. . . 

"T. Orton." 

[Holograph, 2f pp., 4^o.] 

[No. 47.] 
James Bourchier to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1768, May 2nd, Madrass. — " Your favor, my dear Mr. Palk, 
from St. Hellena, contrary to your expectation, reached me 
in November before we could have any intelligence of your safe 
arrival in England, nor have we yet any further tidings of you ; 
but I will hope you are there, and happy to the extent of your 
wishes. Your friend poor Charles*-' has had a very troublesome 
government almost ever since you left him in it : this 
confounded war has kept his hands full and his spirits harrassed, 
yet fortunately he has enjoyed great health. As I presume 
Call, whose genious lies in political narrative, has given you 
every particular of what has happened and what is to be 
expected, I will not touch on the subject. He with Mackay<'^> 
are gone as Field Deputies to assist the Nabob and Colonel Smith 
with their counsel, and I hope by a vigorous and spirited effort 
we shall subdue the Hydra. 

" The Gentlemen of Bengal, notwithstanding their boasted 
promises of an exertion of their assistance, have failed in the 

'D T. Oi-ton has not l)een traced. Captain Roderick Orton was tried l)y court 
martial in ITtii) and cashiered for yielding the fort of Erode to llaidar in the 
preceding December. 

(^' Charles Bourchier. 
J3> George Mackay, Cf. No. 13.. p. 17, note 3. 

No. 47.] 72 

most essential point of mony, which will, I fear, force us to 
break in upon the China stock. However, nothing must now 
be spared to put an end to this war. If we succeed (as we have 
all the reason in the world to expect) in the down fall of Hyder 
Naigue, we shall secure stability to the Company's possessions 
on this and the Mulabar Coast, and root out a power, the only 
one indeed that could afford our neighbors (the French) any 
support in case of a rupture between our nations — an object 
in my opinion of the first importance. By the reports we have, 
and indeed they themselves confirm, they are collecting and 
disciplining a large body of troops at the Islands, <^) which, 
depend upon it, they will augment by every vessell they can 
steal out thither. It therefore behoves the Honourable Twenty 
four'-) to keep a ^^ery watchful eye on them, and to give us early 
intelligence of the first likelihood of trouble, as well as secure, 
by the Piscash they are to pay the Government, a formidable 
naval force to preserve to us the command of the seas. In that 
case they will put it in our power to divest the gentry of all 
they possess here ere they can be reinforced or even in a 
condition of defence. 

" Most probably I shall leave India ere there can be a war, 
yet I shall ever retain that attachment to the service, and 
Madrass in particular, as to wish the utmost success to their 
affairs. You will know our situation, my dear Mr. Palk, and 
the precautions that ought to be taken to preserve the well 
being of the Company abroad, and I make no doubt will give 
them every useful light that can tend to that desireable end. 
It's to be hoped the Company will earnestly endeavor to keep 
complete our military establishment. This has been a fatal 
season to many valuable young officers as well as the private 
men ; it's therefore the more necessary we should be amply 
supplyed with recruits. 

" Our society of males continues much the same as when 
you left us, except the loss of poor Griffiths,*^* who dyed after 
a long fit of illness the latter end of last month, much lamented 
by those who were intimately acquainted with him. Thomas* '' 
and Stone(^) are his executors, who will do the greatest justice 
to his estate. George Stratton*®) is married to a Miss Light*"* 
that came out on one of the latter ships of last year : — you may 
remember a brother'^) of hers that came out a Writer the season 

'D The Isles of France and Bourbon (Mauritius and Reunion). 

(-' The twenly-four Directors of the East India Company. 

(3) Tlie Uev. C'liarles Griffiths arrived in India as eliaplain to the 79th Regiment, 
and entered the Company's service in 17tJ2. lie died 25th Ajuil, 17ti8, when 
chaplain at Fort St. George. 

(*) The Rev. John Thomas, chaplain. 

'5) John Miixwell Stone, ^'uh No. 20, />. J(i, note 4. 

(6) George Slr;it(on, a Madras civil servant of 1751, entered the Council in 17G1. 
In 1771) he suliverted tlie Government of Lord Pigot, and was recalled to England 
in the following year. 

(7) Hester Eleanora Light. 

(8) William Light, appointed to Madras as Writer in 1765. 

73 [No. 47. 

before you went home. And Alexander Davidson, (^' when he 
quitted tlie sub accountantship, asked leave to go to Bengal to 
establish a correspondence and of course to commence merchant, 
is returned with a wife, a Miss Pigou, you may remember 
formerly under the patronage of Phebe Graham. How he 
succeeded in the first scheme I have not heard. Pasley,'^) 
Briggs'^' and the two secretaries*'^* are very jolly, and hold you in 
grateful remembrance. I have given Mrs. Palk an account of 
all the females, so I shall refer you to her for particulars. Adieu, 
my dear Mr. Palk. Believe me, with all the gratitude a heart 
susceptible of the nicest feelings can possess, your ever 
affectionate Jim." 

[Holograph, 3f pp., Uo.] 

[No. 48.] 
George Smith to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1768, May 7th, Fort St. George.—" Sir, I did myself the 
pleasure of addressing you by the Hector,''^^ informing you of 
the safe arrival of the Sultanissa Begam at this port the 20th 
of September, and of her being sent to Bengal," whence she 
proceeded to Bombay. The difficulty of remitting your money 
has been increased by the formation of an Association of 
diamond buyers, and " Gocull and Nellacuntaker, though they 
had promised me as far back as October last to take from me 
each the sum of 5,000 pagodas at Respondentia on diamonds 
security, have broke through their promise in consequence of 
the above combination. Thus circumstanced, and no other 
channel but the Company's cash at 7s. 4d. open, what can I 
do ? I must have recourse to your good nature and friendship 
for a further credit . . . 

" I have given Mr. Morse a statement of your moneys in 
China," which I hope to be able to remit shortly, as " the silver 
of this country begins to be pretty well drained, and moreover 
the call for money here will soon be so great that the Company's 
cash in Canton must again be opened .... 

" By this ship comes a copy of a letter from the Governor 
of Manila to the Nabob, by which it plainly appears that what 

(1' Alexander Davidson joined the Madras civil service in 1760, and became a 
member of Council in 1777. He was provisional Governor of Fort St. George from 
1785 to 1786. 

(-' Dr. Gilbert Pasley came to India with Adlercron's Regiment in 1754, and 
subsequently joined tlie Company's medical service. In 1761 he was transferred 
from the army to cival duty at the Presidency, where he remained until his death 
twenty years later. He married Hannah Dashwood in 1778, and was appointed 
Surgeon General in 1780. According to an obituary notice in Hicky's Bengal 
Gazette, Pasley came out originally in the Artillery, " but soon exchanged the 
sword, spunge, worm and ramrod for the lancet, gold headed cane and snuff 

(3) Dr. Stephen Briggs was Surgeon General with the .Vrmy wlien he was sum- 
moned in 1763 to serve at Fort St. George. In 1770 he was senior Presidency 

(*) John Maxwell Stone and William Martin Goodlad. 

(5) Vide Xo. 33, p. 53. 

No. 48.] 74 

was done to me proceeded from suspicions of English property 
being under my management, and that the hke treatment is 
menaced to any ship in the same circumstances with the Sulta- 
nissa : from which it is evident that the Company should fall 
on some mode of securing the Manila trade from insult and even 
confiscation, or they must soon export bullion from Europe, 
which they will not for some time, I imagine, find convenient. 

' ' I refer you to your other friends here for a detail of the war, 
the peace with the Nizam, and the present operations against 
Hyder Ally : they will be better able to inform you of these 
series of events than I can possibly do. 

" Mrs. Munro(^) desires her compliments to you and Mrs. 
Palk, and she hopes you have been so kind as to send out her 
daughter*^' by the ships of this season. . . . 

" George Smith." 

[Holograph, 5 pp., Uo.] 

[No. 49.] 

T[homas] Palk'-^' to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1768, May 7th [at Sea.] — " My dear Sir, I now set down to 
write to all my particular friends. The man at the mast head 
. spys land, where he has been to look out for a ship. We are 
now steering round the Cape, without the wind alters its point, 
and if it does, we shall certainly put into the Cape. I shall 
first begin to write to you, as I imagine we shall meet with some 
ship or other, for I would not miss any opportunity whatever 
of writing my friends an account of my hea[l]th and welfare. 
We sailed from the Downs the 31st January, and after a trouble- 
some passage of about three weeks, we made Tenariffe, from 
whence I wrote to you by a Dutch man that was fi.rst going to 
Cadiz and from thence to England. . . I can only mention one 
or tvvo particulars. By the rolling I met with a terrible fall, 
that occasion[ed] me the head[ache] for several days afterwards, 
which I have felt since three weeks most severely. Several 
days together we were obliged to set on the deck to dine. You 
may easily judge. Sir, how great the motion was, but we have 
felt no such weather since, nor never do I desire to again. 
" At our landing at Teneriffe Mr. Wynch <*> went to his 

(1) Prances Mary, widow of Dr. Andrew Munro. 

(2) Margaret Aurora Munro. 

(3' Tlioinas Palk, son of Walter Palk and nephew of Governor Palk, arrived in 
the Diillon in 17(iS and entered the Madras Army, Imt was sul)se(|uently transferred 
to tlie civil service. lie must not be coniound(Ml with his remote cousin, Lieut. 
Thon^as Palk, who was serving in the Northern Circars. 

(4) Alexander Wynch was entertained locally in 1734 as an unpaid assistant 
at Miidras, and afterwards as a monthly writer, but was not brought on the civil list 
uidil 1710. In 1711 he was a Councillor at Fort St. David, and in 1758, when that 
fort yielded lo the French, lie was o(Tiri,itiiig as Dejuity Governor. Wyncli was 
made a iirisoner of war, and he subseiiuently resigueil the service ' and went 'to 
England. In 17(58 he was reappointed and nominated Chief at "Masulipatain. 
He was Governor of Port St. George from 1778 to 177o, and retired to Englantl 
after Lord Pigot's arrival. He married first Sophia Croke, and secondly in 1751 
Plorentia Gradock. Tic diod in Tiondon in 1781. 

75 [No. 49. 

friend's house and his family with him, and had there been 
room he would have introduced me to him, but I made him an 
apology. Alexander, another who goes as a free merchant'^) 
and me took a lodging at a French house during our stay. I 
at first often received invitations from my good friend Mrs. 
W. to walk out on their sharp flint stones, which she liked, and 
most generally on the terrass on the top of the house ; but 
afterwards when we [were] reconciled in respect to our intimacy, 
and found that my company was accepted of, I made free to 
introduce m}'self. On the day of our departure Mrs. W. intro- 
duced me to Mr. Dupree.*"-' During the little time I picked a 
little acquaintance with him, and [after] about an hour stay 
I took my leave of him in company with 3Irs. D. and Miss 
Monro,*-^) who are very well except Mr. D. He has carried the 
gout on board with him, but Mrs. D. is in great concern about 
her little [child] as the small pox is on board the Queen. 

" We sailed from Tenariffe the 7th of March, from which 
time we had surprizing good weather with constant fair winds. 
We are almost becalmed in the lattitude of 35 d[e]grees south, 
which is something surprizing. We are not likely to have such 
weather as what was suspected we should. My good Mrs. W. 
has been under a great deal of chagrin on account of the death 
of her little child, which expired about a month ago. She has 
often been taken in fits since, more so than before, and has 
seemed to recover her spirits ; but Miss Flora has been 
onfortunately taken ill of a fever, and is again at present restored 
to her former health I hope. We had her company to drink a 
cup of tea with us in our little cabbin this afternoon, which 
we have often had and hope to again. She is a good little girl. 
Mr. Wynch has shewn me several very friendly marks, which 
I must keep up at all events. 

" Francisco has long been our waiting man, but is at present 
obliged to turn cook, which at first he was often complaining 
to me of ill usage ; but that is now all o\'er, as the complaints 
have been presented to the Captain, who has been ill, but is 
now better again. I shall say nothing more particular at 
present till we get sight of a ship ; then I shall make a conclusion. 
—May the 4th. 

" We are now making up to a sail as fast as we can. What she 
is we can't yet tell, but imagine she is a homeward bound East 
India man. Mr. and Mrs. Wynch are all well at present, and 
desire their best respects to you and Mrs. Palk, &c. . . I remain, 
my dear sir, your most dutiful and ever respectful nephew, 

"T. Palk." 

" Sunday, May 7th, 1768." 

[Holograph, 4 jyj)., Uo.] 

(1) The writer perhaps means Alexander Wynch, jun., a cadet who accompanied 
his father, and Alexander Williams, the only free merchant on board the Duiton. 

(2) Josias Du Pre. Vide No. 19, p. 30, note 1. 

(3) Margaret Aurora Munro. 


[No. 50.] 
[The Rev.] John Thomas f^' to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1768, May 7th, Fort St. George. — " Sir, As you had poor 
Mr. Griffiths'*"' interest aiways at heart, I hope this letter 
relative to him will need no apology. 

" After a tedious and painful illness, which he bore with great 
resignation, he paid his last debt to nature the 25th of last 
month. His last sickness, which was a complication of diseases, 
the gout and palsy, with a disorder of the bowels, deprived him 
during the last fortnight of his life first of his memory and 
afterwards of his understanding. Happy for him in such 
circumstances that he was released out of his misery ! 

" He has left every thing he possessed in India for the 
education and emolument of his two sons, which after the sale 
of his books and furniture may probably amount to 7,000 
pagodas, Mr. Stone and I, who are appointed his executors, 
intend employing this money here, except what may be 
expended on their education. For Mrs. Griffiths' support he has 
left a sum lent on Government security ; how much I cannot 
ascertain. The Revd. Mr. Richard Canning, senior, of Ipswich, 
is appointed guardian to his sons. 

" It was always Mr. Griffiths' desire that both his sons should 
come out to this presidency in the civil service. 

" You will pardon me. Sir, for embracing this opportunity 
of returning my most thankful acknowledgments for your 
favours to me at Madrass, a sense of which I hope ever to 
retain . . . 

" John Thomas." 

[Holograph, 2\ pp., Mo.] 

[No. 51.] 
Rama Kisna to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1768, May 10th, Fort St. George. — " Sir, I did myself the 
honor to pay you my respects by the Hector, '^^^ which sailed 
hence in November last. The Admiral Watson is arrived the 
8th [instant], and I greatly rejoiced to hear of your safe arrival 
in England. 

" You will be informed by Mr. Morse of the Association 
entered into by all the European diamond merchants for 
buying on certain terms and conditions, as a means of reducing 
the Guzerat merchants to more reasonable terms ; but since 
it took place they have been standing out in their sales at 
Moonimadgoo. Perseverance on our part, we hope, will at 
last have some good effect, without which the trade must be 
entirely ruined. 

" Since my last I have had the misfortune to loose my good 

(1) Chaplain at Port St. George. 

(2) Vide No. 47, p. 72, note 3. 

(3) Vide No. 35, /». 57. 

77 [No. 51. 

uncle Mooperala Kisnya, and my wife . . . which has been 
two very severe strokes to nie at once and the same time. The 
old man served me in the stead of a father, and 1 am much 
indebted to his care for the good situation of my house after 
the decease of my father Ramaniah. By the decease of my 
wife I am left without the hopes of having any issue for some 
considerable time, as you are sensible of our custom of marrying 
[a] ^•ery young wife before they are come to [the] age of puberty. 
" Peace has been made with the Nizam, and we are carrying 
on vigorously the war against Heyer[.52'c] Ally. We have taken 
Kisnagviry, and the army is marching into the Mysore country. 
The scarcity of money is very great and the condition of trade 
very indifferent. God send us better times . . . 

" Rama Kisna." 

[Holograph, 2f pjj., 4/o.] 

[No. 52.] 
W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to [Robert] Palk, Esqr. 

1768, May 12th, Fort St. George.—" My dear Mr. Palk, The 
Admiral Watson brought me your very affectionate letter*^) 
of the 15th November, which afforded me a pleasure I cannot 
easily describe to you. Indeed, my dear Sir, I will ever 
remember your kindness to me with a grateful heart. 

" Your endeavours to procure me coral consignments were 
very obliging. jNIr. Bourchier's strong recommendations have 
brought us one chest, and a promise of employment from two 
or three other dealers. 

" Enclosed you will receive a bill for £200, being two years' 
interest on the money you so very obligingly lent me. ... I have 
no directions from you regarding the money given by the 
Nabob to poor Withecombe's father. . . I would fain have got 
from him both principal and interest, but my endea^'ours were 
fruitless ... I wrote you of poor Cranch's (-> death, and 
promised to administer to the estate and settle his affairs. 
This, howe^'er, I have Ijcen prevented from doing by his having 
made a will when at Batavia. Madge is the only surviving 
executor. The state of his affairs I know not, but imagine 
they will yield about 1,500 pagodas. 

" The next dispatches will, I fear, cut off all the creditors' 
resources from the Nabob for some time, as . . . we have a 
hint about pri\ate interest clashing with the payment of his 
debt to the Company. Should the Court direct his discontinuing 
the payments to his creditors, I know not what they will say 
on the subject, or how they will reconcile such an order. There 
are some turbulent spirits amongst them not quite so ready to 

(1) Vide No. 38, p. 59. 

(2) Vide No. 42, p. 68, note 3. 

No. 52.] 78 

conform to commands as the President and Council are in 

Mr. Dupre, &c., returning to Council is, as you say, not very 
agreeable to the Gentlemen here. For my own part it matters 
not, Andrews'^' his appointment is the only thing that vexes 
me, for I profess a regard for the service, and I cannot but think 
him unworthy of it. Is there a probability even that a man 
will pay a proper attention to the Company's concerns who was 
totally lost to any care for his own ? And this is the man 
expressly sent out because it was necessary to strengthen the 
Council with sober and sedate people ! Fie on it ! 

" Poor Ardley<-' was with me just now, hopping about like a 
parcht pea. ' What vexes me is that Call should be put 
over my head, for 'tis disgracing me without answering any one 
end.' The little man is really much hurt. He wants to get 
out of the Settlement, and will probably turn or endeavour to 
turn Smith(^) from Vizagapatam. I think, however, he will not 
effect it . . . 

" With respect to politics, the Governor and Mr. Call, I 
suppose, write you fully. They will explain to you what is 
doing and what is intended, but can they tell you what has 
been done ? I most sincerely wish, for the sake of my worthy 
friend Mr. Bourchier, that a man of real capacity may arrive 
to take the command of the army. Smith, <^' with a most 
amiable heart, has not an head for his station. It has been 
evident from the commencement of the war — too evident to 
us here. But will it be equally apparent to the Gentlemen at 
home that such has been the chief cause of our expending 
immense sums almost to no purpose ? I love Mr. Bourchier 
in my heart's core, and I therefore feel the more for the many 
unlucky events that have fallen out since he came to the Chair. 
You know the Governor full well, and must have been sensible 
of the influence Mr. Call would have over him. The latter is 
unsteady. He is very snug behind the curtain. When any of 
our actions (to speak in the military style) redound to our 
credit, he has the power to engross a great share of it : when 
the contrary, he knows on whose shoulders they will naturally 
fall. I would not lay open my thoughts on such subjects to 
any man but you, whom I shall ever regard as a father. If I 
am culpable, chastise me as you would a son. 

'■ Poor Griffith died last month after a very lingering and 
painful illness. Captain McLean was killed some time ago. 
Stratton is married to Miss Light, and Miss Carter to Captain 

(1) John Andrews, who arrived in India in 1713, served in Ganjam as a political 
officer, and was afterwards Resident at Madapollam. He was a member of Pigot's 
Council in 175U, and ten years later was scut as envoy to Haidar Ali during the 
first Mysore war. He is mentioned as an inhabitant of Madras in 1790. 

(2) Samuel Ardley joined the Madras civil service in 1719. In 1754 he was 
' Register of the Choultry ' and under the Laud Customer at Fort St. George, and 
five years later was in Council. 

(3) John Smith, n Madras civil servant of 1752, 

(4) Colonel Joseph Smith. 

79 [No. 52. 

Gec.C Mrs. Tom Powncy''^' has been innoculatcd, and is well 
again witlioiit being- marked. Most oi' the ehiidren in the 
Settlement have undergone the same operation. Poor Donald 
Campbell lost two, the onl}^ [ones] that died. 

" I most sineerely hope the increase (•^' you expected in your 
family has proved to your satisfaction. I am particularly 
interested in the happiness of yourself and Mrs. Palk, and shall 
be ever, with the most grateful sentiments of esteem and regard, 
your ever affectionate and obliged servant, 

" W. M. GOODLAD." 

" P.S. I have delivered to Captain Mears the remainder of 
the letters'^' you desired of me. The former part was sent by 
Captain Richardson of the Pigot, and I hope have got safe to 
you. By the next ship you shall have the translate of the 
Spanish arguments respecting the reduction of Sooloo. Adieu 
once more, my dearest Sir. Stone tenders his best wishes to 
you and Mrs. Palk." 

[Holograph, 5| pp., fiscp.] 

[No. 53.] 
Lau[rence] Sulivan to [Robert Palk, Esqr.] 

[Endorsed in Palk's hand] " Mr. Sulivan, concerning what I 
have advanced." 

1768, May 19th, Great Ormond Street.—" My dearest Friend, 
If I have hitherto taken no notice (except in casual discourse) 
of the money I ow'e you, it is because I have expected from 
week to week, by clearing my self of India embarrassments, 
to have been in a capacity to do it ; but since my own honour 
with the interest of my friends have determined me to go deeper 
than ever, and consequently it will be convenient to me to delay 
the payment some months longer, I think it right (though by 
you not desired) that \ou ha^e my obligation payable on demand, 
and which is now^ enclosed. The whole I make £4,108, viz., a 
bill on the Navy, 3,000 ; paid Mrs. Darvall, 1,000 ; paid Mrs. 
Wood; 108 ; [Total] £4,108. 

" What you liaAC lately at times disbursed at Ashburton, let 
me know the amount and I will give an order on my bankers 
for the payment. I am, with true and unalterable affection, 
my dear Sir, your most sincere friend and obedient servant, 

" Lau. Sulivan." 

[Holograph, 1 p., Uo.] 

'1' Captain Michael Gee married Marian Carter in 1768, and was killed shortly 

(2) Catherine, daughter of Quintin de la Metrie, married in 1761 Thomas Powney, 
free merchant, one of the sons of Capt. John Powney, master mariner. 

(3> Catherine Palk, born 1st January, 1768, 

W Cf. No. 32, p. 52, note 3. 


[No. 54.] 
George Yansittart to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

[Endorsed — Received] 2nd May [1769, per] Valentine. 

1768, September 6th, Midnapore. — " Dear Palk, I have 
received your letters ... in favour of Mr. Darell,*^' and hope 
to see him when I go to Calcutta. I will also do what I can 
for Mr. Yarde,'-) but cannot at present learn where he is, 

" I li\'e much to my satisfaction at Midnapore, but the matter 
of profit is entirely changed by the Court of Directors' orders 
concerning salt, who choose rather that the benefit of that 
trade should be enjoyed by a parcel of Calcutta Banyans'-^' 
than by their own servants. Of three things I have now to 
determine which to prefer — spend more money than I can gain, 
improve my fortune by means which would be prejudicial to 
the Company, or trade in salt, &c., in spite of their orders at 
the risque of being dismissed from their service. 

" I am sorry to have a piece of very disagreeable news to 
communicate to you. Through the influence of bad example 
and bad advice your nephew**' has been led into a scrape, which 
I fear will be the means of his losing the Company's service. 
Upon his arrival at Cossimbazar he was appointed to the office of 
Buxey,(^) and in consequence had the care of providing materials 
for the cantonments which are building there. In the manage- 
ment of this business his predecessors had been used to charge 
the Company 30, 40, 50 per cent, above the bazar price. Your 
nephew was unfortunate enough to continue the practice. 
A month or two ago it was discovered, and it is now under 
strict examination. I have sent Harry*^' a copy of what he 
has been able to say in his defence : he will show it to you. 

" Mrs. G. Yan. desires to be remembered. She was brought 
to bed of a boy'"' the 19th of last month, and is now very well. 
My love to Mrs. Palk. I will write to her by the next ship. 
My congratulations to you both on the increase of your family. 

" Mr. Yerelst '^> talks of going home this season, and Mr. 
Cartier(^) will succeed to the Chair. We are at present in peace, 
but probably shall not be so long : however, I will not go about 
to entertain you with politicks or news. I write fully and 
freely to Harry, and that must suffice. I am ever, my dear 
Palk, your very sincerely affectionate 

" George Yansittart." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., Mo.] 

(1) Lionel Darell, a Bengal civil servant of 1768, resigned in 1776. He became 
a Director of the Company in 1780, and was created a baronet in 1795. 

('-) John Yarde, a lately arrived Cadet. He became Captain in 1777, and died 
in the same year at Dinapore. He appears to have belonged to Churston Ferrers. 

(3) Banyan, from Hind, banya, a native trader, especially from Guzerat. 

(4) Robert Palk, jun. 

(5) Buxcy, from Hind, bakhshi, paymaster. 

(6) Henry Vansittart. 

(7) George Henry Vansittart. 

(8) Harry Verelst became Governor on the retirement of Clive in February, 1767. 

(9) John Cartier succeeded Verelst in 1769. 


[No. 55.] 
T[noMAs] Palk to R[obert] Palk, Esq. 

1768, September 30th, Camp near Colar to the southward of 
Madras. (1) — " My dear Sir, We arrived here the 13th July after 
a passage of six months, which I thought very long. . . Mr. 
Wynch behaved exceedingly well to me : I wanted for nothing, 
I came ashore at Madras in the boat with him and Mrs. W., 
who was very kind to me, more so than I ever could expect ; 
not the least vanity appeared in her. I was to have had a 
room in his house, but Mr. Goodlad insisted that I should be 
with him wiiilst I remained at Madras, which was about a 
fortnight, I being very busy preparing myself for camp. 
Goodlad is vcrv much mv friend and adviser. . . . 

" Mr. Goodlad recommended me to his worthy friend Captain 
Hector Mackay, with whom I live in camp, who advises in 
everything : he is [a] worthy man. 

" Ever since I have been here we have been running about 
the country after our hero Hyder, who wants to take our great 
guns that we are getting up to go against Bangolure, a very 
strong fort, our army being divided ; our army being in the 
road to Bangulore, and the other division watching Hyder's 
motions. We want to bring him to an engagement, but he is 
so artful a warrier he won't let us . . . He has, I hear, made 
proposals of peace to us, which is at present a secret, it being 
an uncertainty. ... It may be well enough for those that have 
made their fortunes, but as for the subalterns I know not what 
they will do. This is a life. Sir, that I am contented with and 
that I like very much, was I not so low on the list, but that is 
I hope to your certainty of getting me in the Civil list. 

" I assure you I meet with a great many friends here. Colonel 
Campbell is very kind to me ; he wanted me to live with him. 
He wen£ to Colar sick on account of the ball he received in his 
body,'^' but I fear it will hinder him from taking the field again. . . 
I need not tell you how much he is beloved here, which I imagine 
you are no stranger to. Colonel Smith is an exelent man. 
I often dine with him, as I shall to day. He is a man, which 
no one is unless he is sensible of feeling. How much my father 
is mistaken [in] the objection he had against my being in the 
army, that I should be more exposed to bad company. Here 
is, [I] own, good and bad, and very good genteel young fellows : 
therefore if I keep tiie bad company it is my fault. 

" I wrote to my brother^'^) at Bengal, but whether it will go 
safe I know not, as he is not at Calcutta. . . I had a letter 
from Tom Palk^*' the night I got to camp, who is with Captain 

(1) Colar (Kolar) is 200 miles due west of Madras. 

(2) Donald Campbell received a wound at the siege of Madura in 17G3, wliich 
troubled him for years. 

(3) Robert Palk, jun. 

(4) Lieut. Thomas Palk. 

No. 55.] 82 

Madge. ... I hope that Mrs. P. is well and my little 
cousins. . . I remain, my dear Sir, your sincere and affectionate 

"T. Palk." 

[P.S.] " Since I wrote you the former. I told you how happy 
I was with Captain Mackay, but since [then] I have lost him, 
lost him ; he is no more. In attempting to escalade the Fort 
of Malwagle (i> on a high rock, that is an impossibility to 
perform ever. We took it by stratagem from Hyder, as did he 
again, but 'tis imagined by bribery ; but, however, Colonel 
Wood'-' marched there immediately and ordered a party to 
storm it if possible, and my dear Hector would go a volunteer, 
and was obstinate enough not to be advised to the contrary ; 
but he got on the wall twice and [was] knocked off, and making 
the retreat my friend, whom I could venture to call so, was 
killed. What his friend Goodlad suffers is unaccountable, 
whom he made his executor." 

[Holograph, 6 j)p., 4to.] 

[No. 56.] 

Mrs. Kitoria Sloper'^) to Robert Palk, Esqr, 

1768, October 4th, Cuddalore. — Sir, I have received from 
your attorneys sums of £903 8s. 3d. and £454 19s. 5d. in pagodas 
at 7s. 8d. as interest on the children's legacies from January, 
1767, to April, 1769, for which I and the other guardians have 
given bills in your favour on Messrs. Boehm & Sons, merchants, 
of Size Lane, in whose hands Major Brownrigg has deposited a 
declaration of trust. " You have greatly obliged me in your 
assistance and has restored peace and gladness to my heart . . . 
I am also greatly obliged to Major Brownrigg for so honourably 
discharging his trust . . . 

" Kitoria Sloper." 
[Autograph, 1 p., flscp.] 

(1) The hill fort of Mulbagal, 17 miles east of Kolar.'was taken by stratagem in 
June, 1768, by Captain Richard Mathews, disguised as a native officer. Haidar 
recovered the place three months later. He was attacked by Colonel Wood, who 
retook the lower defences on the 3rd October, but failed in an attempt to escalade 
the rock. A battle followed on the -1th, in which Wood narrowly escaped defeat. 

(2) John Wood was commissioned Ensign in the Company's Europeans in 1753, 
and held the rank of Captain five years later. He served as Major at the second 
siege of Madura in 1764 under Colonel Charles Campbell. In 1767 Lieut. Colonel 
Wood moved from Trichinopoly to join Colonel Joseph Smith against Haidar Ali, 
and was present at the battle of Trinomalai. In 1768 he conimanded an independent 
division in the Baramahal, where he met with remarkable success. On the summons 
to Madras of Colonel Smith, Wood assumed chief command, but displayed incapacity 
and sustained such serious reverses that he was recalled. He was tried by court- 
martial in 176!) on charges of misappropriation of stores and misconduct in the 
field, and though acquittcnl l)y the Court was dismissed the service by Government. 
The Directors subsequently upheld the acquittal. He married Elizabeth Owen 
in 1762, and died at Madras in 1774. 

(3j Widow of Robert Sloper, a civil servant of 1749, who was Sea and Land 
Customer at Cuddalore in 1754, 


[No. 57.] 
Mrs. Jane Morse 'i' to [Robert Palk, Esqr.] 

1768, October 9th, Fort St. George. — ^" Dear Sir, Yesterday 
arrived a pacquet from Bombay with letters from Europe dated 
the 27th of May, gi\'ing an account of the arrival of the Hector 
with a list of the new Directors ; that Mr. Saunders '-* had 
resigned in a pet, and Mr. Sulivan not being in, there is little 
hopes of seeing Mr. Van'"^' again in India. I imagin he will 
therefore forme a plan suitable to his fortune and incressing 

" The disagreeable disputes Mr. Majendia <*' and young 
Carmichael has had with Captain Jackson has given their 
friends concern and trouljle. However, the attention which 
Mr. Holland and Mr. Morse has had to both partys has prevented 
its being brought before the Board, and indeed I think it had 
been better let alone on all sides. Mr. Majendia came a shore 
very ill. He found great benefit from the Mount air. They 
staid here two months, and went to Bengal in a French ship. 

" The Directors has sent orders to all their Settlements that 
all those people that are come to India without their leave 
should be sent home by the first ship. Young Carmichael and 
Mr. Cuthbert's(^) brother are of the number, and how that affair 
may be settled at Bengal I do not know. 

" I have the pleasure to tell you, dear Sir, your nephew Mr. 
John Palk(^' is well at camp. He seems of a happy dis- 
position and ready to take any advice his friends may give him. . . 
The Nabob is expected from camp in a few days to live at 
Lawrence Baug,<"' and I hear Mr. Hydro*'^' does not intend we 
should go to the Mount. My compliments to dear ]Mrs. Palk, 
and I am, dear Sir, your affectionate and obliged humble servant, 

" Jane Morse." 
[Holograph, 3f pp., Uo.] 

(1) Jane Morse, nee Goddard, became in 1730, the wife of Nicholas Morse of the 
civil service, who was Governor of Madras when the town capitulated to the French 
in 1746. She was granted a permit Viy De la Bourdonnais to leave the Fort prior 
to its boml)ardment, but refusing to seek security she employed herself with other 
ladies in making cartridge cases for the heavy guns. After the surrender she was 
sent with her husband to Fondicherry. When Madras was threatened by Lally 
in 1758 Mrs. Morse and her daughter Mrs. Vansittart were despatched for safety 
to the Dutch settlement of Sadras, but that town having been occupied l)y the 
French a few days earlier, the two ladies fell into the hajids of the enemy. 

(-1 Thomas Saunders had been President and Governor at Fort St. David 
1750-52, and at Fort St. George 1752-55. Vide al^o p. 70, note 2. 

{•^) Henry Vansittart, Mrs. Morse's son-in-law. 

(*' Andrew Majendie was a Madras civil servant of two years' standing. 

(5) Arthur Cuthl)ert came to India with Admiral Watson in 1754. From 17(i3 
he traded at Madras as a free merchant, and in 1771 became Agent for the Squadron. 
He married Sarah Hopkins in 1765. 

(6) An error for Thomas Palk. John Palk, who was not a nephew of Governor 
Palk, arrived in India in June 1770. 

'") General Lawrence's garden-house at St. Thomas's Mount. 
(8) Sportive for Haidar All, 


[No. 58.] 
Captain T[homas] Madge to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1768, October 16th, Samulcotah. — " Dear Sir, I had the 
pleasure to receive your favor by Mr. Welshford,*^' who 
forwarded it to me from Madrass, as he was ordered to proceed 
with some other cadets to join the army under Colonel Smith 
to the southward." I have recommended him to friends there, 
and when the campaign is over I shall apply for his transfer 
here, as well as that of young Palk unless you have previously 
secured the latter's admission to the civil service. 

" I wish I could say anything in favor of Mr. Smerdon, or 
could flatter myself with hopes of being able to do justice to 
your recommendation in his behalf. But as his behavior is so 
very inconsistent with the way of life he has engaged on. . . I 
fear he will never get a commission. He may thank his ill- 
judging father for his present imbecillity and infatuation. The 
latter has been the consequence of his morose behavior to 
and close confinement of the young man to the study of books 
at hours and times when he ought to have been taught to form 
his judgement of men, and have instructed himself in their 
manners ; for the neglect of which, notwithstanding his 
laborious education, his boasted skill in classical learning, he 
can be deemed no otherwise than a learned block head. The 
close attachment to study so much disgusted him that now he 
is left to his own discretion he indulges his inclinations to their 
utmost scope, some of which are very much to the prejudice 
of his character and principles. 

" The niggardly behavior of his father when he launched 
him into the world is scarcely credible ; for who would imagine 
a person in his circumstances would have sent his son on a 
voyage to India with no other allowance to furnish [him] with 
necessaries for the voyage but the £10 he received at the India 
House ? Plowever, with that sum, and that only, was he hurried 
aboard the Clive, Indiaman, at a very short notice, even after 
he had declared (as he tells me) his aversion to the way of life 
he was precipitated into, unprovided with proper cloaths for 
the country or even the voyage. This unnatural beha^•ior 
of the father subjected the young man to such mean distresses 
as quite suppressed the small share of spirit he derived from 
constitution, as he was driven to the necessity of living on the 
bare ship's allowance before he had been three months at sea, 
which excluded him from the mess and consequently the society 
of the other cadets . . . and so unprovided was he with cloaths 
that he was obliged to borrow of his conn-adcs what he was 
deficient in before he could come ashore at Madrass ! 

" He ought,' however, to have thought his distresses at an 
end on his arrival in India, as I allowed him whatever money 
he pretended to have occasion for, and had ordered my agent 

d' a fiulct. Cf. No. 71, p. 99, nole 1. 

85 [No. 58. 

at Madrass to equip him for camp, whither he had been ordered 
to proceed with some other cadets. On being acquainted with 
these orders lie declared pul)hckly that he would on no account 
go to camp till he had seen me, and tliat he had been sent out 
by you to be under my care, otherwise he would never have 
come to India. His obstinately persisting in his resolution of 
not going to camp began to be taken notice of at Madras, which 
would soon have infallibly ruined him, had not a friend of mine 
then on the spot . . . advised me to get him to the northward." 
On this hint I wrote to Mr. Bourchier, who kindly arranged 
his transfer. 

" Since his arrival he has given another reason for refusing 
to join the army than that the military life is not agreeable to 
his inclination, and — what is only commendable in his whole 
conduct — frankly confesses his want of spirit. He is now at 
head quarters, where " he has already tried Colonel Tod's 
patience " by his dronish method of life and aversion to improve 
himself . . . You will at once perceive he will never make a 
soldier, nor be fit for any other way of life in so licentious, so 
dissipated a country as India. And if his father has the least 
share of affection remaining for his son, he ought immediately 
to send for him home and preserve him from unavoidable ruin 
and disgrace, which must otherwise be his fate ! 

" The adopting the cause of our almost friendless military 
establishment by you, General Lawrence and General Caillaud 
gives me some faint hopes that the injustice done us by the 
Directors will not be repeated the next season, as nothing can 
be more grievous or unmerited. They are themselves pleased 
to commend the behavior of their military servants on the 
Coast, whilst they disapprove of the licentiousness of those at 
Bengal, to check which his lordsliip was under the necessity of 
taking another trip to India. And the sending out field officers 
for that establishment might have been thought necessary 
by him in order to curb that spirit of dissension he had reason 
to apprehend was not entirely suppressed. But as our Corps 
has never been known to have proved refractory, it is really 
hard we should suffer for the faults of another." 

The Company's action in sending us two new majors from 
England is resented by the superseded captains, and the Madras 
Board has made no remonstrance. When peace is made with 
Haidar, Donald Campbell, Wood, Hart and another field officer 
are expected to retire, and I shall be senior captain for 
promotion. If I am superseded I must protest by resigning. 
Having saved about £4,000, I shall be able to clear off my 
father's debts, " when the allowance of my half pay will soften 
the pains and infirmities of declining age and render that 
generally comfortless portion of life at least tolerable," 

I will not attempt an account of political matters on the 
Coast, nor of the operations to the southward, but will only say 
that " the not pursuing the measures you had lain down at 

No. 58.] 86 

your quitting the Government, and which seemed so well 
calculated for checking, if not effectually destroying, the hopes 
which our old enemies the French promise themselves in a 
future national war in India with the assistance of the Mysorean, 
appears very strange to an impartial observer. The French 
very visibly exult in our want of penetration, and amongst 
themselves promise the speedy accomplishment of that revenge 
they in their late despair comforted themselves with — the hopes 
of reducing us to the same degree of misery we had the good 
fortune to make their lot in the late war." 

I enclose probate of Captain Cranch's will. The amount 
hitherto collected of his estate, some Pags. 300, is required to 
pay off a trust for the relations of a deceased officer. Learning 
that Cranch's mother is in poor circumstances, I beg you to 
pay the legacies left to her and her son and daughter in advance 
of future collections and remittances. " The leaving the 
principal part of his fortune to a natural child . . . when he 
knew he had a mother and a lawfull wife who were in want of 
every thing he could leave them, is what I never expected from 
the honest disposition of my old friend. As he has made no 
provision in his will for his wife, she will, I presume, be entitled 
to a third of what he may have died worth . . . 

" I cannot finish this voluminous letter without congratulating 
you on your getting a seat in Parliament for Wareham,'^* nor 
be singular amongst the joyfull inhabitants of Ashburton in 
not testifying my acknowledgements for the share you have 
had in procuring them so valuable a representative as Mr. 
Sulivan, to whom I could wish to be gratefully remembered 

" The happy delivery of Mrs. Palk and the joy expressed by 
your wellwishers at Ashburton on your return to your native 
country gave me that becoming satisfaction I shall always feel 
on every occasion of your happiness. And that you and Mrs. 
Palk may long enjoy every blessing which health attended with 
affluence, and the disposition of making the proper use of it, 
will never cease to bring you, are the unfeigned wishes of, dear 
Sir, your truly devoted and gratefully obliged humble servant, 

"T. Madge." 
[Holograph, 8 pp., Uo.] 

Copy of Probate of Will of Lieut. Peter Cranch of the Com- 
pany's service, signed by Charles Smith, Mayor of Madras- 
patnam, on 12th April, 17G8, together witli copy of Will of 
Lieut. I'etcr Cranch, of H.M. 79th Regiment, executed at 
Batavia on 28th August, 1764. Executors, Capt. Francis Du 
Pont, Lieut. William Fleming and Lieut. Robert McNab, all 
of H.M. 79tii Regiment, and Lieut. Thomas Madge, of H.M. 
96th Regiment. 

[5| pp. Jl-scp. IVa.r seal, defaced, of the Mayor's Court.] 

II) Asliliiiitnn \\;is rcproHonti'd liy Uol)ort I'alk, from 17U7 to 1708 aiul fioiu 
1771 (o I7S7, aud l>y Laurence SuLivaii from 1768 to 1771. 


[No. 59.] 
Lieut. Thomas Palk to [Robert Palk, Esqr.] 

1768, October 24th, Sainalcotah. — " Sir, I hope you have 
duly received my last letter dated from C'hicacole, in which I 
acquainted you of an expedition's being ordered to march 
against Hyderabad. We soon returned, as peace was made 
with the Nizam when we were within five days' march of his 
capital. Soon after our joyning Colonel Hart I was appointed 
his Aid du Camp, in which station I acted a very short time, 
as the command was taken from him by Colonel Peach, of the 
Bengali detachment. 

" Hyder Ally has been very troublesome ere since, although 
he has been worsted in every engagement. Colonel Wood has 
been excessive lucky in his conquests of late : he has taken 
several of Hyder's forts, in one of which he put about 6,000 
people to the sword ; he indeed in general gives them little 
or no quarter. About the beginning of this month he attacked 
Hyder's whole army, which consisted of about thirty thousand 
horse and foot, with only 450 Europeans and three thousand 
sepoys. The action lasted five hours, when Hyder was obliged 
to retreat, leaving in the field about 2,000 (thousand) foot 
killed, 100 (hundred) horse, and several elephants and camels. 
On our side were killed Captains Villiers Fitzgerald*^' and Hector 
Mackay, 2 ensigns and 63 private killed and wounded, and 
about 250 sepoys killed and wounded. 

" About two months since, on an alarum in our Morattoe 
camp, Captain Gee, who was Aid de Camp to Colonel Smith, 
was ordered to see what was the matter ; but the Morattoes, 
imagining him to belong to Hyder Ally cut him to pieces.*-' 
He is greatly lamented . . . He married Miss Carter about 6 
months before his death. 

" Cousin Thomas arrived some time since, but I have not 
as yet had the pleasure of seeing him . . as he is at present with 
Colonel Smith. He acquaints me by letter that he left all 
friends in Devonshire well . . . He seems to like a camp life 
very well, and says most of your friends behave excessive kind 
to him. Young Mr. Smerdon was with us at this place (for a 
few days) about 2 months since, but is at present at Ellore under 
Lieutenant Colonel Tod's command. I am sorry to acquaint 
you that his behaviour has been very indifferent since his arrival. 
I shall defer giving any account of him, as Captain Madge tells 
me he intends writing you a long letter concerning him, and 
another to Mr. Smerdon to advise him to send for his son 
home . . . 

(1' Captain Robert Villiers PitzGeralJ distiaguished himself at the attack on 
the hill-fort of Kistnagiri in 1767, and was killed at Mulbagal in Octoljer, 1768. 

(2) The Marathas here mentioned were a contingent of mercenaries under Morari 
Rao, Chief of Gooty, engaged by the British after the defection of the Pcshwa's 
army. Haidar's cavalry made a night assault on their camp on the 22nd August, 
and Morari Rao ordered his troopers to remain on foot and attack all mounted 
men. Captain Gee galloping up from the adjacent British camp to investigate, 
was mistaken for a Mysorean and cut down. 

No. 59.] 88 

" I received a letter from cousin Robert about a month ago. 
He is still third in Council at Cossimbuzar. He acquaints me 
that Suraja Dowla (^' is on the point of breaking out with the 
Company again, and that he has an immense army now in the 
field. It is also thought that the Nizam will not keep to his 
treaty long, for which reason Councillor Why tie '-' is ordered 
on an embassy to Hyderabad to endeavour to prevent Hyder 
Ally's bringing him over, which it is conjectured would be the 
case unless Mr. Whytle settles matters . . . 

" There are three field officers and three captains arrived 
this season .: one of the majors is dead since his arrival. It is 
reported several of the field officers intend leaving the country 
as soon as the war with Hyder Ally is at an end. 

" By letters from my mother and uncle this season they inform 
me of their having seen you at Ashburton soon after your 
arrival, [and] of your kindness in promising to send my brother f-^' 
out as soon as of a proper age ... Be pleased to make my 
respects to Mrs. Palk, and to Mr. Palk(^) and his spouse at 
Ashburton. I remain, with due regard and esteem, Sir, your 
most obliged and devoted humble servant, 

"Thomas Palk." 

" P.S. This last engagement with Hyder Ally is said to have 
been the warmest contested action that has happened since 
General Lawrence appeared on the plains of Thichanopoly ; 
by which Colonel Wood has gained great honour." 

[Holograph, 4 jjp-i 4^o.] 

[No. 60.] 
George Purnell to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1768, October 27th, Fort St. George. — Sir, I could scarcely 
expect replies from you to my applications of February and 
April, 1767, but letters received from the correspondents of 
Mr. Morse's house show how greatly I am indebted to you. 
" I am likewise informed by Mr. Morse of the kind pains you 
was at, relating to my being fixed in it, which renders me so 
greatly obliged to you that I want words to express my most 
gratefull thanks. . . ." If I may make one more request it 
is that you will favour me with a recommendation to Mr. Du 
Pre .... 

" George Purnell." 

[Holograph, 1 p., 4fo.] 

[No. 61.] 
Nic[holas] Morse to Rohert Palk, Esqr. 
1768, October—, Fort St. George.—" Dear Sir . . . My letter 
wrote you the 1st of August . . will let you know the situation of 

(1) Shiija-ud-daula, Nawab Vizier of Oiulh. 

(^) John \\ hiloliill, a member of the Madras Council. 

(3) Joliii Palk. 

(■1) Walter Palk, brother of Governor Palk. 

89 [No. 61. 

affairs at that time, and I wish I could now say that Vengalore 
had been attacked, but yet the siege of tliat is not begun. The 
getting up the heavy cannon, ammunition and other matters 
have taken up all this time, and Hydro Naigue trying every 
thing to save his capital. Colonel Wood lately engaged him 
in battle for several hours, and 'tis said Rilled on his side eight 
of his principal officers, 400 horses and one thousand men. 
The English loss was 4 officers killed, 5 wounded, 20 Europeans 
and one hundred sepoys. Some days ago he sent an agent to 
the camp, perhaps only to amuse till his horse that he had sent 
for from Biddanore came to him, and who were in the action 
with Colonel Wood. I believe the Gentlemen would come into 
any honourable proposals for setling matters with Hydro, as 
the war is expensive, and attended with nmch trouble, and 
injurious to the revenues ; and his horse may make sad ravages 
in the country, which desperation may drive him to. It will 
be that only that will put him on sending for the Morattas to 
assist, for he is jealous of them, and would rather chuse to have 
none near him ; and we may wish that those locusts may not 
appear in the Carnatic. The Nabob has been much out of 
order of late, chiefly, I believe, owing to vexation of mind . . 
and he has had a large share of it since 1750. He remains yet 
in the camp, but [it is] uncertain if he will stay long there or 
come to Velloor. 

" I find that Lord Clive's friendship for Mr. V.(^) was but of 
a short continuance. He, it's said, is much recovered, and 
probably is with you at London before now to try at some thing 
or another, for he can never rest. His behaviour to Mr. V. has 
not been suitable to the professions he made, and it would have 
been more honourable to have not made them when he knew 
what he had underhand done to hurt him. 

" Letters overland from London of the — May bring advices 
of the election and a list of the Directors chosen ; Mr. Bolton,'^* 
Chairman, Sir George Colebrooke, Deputy, &c., and Mr. 
Saunders (^' quitted. This seems to have not been expected, 
nor is it said how it has happened. We must waite to know 
how these gentlemen stand affected to Mr. V., or if there is 
any likelihood of his coming abroad. It was mentioned in a 
letter that came by the Grenville that Mr. V. had desired a 
General Court to be called on the 8th of April, but we are 
strangers to what was done there on that day with regard to 
him. It is publickly talked in town that the Gentlemen at 
home do not approve of the war with Hydro, or the connection 
with the Subah of Golcondah. 

" Capts. Johnson and Paine have had my advice in regard 
to the disposal of their adventures .... So many ships, and 
all bringing the same articles, overstocked the market. How- 

(1' Henry Vansittart. 

(2) Henry Crabb Boulton, Chairman in 17G8. 

(3) Thomas Saunders, Deputy Chairman in 1767. 

No. 61.] 90 

ever, considering all things, they have fared as well as could be 
expected . . . Mr. Helling delivered me the garden seeds, as 
Mr. Carmichael did the broad cloth . . . Mr. Helling is in a 
way to soon get the command of a vessel by the help of Mr. 
Johnson, and seems a very deserving person. I hope the 
accounts of the House will be ready to send you by the next 
opportunity. Mr. De Fries<^) has not kept up to his repeated 
promises to finish them . . . There was no ship to Manilla this 
year, not is there likely to be one the next, nor till it is known 
what treatment the ship is to meet with .... 

" Captain Mackay being killed in the storming a small fort 
on a hill, your nephew will be recommended to some other 
person. ^- 

" There are orders from Europe to endeavour to get in the 
Nabob's debt to the Company, which by the war is greatly 
inlarged. The creditors have agreed, on the Governor and 
Council's pressing instances, to lend them upwards of 200,000 
pagodas ; but I imagine they can do no more, as the want of 
money is very great, and some have their all there, and perhaps 
others somewhat more. Persons are not a little uneasy 
on this occasion, and desirous of getting what they can ; and 
it would be ^^ery hard upon many to waite for years to get 
in their money, which is secured to them under the strongest 
obligations and when the Company's then debt was in a fair 
way of being cleared in that period . . . 

" The diamonds now sent are esteemed here to be about 
4 to 5 per cent, better in quality than what went on the 
Egmont, and the Association has been of some service to the 
giving a check to the bringing in goods of an inferior quality. 
Nilcantaker has not been so forward as we could have wished 
in furnishing us for this ship. . . . 

" Nic. Morse." 

[Holograph, 6 pp., Mo.] 

[No. 62.] 
Robert Palk to [William Martin Goodlad.] 

1768, November 1st, London. Received 18th May, 1769, 
per Lioness. — " Dear Billy, Your two last letters are of the 
21st September and 6th November [1767], and we have since 
in some measure been relieved from our anxiety by some success 
against Hyder Aly, and the return of Nizam Aly to our alliance. 
This I hope will inable you sufficiently to lower Hyder Naig, 
and prevent his being troublesome in future. 

" Being but just returned from Devonshire, I have not lately 
seen Mrs. or Miss Goodlad, but I hear they are well. I have 
succeeded no better than last year in the consignment way. 
The trade is become so bad that they all talk of withdrawing 

(1) John d'Fries, who later succeeded to Morse's Ixisinoss and estal>lished the 
firm of Pelliug & De Fries. 

91 [No. 62. 

their concerns ; therefore be careful liow you meddle with 
diamonds, for in general they will not now bring seven shillings. . . 

'' Your militia*!* no doubt was admirably appointed, well 
disciplined and well conmianded ; but with such light infantry 
as James Bourchier, Jos. Smith, yourself and Troutback t^) 
should have marched out to the enemy and given them a fright, 
of which they would have been very susceptible ; but I suppose 
you were taken by surprize, and they were too quick in their 

" Mr. Sulivan '^' would not be dissuaded from trying his luck 
once more : the lists of Proprietors will be published in a few 
days, and then, if I mistake not, he will see clearly that, with 
all the split votes**) the Dutch could furnish, he has not the 
least chance ; and I shall be glad to see an end to all contest. 

" Nancy and Lawrence are well, and a little girl<^' [was] 
born the first of this year. My nephew Tom being appointed 
a Writer, I desire that you and Stone*^' will take him under your 
management and endeavor to qualify him for a good Company's 
servant. I forgot to say to his Honor the Governor that the 
General desires he will favor and protect Mr. Ballard, who went' 
out a Cadet in the same ship with Mr. Alexander. I am ever, 
dear Billy, your affectionate and sincere friend, 

[Holograph, 2f pp. Jlsc]}.] " Robt. Palk." 

[No. 63.] 
Robert Palk to' [William Martin] Goodlad. 

1768, November 22nd, London. Received 31st May, 1769, 
per Mr. Cockrane.*'"* — " Dear Goodlad, The friends of the bearer, 
a son of Lord Dundonald, having desired a recommendation, 
what greater service can I render him than to desire you will 
take care that he is well instructed in his dut}- to the Company, 
which is the only method to contribute to his future success ? . . 

" Your sincere and affectionate friend, 

[Holograph, 1 p., Uo.] " Robt. Palk." 

(1) Embodied iu September, 1768, vvhen Haidar's horse raided the suburbs of 

(2) Samuel Troutback, born in 1700, was Ijoatswain of the King George when 
that ship was wrecked near Sadras in 1721, after which lie Ijecame a free merchant 
at Fort St. George. He married Susanna Morgan in 1726, and died in 1785, leaving 
the bulk of his property to St. John's Charity School, Wapping, where he had been 
educated. Legal difficulties resulted in the bequest passing to the Crown. 

(3) Laurence Sulivan. 

(4) Each holder of £500 and upwards of India stock possessed one rote in the 
Court of Proprietors, which elected the twenty-four Directors. To increase their 
voting power it was the practice for large stockholders to spUt their holdings into 
blocks of £500 and transfer them nominally to friends, retaining a call on their 
votes, which were termed split-votes. 

(5) Catherine Palk. 

'6> John Maxwell Stone, Secretary in the Military and Political Department. 

(7) The Hon. Basil Cochrane, fifth son of the 8th Earl of Dundonald, entered 
the Madras civil service at the age of sixteen. He filled various minor appoint- 
ments and was engaged in private commercial undertakings. In 1800, when 
Military Paymaster, he completed a canal on the west side of Fort St. George, 
which bears his name. 


[No. 64.] 
Robert Palk to W[illia]m Martin Goodlad. 

1768, December 5th, London. Received 27th July, 1769, 
per Mr. Phipps. — " My dear Billy, The bearer is a son of Mrs. 
Phipps, who is a near relation of Mr. Aldersey's, and on that 
account I am sure you will be very happy to shew him your 
hospitality during his stay at Madras; and I desire you will 
introduce him to Mr. Bourchier and all my friends, that he may 
pass his time agreeably while he stays with you ... I am, 
dear Billy, most affectionately yours, 

" RoBT. Palk." 
[Holograph, 1 p., Uo.] 

[No. 65.] 
George Vansittart to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1769, January 5th. On my way from Calcutta to Midnapore. — 
You will have heard of Plowman's (^> unexpected death. I 
went to Calcutta to adjust our business, and made it over to 
Darrell*-' and Hollond,'^* with whom I have entered into 
partnership for commission business only. 

I did not before mention " that your nephew'^) had involved 
himself the deeper in his scrape by agreeing with the other 
Cossimbazar gentlemen to destroy his Bengal accounts at the 
time they were demanded from him by the Committee of 
Inquiry. This, however, was the case ; and this being considered, 
the Gentlemen of the Council have, I think, acted towards him 
with all the lenity which could be expected. Upon Ms deliver- 
ing to them a just account of his profits, and acknowledging 
the impropriety of his conduct, they have allowed him an 
emolument of 15 per cent, upon the prime cost of the materials 
in consideration of trouble, risks and charges, and they have 
continued him in the service with only the restriction that he 
shall not be employed out of Calcutta till the Company's pleasure 
be known. It must now be your care and his other friends' 
in Europe to get his pardon confirmed and compleated. Mr. 
Verelst promises that both in his publick and private letters 
he will write strongly in his favour.'^' The prime cost of the 
materials which he provided was about a lack of rupees ; his 
profits about 60,000. I look upon Alexander'^* to be the person 
to whom he is principally obliged for escaping so well ..." 

I am ordered on " deputation to Janoojee, the Moratta Chief 

(1) Henry Plowman, Vansittart's partner in private business. 

(2) Lionel DareU. Vide No. 54, p. 80, note 1. 

(3) William Hollo nd was a Bengal civil servant of 1767. 

(4) Ro])ert Palk, jun. 

(5) Cf. Letter from Verelst to Robert Palk, sen., 21 Sept., 1768. (B.M. Add. 
MSS. 31,686.) 

•(6) Jauies Alexander entered the Madras civil service in 175^;. He was admitted 
to Council in 1763, and went home in the following year. Returning to India in 
1767 on transfer to Bengal, he served there until 1771. He sat as M.P. for Derry 
from 1772 to 1789, and in 17UU he was created Earl of Caledon. 

93 [No. 65. 

at Nagpore," a trip of 400 or 500 cos. Shuja-iid-daula has 
agreed to a limitation of liis forces, and we are now good friends 


George Van Sittart. 

[Holograph, 4 pp., Uo.] 

[No. 66.] 
Nic[holas] Morse to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1769, February 28th, Fort St. George.— " By the accident 
of the Chatham being blown out of the road our friends will 
have been disappointed of having the letters wrote for her so 
early as they may have been expected. The Dutton takes them 
now, on which ship take passage Mr. Carter, Mr. Calland and 
family, Mr. Sadleir, Mrs. Donald Camj^bell and children, 
Captains Adair and Drilling. 

" I have ballanced the books of our concerns, and I send you 
a copy of the journal. There are only two or three articles 
to be accounted for : one the Nabob's debt, which is paying off 
yearly. Part of what has been paid the last year has been lent 
the Company at the desire of the Governor and Council. . . 

" Mr. Plowman's death j^ou will hear [of] by the ships from 
Bengali. Mr. George has taken for partners Messrs. Darell 
and William Hollond. It's said he is going on an embassy to 
Jonadee,*^) Chief of the Morattoes. 

" There has been a great scarcity of money at Calcutta, which 
has been a great hindrance to business and to the making 
regular payments, whilst the French and Dutch abound. The 
difficulty of getting money home furnishes the former with such 
large sums that their Company is enabled to carry on their 
affairs with great advantage, and private persons also enjoy 
the benefit. They are erecting their fortifications at Pondichery 
by order from France, to which they give much attention. . . " 

Mr, Churchill, who brought letters of recommendation from 
you to Mr. George Vansittart and myself, delayed proceeding 
to Bengal, and asked for an advance of money. I ga^^e him 
£100, but declined a further application. Mr. Vansittart writes 
that he has directions to pay Mr. Churchill £100 only per annum. 

" I send you a box containing 40 of St. Ignatius's Beads,'"-* 
which I- have desired Mr. Carter to put in his chest. They have 
been lately found to be a very good remedy for the bite of a rat, 
both inwardly and outwardh' made use of. 

"Your nephew, Mr. Thomas has been appointed an ensign 
for some time, and is well esteemed in the armv . . . 

" You will by this ship have a very disagreeable account of 
the state of the war with Hydro Naigue. As I am only a 

(1) Janoji. 

(2) St. Ignatius's Beans, wliicli Morse calls " Beads," were the seeds of a plant 
of tlio Pliilippines reseniljling nux v^oiuica, and were used by the natives in cases 
of cliolera. In Xovenii)or, I7(i7, Palk had written to James Bourchier to ask for 
St. Ignatius's beans. {Brit. Mus. Add, MSS. 34,685.) 

No. 66.] 94 

bystander I shall not take upon me to write on the subject, but 
leave it to Mr. Bourchier to write, and Mr. Carter to tell you how 
matters stand. They will no doubt occasion much uneasiness 
at home, as they do abroad, to find the country so terribly 
harrassed and distressed by the ravages of this man daily 
committed in one part or other of the country. I wish the 
advices by the Thames may be more agreeable . . . 

" Nic. Morse." 
[Holograph, 4| pjj., Uo.'\ 

[No. 67.] 
Certificate of the President and Council of Fort St. George. 

1769, February 28th, Fort St. George. — That the sum of 
Pags. 272, 26 fa, 15 ca. has been received into the Company's 
cash from Mr. Reynold Adams'^) on account of the estate of 
Captain Peter Cranch, deceased. Signed by Chs. Bourchier, 
Jos. Du Pre, John Call, Ar. Wynch, John Andrews, 
Geo. Stratton, Geo. Daw^son, Jas. Bourchier, Richd. 
Brickenden, Geo. Mackay. 

[1 iJ. flscp.] 

[No. 68.] 
Rama Kisna to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1769, March 9th, Fort. St. George. — Diamonds to the value 
of Pags. 350,000 go by this ship, the Dutton. 

" This war of Hyder Ally has been very unfortunate to the 
English, and caused great troubles and anxiety to the inhabi- 
tants, [so] that if we don't soon have a peace to relieve us from 
our miserys, we shall be very miserable indeed. I pray for the 
continuance of your protection towards me and old Mooperala 
Kisnia's son Cassavaia . . . 

" Rama Kisna 


[Holograph, 1 p., flscp.] 

[No. 69.] 
W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to [Robert Palk, Esq.] 

1769, March 11th. Fort St. George. — I have received your 
letter by Mr. Helling. Johnson and I have procured for him 
the command of a fine ship now building at Bandermalanka.<-' 
I hear good reports of your nephew Thomas, who has now held 
a commission for some months. He will not readily resign 
military for civil duties, but will nevertheless follow your wishes. 

" I am almost affraid to say any thing on politics, but still I 

'1) Vide No. 112, p. 141, note 1. 

(2) A port on the Qodavari coast, where al)undant supplies of teak were available. 

95 [No. 69. 

cannot entirely be silent. You will hear from all hands how 
truely unprofitable the war has proved to us, and that indeed 
we were nexer before so handled. Excepting Cuddalore, 
Trichenopoly, Madura and Pallanicotah, we have not a foot to 
the southward of Pondicherry that we can call our own : all 
the country to the southward entirely laid waste ; not an hutt 
or inhabitant to be seen for sixty miles together, so terrible have 
been, and still are, the devastations of the enemy's horse. The 
Coimbatoor country we once called our own, but alas, every 
fort surrendered again on the first summons, and we are in a 
much worse situation than ever we were. I dare not touch 
further on these matters or on our real situation at this time : 
you will in all probability be fully informed of it from other 
quarters, and my silence is therefore the more pardonable. 

" Our friend Mr. B.<^* will most probably retiu'n to England 
about this time next year, as heartily sick of his station as ever 
man was. He has indeed been truely unfortunate, for his 
government has been attended with nothing but the most 
untoward circumstances. I feel for him most sincerely, and 
tremble at the consequences which our ill success may bring 
on him. He would have been much happier if the same ship 
had carried you both to England, and for his sake I really wish 
he had then quitted us ; for I cannot believe that his circum- 
stances will have much benefitted, and I am sure his mind would 
have been much more at ease than it can be after the change 
which has happened in the Company's affairs under his adminis- 
tration .... I know no man who ought to hug himself more 
than you, for surely never was there a less ruffled Government 
than when the reins were in your hands. 

" I have very little to say to you on the score of news. Pinke*^* 
died a martyr to the bottle the beginning of January. George 
Smith is married to Aurora*^' ; James Taylor<^> to Miss Philips. 

" The war has been truelv fatal to our officers. The flowers 
of our army have been untimely cut off, those indeed who might 
justly be called so. Alas ! my dear friend, how can I tell you 
what I have suffered on this occasion ! My invaluable friend, 
poor Hector Mackay, is no more. It is impossible to express 
to you how much I valued him, or what I feel at this time at 
the loss of him ; which you also have reason to regret, as I had 
placed your nephew under his tuition, and he really took all 
the care of him that he could of his brother. Captain Gee 
(who married Miss Carter), and Captain Villiers Fitzgerald, 
with many others, have fallen in the same cause. 

" We all wish most heartily for peace. Trade is exceedingly 
dull : the Nabob's payments to his creditors at an end, and in 
short, in short, we are in a situation by no means pleasing . . . 

(1) Charles Bourchior. 

'2) Thomas Ahu-ed Pincke, a free merchant. 

(3) Margaret Aurora Muriro. 

(4' James Taylor, a civil servant of I7(il, married Ann Phillips. 

No. 69.] 96 

"Carterd' Sadleir'^) Mrs. Campbell,'^) Callandf*) and family 
return to England by this ship : of the last you will hear more 
from Mr. Bourchier . . . 


[Holograph, 4| pp., Mo.] 

[No. 70.] 
Robert Palk to [William Martin] Goodlad. 

1769, March 17th. London. Received 3rd September. — 
" My dear Goodlad, In future I promise you to be a much 
better correspondent, which hitherto has not been the case. 
Interruption and dissipation are so much in fashion that it has 
been difficult in this great town to keep an hour to oneself. 
I have many friends besides yourself to whom I ought to make 
a better apology. 

" I have now before me your letter of the 12th May,(^) which 
conveys to me the true state of affairs, that state which I always 
dreaded. To carry on such a war required the greatest abilities 
in the commanding officer, and the highest consideration in 
laying in provisions. Nizam was too long and too much 
distressed on his march to be of any service to the alliance ; and 
unless he could have been supplied with money, the consequence 
must be his getting it from Hyder Naig. I hope the ship which 
we daily expect will give us better advices. If we could have 
kept our ground at Onor, I should have concluded the war in 
a fair way of being finished. You have attributed our want of 
success to the right cause. Many here are of the same opinion, 
but those who have it only in their power to remedy that defect 
do not chuse to show the world that they could be mistaken." 

The Governor and Mr. Call have both incurred the displeasure 
of the Directors. When they leave for England, I request that 
Wynch, Morse and yourself may take their places as my 
attorneys. Withecombe's money you should remit to me as 
soon as you receive it. The Company would like to cut off 
the resources of the Nawab's creditors, but legal opinion is 
against them. They have appointed a secret Committee of 
Inquiry, which will be occupied two or three years, by which 
time I hope most of the Nawab's debts will be paid. " You 
may remember that I always shuddered at the Nabob's debt, 
and I shall be happy when I hear the creditors are out of 

(1) Roger Carter, late Governor of Bencoolen, Sumatra. 

(2) Anthony Sadleir entered the Madras civil service in 17G0. As Resident of 
Ingeram he was suspended for oppressing the natives, but was reinstated. Admitted 
to Council in 1780, he d(>livered so trenchant a minute on the inaction of Whitchill's 
Government during Ilaidar All's invasion of the Carnatic tliat he was again sus- 
pended. In 1783 he was employed on missions to tlie French at Cuddalore and 
to Tipu at Mangalore. In the following year he quarrelled with Lord Macartney 
at the Council table, and fought a duel with him in whicli tlic Governor was wounded. 
Sadleir was ultimately transferred to Masulipatam, where he died in 1703. 

(3) Mrs. Donald Campbell. 

(4) John Calland. Vide No. 'Si, p. 55. note 3. 

(5) No. 52, p. 77. 

97 [No. 70. 

" Inclosed is a letter to Moodu Kisna/^) who is desired with 
you to settle a certain affair. Royala Punt,'-' formerly Renter 
of St. Thome, Devecotah, &c.,says he was turned out soon after 
my departure, and wants some presents which he made for 
that reason to be returned. I never in my life asked any man 
for a present, and those he gave me were so large that indeed 
they astonished me, viz., one thousand pagodas when he rented 
Munnimunglum from the Nabob's manager, one thousand 
when I came to the Government, and, long after he had taken 
the above farms for five years, I think six or seven thousand 
more — Moodu Kisna knows which. Of the latter sum I am 
willing to return him so much back as was unexpired of his 
term, dividing the latter sum into five ; but this must be done 
in a judicious manner, and that nothing of it may ever transpire. 
In short, more or less I leave it to you and Moodu Kisna to 
settle on any terms confidentially, and to receive the amount 
from my attornies, to whom I have mentioned it but very 
slightly. I am sure during my whole government I never sought 
or intended to oppress any man. And yet I apprehend some 
European must have forced him to make this demand. 

" I recommend my nephew Tom to your care and protection. 
The Directors promised he should be the first on the list, and they 
made him the last. In this country all is party, and poor Tom 
is involved, though his unkle never meddles further than to give 
his single vote . . . All our little family, one boy and two girls, 
are very well. I am still unsettled both in town and country : 
indeed in this country it requires good management to live 
within bounds ... I am ever, my dear Billy, your sincere and 
affectionate friend, 

" RoBT. Palk." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., Uo.] 

[No. 71.] 

[Captain] Thomas Madge to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1769, May 16th. Ellore. — For the last six months anarchy 
and confusion have reigned in the Carnatic. " As the communica- 
tion betwixt our Settlements has been so often interrupted by 
Hyder's cavalry, together with the great care taken by the 
Gentlemen at Madrass to prevent any correspondence to be 
carried on concerning the situation of public affairs, most people 
chose not to write at all rather than run the risque of their letters 
being stopt and opened at Madrass, or even of being suspected 

(1) Muttukrishna Mudali succeeded ' Paupa Braminy,' jun., in 1749 as Company's 
Interpreter. In 1751 lie accompanied Palk and Vansittart to Sadras as Translator 
to their Mission, and detected a fraud in connexion with the grants wliich Dupleix 
alleged had been made to him by the Subahdar of tlie Deccan. Muttukrishna was 
Governor's Dubash to Mr. Pigot and his successors, and in 1766 founded and 
endowed the Town Temple of Madras which replaced ' the great Jentue Pagoda ' 
of 1646. In 1771 he drew up a rejiort on the historv of the Maravars from 1500 
A.D. He died in 1792. 

(2) Elsewhere described as Rajah Pundit. 


No. 71.] 98 

the authors of any disagreeable though true reports of affairs 
that might transpire in the country." 

On this account I did not send you earher the enclosed letter 
of attorney regarding Cranch's affairs. The value of his estate 
is still uncertain, but the amount of the legacies has been 

My judgment of the conduct of young Smerdon has proved 
correct. " He had been ordered on detachment with Captain 
Bellingham <^) to attack a small fort in their neighbourhood, 
when he discovered such uncommon tokens of cowardice as 
I am ashamed to mention. The day after the fort was reduced 
(it having been abandoned by the enemy) a report prevailed 
that a field engagement was soon expected ; which so much 
terrified Smerdon that he immediatelv waited on Bellinoham 
and told him that he found the air did not agree with him, 
neither did he by any means approve of a military life ; which 
induced him to demand leave to quit the detachment 
immediately in order to repair to Ellore (head quarters in the 
Circars), as on his arrival there he was determined to quit 
the service ! In spite of every argument that could be made 
use of to dissuade him from so scandalous a step, he still 
persisted in it, and accordingly left the detachment. On his 
arrival at Ellore Colonel Tod ordered him to set out for Samul- 
cotah, where I at the time resided, where he advised him to 
consult with me before he resigned the service. It was with 
much difficulty he was prevailed upon to make his appearance, 
and loitered at a small village about 16 coss from Samulcotah 
five or six days under the most frivolous pretences, till I was 
under the necessity of threatening to bring him to Samulcotah 
with a file of men : this brought him immediately. Soon after 
his arrival he was appointed an ensign from Madrass, a pro- 
motion that filled him with the greatest concern, as he assured 
me he would never take the field again as he was sure he could 
not support his character as an officer. Accordingly, on my 
being ordered into the field, Smerdon writes a letter to either 
Colonel Tod or the Chief at IMasulipatam, in which he declares 
his want of capacity and resolution for the station he had been 
promoted to, and therefore begs leave to quit the service befoi:e 
he is put to any further trial ! On receipt of this letter he was 
ordered to proceed immediately to Madrass, which, sore against 
his inclinations, he was obliged to comply with. 

" At parting from me he expressed a desire of getting 
employed as a monthly Writer in the office at Madrass. But 
as his passion for dissipation, together with an unconquerable 
aversion to business of any kind, would not allow me to hope 
he would ever be able to support himself on 10 pags. per month 
when he could hardly make both ends meet with double the 

(1) Captain Belliiiicliani, who was an Ensign of the Company's European Infantry 
in 1758, accompanied Cailhuid's detachment to Bengal in the following year. 
In 1769 he commanded a battalion of native infantry in the Northern Circars, 

99 [No. 71. 

sum, I advised him to think seriously of returning to his friends 
by the first opportunity. Since his leaving the northward, 
which was in the month of January last, I have never received 
a letter from him, notwithstanding he derives at present his 
sole support from my purse. All that I can learn of him is 
from the accoimts sometimes sent me by a friend at Madrass, who 
informs me he has been ordered by the Governor and Council 
to go to Europe by the present opportunity. I have, however, 
applied to Mr. Bourchier for leave for him to remain at Madrass 
till the arrival of my unkle's ship, when I shall ship him off 
immediately. To this the Governor has consented. I am 
sorry to assure you that he is not indued with one good or even 
neutral qualification, and what his unhappy father will do with 
him on his return to England I cannot divine . . ." 

Of affairs in the Carnatic you will hear from other sources. 
" Our reputation at present seems to be at a very low ebb, as 
we have experienced such a terrible reverse of fortune during 
the last ten months of the war as has put such an indelible blot 
on our arms and councils as will require many years' prudent 
administration, and as many well conducted successful 
campaigns, to wipe off before our affairs can be restored to 
that flourishing condition in which you left them. 

" Hyder has been permitted, it is said, to make good his 
bravado of granting us a peace close at the gates of Madrass. 
He was, according to report, very near it with a very incon- 
siderable body of horse, having by two very long retrograde 
marches given Colonel Smith the slip, and got betwixt him 
and jMadrass. He was suffered to remain very near it 
unmolested, though there were at the time upwards of 300 
Europeans and two battalions of seapoys in garrison ready to 
push out upon him, whilst the army without, who was on the 
march after him, would soon have been so near (had it not been 
countermanded) as to have prevented his escape. Peace was 
however concluded with him notwithstanding his situation ; 
the particulars of which are most of them a profound secret, 
and by their being disapproved of by the Nabob are not supposed 
to be much in our favor. He has been gone off for some time 
to the Mysore country, and the Gentlemen of Madrass are now 
settling the distribution of the troops belonging to the Madrass 
establishment in such a manner as to be in utrumque paratus 
should Hyder take it into his head to renew the war and, as 
he threatened, overwhelm us with Marattas from all quarters." 

The troops in the Circars are to be increased to a brigade. 
To the south there will be two brigades. As more subalterns 
will be needed here, I have asked Mr. Call to get your nephew 
and Mr. Welsford*^* included in the number, especially the 
former, because his friend Mr. Wynch, who has been appointed 
Chief at Masulipatam, will be able to help him. 

(1) A lately arrived cadet. Cf. No. 58, p. 81. 

No. 71.] 100 

Our military establishment is going to ruin owing to the 
assumption of all power by civilians. " Even the Commander 
in Chief will not very soon have as much authority, independent 
of the civil power, as a Writer in the office." Mr. Du Pre, who 
will succeed shortly as Governor, appears to be specially hostile. 
A recent order prohibits correspondence between military 
officers and natives unless copies of the letters are submitted 
to the Presidency. This I consider a hardship. As I have little 
to expect from ]Mr. Du Pre, and as my only friend in the Council, 
Mr. Call, is about to quit India, I think of applying for leave to 
England. If I should be unable to return with my present 
rank, I shall purchase a troop or company in the King's service 
at home. 

" T. Madge." 
[Holograph, 9| pp., 4to.] 


Letter of Attorney, dated Masulipatam, 11th April, 1769. 

Power of Attorney granted by Captain Thomas Madge, one 
of the executors of the will of Peter Cranch, formerly lieutenant 
in H.M.'s 79th regiment and afterwards lieutenant in the East 
India Company's service, authorizing " Robert Palk of Ashburton 
in the County of Devon, Esquire," to be his attorney in all 
matters respecting the executorship. (Signed) T. Madge. 

Witnessed by J[ohn] L[ewin] SmiTH, Chief of Masulipatam, 
and John Whitehill. 

[2 1 pp. demy. Wax seal with arms and crest] 

[No. 72.] 
Mrs. Jane Morse to [Robert Palk, Esq.] 

[Endorsed in Palk's hand.] " Mrs. Morse, 1st June 1769. 
Answered 16th March, 1770." 

1769, June 1st. Fort St. George. — " I think with you, dear 
Sir, Mr. Van has done well in the purchas he has made at Black 
Heath. It is convenient for many reasons ; they have a 
growing family, and oeconomy is highly necessary ... I am 
glad to hear Mr. Hastings is coming to succeed Mr. Duprei^' 
for the good of the place, and we shall have a very agreeable 
friend . . . 

" The painter has not done Mr. Van justice : he has made 
him look stiff and grave, which I am sure he is not in his nature. 
There is a strong resemblance of Harrv's features, but I think 
the complexion too dark. Mr. Stonehouse'^' has wrote Mr. 
James Bourchier that he has a brother and sister'^' coming 
out in these ships for Bengal at the desire of Mr. George and 
his lady, and that he was at a loss how to provide for the young 

(1) As Second Memlior of Council when Du Prd became Governor. Hastings 
arrived in Seplotnl)er, 17(5!). 

('-) Lieutenant Thomas Stonhousc of the Bengal establishment, brother of Mrs, 
George Vansittart. 

(3) Lucia Stonhousc. 

> I . 

101 ■,''', ;.,.-r ".'^,'^[N-o.: 72. 

lady during her stay here ; on which Mr. James made 
appHcation to me, thinking Mr. George might have wrote to 
us about it. I told him our Midnapore friends had not, but 
that he might depend on our receiving the lady into our house 
and shewing her every civility in our power during her stay 
in Madrass . . . 

"Jane Morse." 

[Holograph, 3 jip., Uo.] 

[No. 73.] 

Jos[iAs] Du Pre to Robert Palk, Esq, 

1769, June 15th. Fort St. George.—" Dear Sir, I will not 
attempt to give you an account of our unfortunate transactions 
in the course of the war ; you will have it at large, I dare say, 
from some of your other friends, and you will find that, far 
from depriving Hyder of the power of doing mischief, we have 
been brought to disgrace. Though our armies, with a good 
General at their head, may almost command victory over any 
country enemy who will risk a battle, there are other ways by 
which we may be overcome. We may be ruined by expence. 
That the peace we have made will be blamed there can be no 
doubt ; ill success can never share any other fate. I am clear, 
however, all our circumstances considered, that there was no 
alternative but that or worse. We must now bend all our 
endeavors to restore our finances, which are reduced to worse, 
much worse, than nothing. 

" What ! is there to be no end to wars and rumours of wars 
in Leadenhall Street ? For my part I have been endeavouring 
to lay in a small store of philosophy on that subject ever since 
I was appointed. If I am permitted to stay here a few years, 
'tis well, I will do the best I can ; and if I should be invited 
home, why that too will be well, for it will save me an infinite 
deal of trouble, which I fear, as things are, will procure but 
little honor and little profit. 

" Your nephew, I understand, after having tried and very 
well endured a fatiguing campaign, seems to prefer the sword 
to the quill. He has not yet made a decisive choice. He shall 
have my support in either, for I hear he has merit. Mr. Morse 
will always find me ready to give all the assistance that I can 
with propriety in your affairs or his own. 

" I hope Mrs. l-*alk and your little ones enjoy good health. 
I wish I could send them a few rays of our sun. We could spare 
them, for I have never known so hot and dry a season. We are 
burnt to cynders. Mrs. D. sends her compliments ; she has 
lately presented me with another girl. 

" Mr. Ballard<i) ! Thank God he is not here. I should be 
sorry not to take notice of any one recommended by General 

(1) A cadet. Cf, No. 62, j). 91. 

Ng. .7I5 102 

Lawrence. I am told that he is a very bad character : he got 
into some scrape here and fled to Bengal. 

" I beg leave to make my salam to General and Mrs. Caillaud.(^) 

" Have some mercy, I pray you, upon poor America, or you 
will repent it by and by. Keep off a French war a few years 
longer if possible, that your affairs in the East as well as the 
West may be better prepared : — I am speaking now to the 

" I wish you happiness. What can you wish for more ! 

"Jos. Du Pre." 

{Holograph, 3 pp., 4fo.] 

[No. 74.] 
Nic[holas] Morse to Robert Palk, Esq." 

1769, June 26th. Fort St. George. — I am of opinion that 
Harry Vansittart's purchase of a house at Greenwich is well 
judged. His coming abroad again will depend on circumstances. 
The want of currency in Bengal is affecting both revenue and ■ 
trade, and the Government there have ordered the coining of 
gold mohurs. The causes of the deficiency of silver are natural, 
and little improvement can be expected while the country 
remains disturbed. I regret the frequent changes in the 
ministry at home. " Luxury and licentiousness were never 
at so great a higth, and the nation in general [is] much altered 
for the worse. 

" Mr. Bourchier talks of leaving Lidia next January. The 
appointment of Mr, Hastings next to Mr. Du Pre I find had been 
determined in the Court of Directors. They are happy in having 
so worthy and capable a person in their service, as the present 
state of India requires those of such a character ; for though 
there has been a peace made with Hydro Naigue, yet there is 
no dependance on him ; but rather that he might joyn the 
French on any rupture with them, as it is certain there are 
connections between them, and it may be apprehended that 
Sujah Doulah might be ready to make use of any advantage 
of time and circumstances. The Morattas are powerful and 
always acting for interest ; and on the whole the English may 
esteem themselves happy if they can preserve what they have, 

(1) John Caillaml arrived in India with a British detachment in 1753, and was 
commissioned Captain in the Madras Army. He served under Lawrence in Trichin- 
opoly, and from 1755 to 175!) commanded in the Southern districts. During that 
period lie operated against Mahfuz Khan in Tinnevelly and IVIadura and reheved 
Tricliinopoly, which was besieged l)y d'Auteuil. At llie siege of Ma(h-as l»y Lally, 
Caillaud commanded tlie field force at Chingloput, and fought a vigorous action at 
St. Thomas's Mount in February, 1759. Appointed to command the troops in 
Bengal, he saw active service in Bihar in 17tiO and 1761. Returning to Madras, 
Colonel Caillaud reduced Nellore in lliS'l and laid siege to Arnee. In the following 
year he liecame Brigadier General, and in 17l)() took possession of the Circars, which 
had Ix'en coded to tlie British l)y the Mogul. To placate the Nizam, Caillaud was 
deputed to Hyderabad, where he concluded a treaty under which the Company 
agreed to pay a tribute for the new territory. On retirement he settled in Oxford- 
shire, where he died in 1810. 

103 . [No. 74. 

to do which will require great care and circumspection, and to 
be prepared. Had a peace been made in September last, the 
Carnatic would not have suffered in the unhappy manner it 
has, nor Hydro boasted that it was now his time to do it. 
The terms are not yet made public, although concluded six weeks 
ago .... 

" Mr. Call is far from being well, yet cannot resolve to go to 
Europe on this ship. He and the military have not agreed, and 
I think if the Deputies had not been sent it might have been 
better ; at least there would not have been so much uneasiness 
in the camp. As to the late war, much has been wrote to Europe 
by the Button, and as to the peace, there will be a great deal 
to say by this ship from different hands . . . 

" The justices and jury at the last sessions had some disputes : 
the first sworn in were soon dismissed, and another set sworn 
in. Messrs. Majendie*^), Benfield*"*, and Marsden(^> are bound 
in recognizances of £1,000 to appear at the Court of King's Bench 
on Michaelmas Term, 1771. 

" The advices by the Egmont occasioned the Gentlemen at 
home to put some treasure on each ship bound to China, which 
was well judged . . . The supracargoes have liberty to draw 
for £200,000 on England at 5s. per dollar, and will greatly help 
persons in their remittances home of their money. 

" Your nephew, I believe, has not yet determined about the 
civil or military : I shall therefore refer you to him for an 
explanation. He seemed apprehensive that his allowances in 
the civil might not be equal to the other ; on which I assured 
him that your attorneys would make up that to him, which 
might be about [Pags ] 12 more to his diet money, the Ensign's 
pay being, with the allowance, about 20 pagodas per month ; 
and that I did not doubt but you would hereafter order him 
some money to assist him in business. I have said much to 
him on the occasion, and endeavoured to persuade [him] not 
to miss the opportunity of being in the civil, as what you had 
obtained for him with some trouble, and as the best way of 
his getting forward in life. He is a very good lad, sedate and 
well disposed, and has given much satisfaction to his superior 
officers, and may do well in either way." 

I have arranged matters with all the correspondents of the 
House, and shall relinquish business as soon as the accounts are 
closed, so the next despatch will be from Mr. Hollond and his 
associates. I am quite tired out, " finding it impossible to 
satisfy every one. You are sensible of the trouble I have had, 
and the difficult times I have had to negotiate their affairs in, 
which others are not. I never kept back any money that could 
be remitted, and yet find some of them think we have . . ." 

" Nic. Morse." 

[Holograph, Q\ pp., Uo.] 

(1) Andrew Majendie. Vide No. 57, p. 83, note 4. 
<2) Paul Benfield. Vide No. 78, p. 109, note 1. 
(3) Thomas Marsden. Vide No. 78, p. 109. note 2. 


[No. 75.] 
J[ohn] M[axwell] Stone to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1769, June 27th. Fort St. George. — " A peace was in April 
last concluded with the formidable Hyder : I wish I could say 
that we had compelled him to it. The particulars of all publick 
affairs you will no doubt have from Mr. Bourchier, whose 
situation for this long time past has been truly to be pitied. 
Vexations and disappointments seem to have been his constant 
attendants, though I am convinced no man could deserve them 
less if a truly good heart and an earnest desire to promote the 
Company's interest could keep him free from them. 

" Your nephew Tom has been in some doubt whether to 
continue in the military or accept of the civil service. Indeed 
I was not surprized at it, as he seems to have a turn for a soldier's 
life, and during the last campaign, which has been a very severe 
one, has acquired his share of honor and the esteem of every 
officer in the army. He has, however, at last determined on 
the civil, and this day signed his covenants, though not without 
some reluctance. 

"J. M. Stone." 

" P.S. — You will no doubt have heard of the death of our 
poor friend Griffiths. Mr. Thomas'^' and I have the management 
of his affairs, which, with your kind assistance to him, will I 
hope turn out a sufficient provision for his children . . . We 
expect one of them may arrive in India this season . . ." 

[Holograph, 3 jjp., flscp.] 

[No. 76.] 
Nic[holas] Morse to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1769, June 28th. Fort St. George. — Mr. Bourchier has 
decided to leave India next January, and I think it will be well 
if Mr. Call accompanies him. " The times at home and abroad 
are far from giving that satisfaction persons here have long 
wanted." Your nephew has signed covenants as a Writer. 

" Nic. Morse." 

[Holograph, 1 2^., 4to.] 

[No. 77.] 

Rama Kisna to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1769, June 28th. Fort St. George. — " I heard Mr. Hastings 
comes out this year for this place to succeed Mr. Dupre in the 
Government.*-) I beg you will recommend me to his protection 
if I have any business, which is very necessary on account of 
my village, which you was so kind as to obtain from the Nabob 
for the use of my Charity Choultry at Chccrecoad, to this time 
by Mr. Bourchicr's favor going on without any interruption . . . 

'D The Rev. John Thomas, Chaplain at Fort St. George. 

(2) As Second Member of Council when Du Pr^ becomes Governor. 

105 [No. 77. 

" Your old friend Mooperala Kistnaia's son begs leave to 
present his humble respects to you and your family." 

"Rama Kisna." 
[Holograph, 1^ p., flscp.] 

[No. 78.] 
Ch[arle]s Bourchier to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1769, June 29th. Fort St. George. " I am infinitely obliged 
to you, my dear friend, for many of your most acceptable 
favors, and for so warmly espousing my cause with the Court of 
Directors. They did me but justice in believing . . . that I 
was doing my best for them, as I can with truth say my sole 
view in continuing the warr was the interest and welfare of the 
Company ; and as the reducing the power of Hyder Alice was 
a measure strongly recommended by Lord Clive for the security 
of the Company's possessions in the Carnateck as well as the 
Nabob's dominions — a measure also repeatedly urged by the 
present Committee in Bengal, and which in my own judgment 
and of my colleagues here [was] of essential consequence to 
the Company's prosperity — I cannot help being vexed that 
they should think me and some others so culpable in adopting 
it when there was the greatest probability of carrying our point. 
I cannot however be surprized that they should be so much 
out of humor ; for accountable as they are now become to 
Parliament for all transactions, to avoid any reproach they 
may apprehend, they no doubt will load us with censure ; and 
should we escape it this year we shall inevitably be dismissed 
the next when they are acquainted how much the scene has 
changed since the Egmont left us, and with the distressful 
situation the Carnateck, the Nabob's and the Company's affairs 
have been reduced to by the continuance of the warr. I ha^^e 
therefore determined to leave India next January at all events, 
and hope to be happy amongst you and the rest of my friends 
in England towards the end of summer if the Directors will let 
me be at peace there ; but as I have reason to believe an ill 
starr presided at my birth, I have apprehensions that they will 
give me some trouble after I am got home. 

" We have at length happily put an end to the enormous 
expences occasioned by the warr by concluding a peace with 
Hyder, who, having led Colonel Smith a dance of near a month, 
had the address, after drawing him as farr as Villaporum, to 
slip by him, and making a march of no less than 45 miles the 
first day, got so much ahead of our army that he reached the 
Mount three days before they got the length of Vendaloor. 
On his arrival there he wrote to me that he was come so near 
to make peace with us himself. In the* extremities we were 
reduced to we gladly embraced the opportunity of opening the 
Conference again ; for the country being entirely at his mercy ; 
our army being incapable of protecting it or bringing him to a 

No. 78.] 106 

decisive action, and daily diminishing by sickness and fatigue ; 
the promised succors of horse by the Nabob and Mora Row <^' 
not arrived, nor hkely to be for some months, and our distress 
for money great ; our whole dependance being on the Nabob, 
who though he promised largely we had doubts of his performing ; 
and it being also the Company's positive orders to make peace, 
we were under the necessity of doing it almost at all events. 
I will not trouble you with a detail of all that passed on the 
occasion, though I have been very particular therein to both 
Mr. Rous(2) and Mr. Sulivan, and probably you may know from 
the latter ... I hope therefore you will be satisfied by my telling 
you that after five days spent in the most tiresome and vexatious 
discussions with the Vackeels that were sent in after Mr. Du 
Pre had been with Hyder one whole day at the Mount, the 
articles were settled of. which you have a copy inclosed.*^' 
Besides which, the Nabob was obliged to submit to consent 
that all of the Novoyt cast <*' who were in the Carnateck should 
be permitted to leave it if such was their choice. As this article 
the Nabob thought affected his honor, it was agreed to be left 
out of the written treaty." 

We also agreed, after the treaty was signed, to give up to 
Hyder some stores at Colar, as we understood from Captain 
Kelly, <^> who commanded there, that the place could not hold 
out beyond the 10th April. As a fact, it held out until the 
treaty was signed, and we are therefore holding an inquiry 
into Captain Kelly's conduct. 

" As you are well acquainted with the Nabob's rooted 
antipathy to Hyder, and how ambitious he is, you will not be 
surprized that he should be so very averse to our making the 
peace as he has expressed himself on several occasions. It is, 
however, very extraordinary that these foibles should so much 
get the better of his reason as to blind him to his own interest 
in the highest degree. He saw our united efforts could not 
prevent the daily ravages of his enemy, and that every hour 
we delayed coming to an accommodation subjected him and 
his wretched subjects to the severest losses without the least 
glimpse of hope that we could find any other means of preventing 
it than by concluding a peace ; yet he wished it could have 
been avoided ; would not consent to have his name inserted 

(1> Morari Rao. Vide No. 19, p. 33, note 4, 

(-) Thomas Rous, a Director from 1745 to 1771, who had been several times 

(3) Not found. 

(•i) Novoyt, Narai/nt, a new-comer, from Skt. nava, new, implies a Muhammadan 
of mixed descent. The descendants and adiierents of tlie former Carnatic dynasty, 
which ended with Nawab Safdar Ah in 1744, were commonly known as Navayats. 
Some of these adlierents, hke the family of Chanda Saliib, had been detained by 
Muhammad Ali, and llaidar, wliose mother was a Navayat, insisted on tlieir being 
granted permission to leave the Carnatic. 

(5' Robert Kelly entered the Madras Infantry in 1760, and became Captain in 
1765. He acted as Chief Engineer at the siege of Mah(5 in 1779, and commanded 
a brigade under Fullarton in 1783. Colonel Kelly died at Arnee in 1790 when in 
command of the Centre Armv. 

107 [No. 78. 

as a contracting Power ; and, though he promised to authorize 
us to act for him in making peace for the Carnateck by a letter, 
we have never yet been able to obtain such an authority from 
him. Pie has indeed been so very refractory lately that I have 
at times had inhnitc trouble with him, and I am very suspicious 
he has somebody he places a confidence in that puts false 
notions into his head, which induce him to act so very differently 
to what seemed to be his former disposition ; and who knows 
it may be the author of the curious pamphlet wherein you and 
I and Call are extolled for being such excellent cooks. 

" The apprehension that the Company will in time take his 
country into their hands (as has been done in Bengal) to clear 
off their debt, now no less than 12i lacks of pagodas, besides 
the expenses of the warr amounting to 1-lh lacs more (a sum you 
will be amazed at, and which I fear I shall be hanged for : 
however, so it is, and I must abide by the consequences) alarms 
him beyond measure and throws him into the utmost despair. 
He is nevertheless meditating at times the means to clear off 
his debt to the Company, and promises to effect it in three 
years if peace subsists so long. Indeed I suspect he must have 
a hoard somewhere, as the Company and individuals assisted 
largely soinetimes towards defraying his expenses, during 
which interval the revenues of the country were collected by 
him ; and this I am the readier induced to believe from his 
having at times talked of discharging his debt in even 18 months. 
Possibly if the Company propose any measures that may be 
dissatisfactory to him and that may increase the suspicions 
he has already entertained, he may exert himself and pay off 
what he owes them. With respect to the charges of the Avarr, 
notwithstanding he made an agreement with us, which is entered 
in Consultation, to bear them all, provided we left the manage- 
ment of the conquered countrys to him and the produce at the 
time they were so, with all the plunder taken, he now disputes 
the matter and says his agreement was conditional that we 
took Seringapatam ; than which nothing is more untrue. We 
have left this circumstance to the Company's determination ; 
and as they had an interest in the warr, which was begun in 
consequence of our possessing the Circars, they ought in reason 
[to] take to themselves some portion of the charge of it ; and 
I think that ought to be at least one third, as the value of their 
possessions bears about that proportion to the amount of the 
Nabob's . . . 

" Hastings's superceding Call is a mortifying circumstance. 
Call, however, will go home as soon as he possibly can settle 
his affairs, but I iDclieve he will not do so before me . . . 

" I wrote you in duplicate by the Dutton, which my friend 
Carter carried, to put one packet on board any ship he might 
meet with in the voyage. I therein gave you a full account of 
Calland's malevolent intentions. What you mention of the 
letter vou received from him and his declarations therein 

No.'^TS.] 108 

confirm my suggestions. I hope, agreable to what I proposed 
to you, that you have found means to prevent his executing his 
vile purpose ; for in the humor the Directors seem to be at 
present a hint only from him will be sufficient to awaken all 
their suspicions, which may occasion such orders as will affect 
numbers both at home and abroad. Nothing has been done 
here yet relative to the enquiry ordered last year, as Ruccun 
ud Dowlah, the Souba's minister, who had the principal hand 
in concluding the Hydrobad Treaty,*^) has been absent ; but as 
he is soon to return there, he will be applied to on the subject. 
I shrewdly suspect from advices I have seen that further 
scrutinies will be ordered this year from home, and I wish I 
may not have trouble thereby. 

" Rajahpundit*-' is an infamous rascall, and so much involved 
in debt to the Nabob as well as others that he is now under 
confinement with the Nabob on that account. I have talked 
with Moodoo Kistnah and communicated what you desired of 
me to Goodlad : by the next dispatch I shall let you know what 
has been resolved on ; hitherto nothing, as there has been little 
opportunity for it. 

" It has been with some difficulty your nephew Tom has been 
prevailed on to lay down the sword. He has been an Ensign 
some time, and [the] being reduced from 17 pagodas to P. 8 23/. 
per month was a powerful argument against relinquishing it. 
He promised to make a good officer, being fond of his profession, 
but is convinced that his future prospects of advantage are 
more extensive in the civil than the militarv. He is a sedate, 
sensible youth, and much regarded in the corps he belonged to. 
Could he be assisted a few years with the addition of 10 pagodas 
per month to his writer's stipend, it would be very acceptable, 
and little enough to keep him out of debt, as you know . . . 

" By the way of China [I] shall find means to make 
remittances to you my attorneys of at least £30,000 on account 
of myself and Jim ; '■^' and by the end of next year shall have 
in England, I hope, with what is already in your hands, about 
£60,000, the mode of remittance being already secured. How 
much more we are possessed of I am yet uncertain, but I shall 
set tight to work as soon as the Thames is sailed to settle all 
my accounts and dispose of outstanding concerns . . . 

" I tha!ik you for the house you have purchased for me, 
which according to Mrs. B.'s description of it must be a very 
excellent one. I wish the price may be not too great for my 
fortune ; but if it should appear to be so, I imagine I can always 
have it in my power to dispose of it without much loss. 

" Besides the vexation our late troublesome situation gave 
me, we have had further cause for it from the refractory 
behavior of a Grand Jury, who treated us so contemptuously 

(1) The Treaty of 1768 relating to the Ch-cars. 

»2) Elsewhere called Royala Piint. Cf. No. 70, /-. !I7. 

li^) James Bourchier. 

109 [No. 78. 

on the Bench that we were at lengtli put to the disagreable 
necessity of ordering three of thcni, 13enfield,<i' Majendie and 
Marsden,*-' to prison because^they refused to enter into a 
recognizance to appear and answer for their misconduct before 
the King's Bench . . . but whicli they were released from on 
signing the recognizance. They threaten us with great damages, 
whicli has occasioned us to be very particular in an address to 
the Court of Directors on the occasion ; and I am so much 
persuaded we have done no more than we can answer for that 
I am perfectly easy on the occasion. However, I shall be glad 
if you will make some enquiry into the matter at the India 
House, and write me a line to meet me at St. Helena in what 
light the matter is taken at home, as well as any other intelligence 
that materially concerns me . . . 

" Crs- Bourchier." 
{Holograph, 13| pp., Mo.] 

[No. 79.] 

W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1769, June 30th. Fort St. George. — " You will learn from 
other hands in what manner our war with Hyder has ended. 
Who ever thought that the intended conquerors of the Mysore 
country would be reduced to make peace at the gates of their 
own capital ! 0[h,] my dear friend, how greatly is the face of 
affairs altered since you left us ; instead of a flourishing 
Investment and full treasury we can scarcely maintain our 
troops, and are over head and ears in debt. Mr. Bourchier's 
Government has been truely unfortunate from the beginning : 
it has not been attended with one favorable circumstance, and 
he is indeed most heartily sick of it. The Coast and Bay ships 
threaten us with a chaubuke.''^' He is quite prepared for it, 
and seems fully to expect to return a private gentleman. In 
good truth I am most heartily sorry for him, and I know so 

(1) Paul Benfield was appointed by the Court of Directors to be Civil Architect 
and Engineer at Madras, where he arrived in 176-1. He was employed under Call 
on the new works at Fort St. George with the rank of Lieutenant, though he was 
borne on the list of civil servants. In 1769 he resigned his post of Engineer to 
become contractor for the fortifications of Black Town. This work, which involved 
the construction of 3 J miles of rampart, was practically finished in 1770. In that 
year Benfield was dismissed the service for factious behaviour. Though readmitted, 
lie was guilty of disobedience in 1772, and was suspended. Benfield next contracted 
for the new works at Fort St. George, and was engaged on theni until 1776. He 
lent large sums of money to the Nawal), secured on assignments of the revenues 
of Tanjore. On the rendition of Tanjore to the Raja by Lord Pigot in 1776 Benfield 
advanced claims, which produced dissensions in Council and led to the arrest of 
the Governor. Benfield was suspended by the Directors and recalled to England, 
but he was eventually restored to the service. In 1781 he was appointed a naember 
of the Committee of Assigned Revenue. He finally left India in 1788, lost his 
fortune by speculation, and died in Paris in 1810. 

(2) Thomas Marsden entered the service as Ensign in 1767. Two years later, as 
Lieutenant and Sub-Engineer, he was engaged on a survey and valuation of Black 
Town for purposes of assessment of a fortification tax. He died at Tripassore 
in 1771. 

(3) Chnuhuke, a castigation from the Directors by the next ships ; from Hind, 
chabuk, a whip. 

No. 79.] 110 

well how anxious he has ever been to act for the best that he 
is still more to be pitied. If the changes we expect should take 
place, it will be almost sufficient to deter any one from wishing 
to become a man of power in these parts, and yet I confess my 
thoughts turn very much that way. That said pinacle has 
certainly many charms, and it is doubtless attended with its 
uneasinesses ; but, take it all in all, it is a desirable station. It is 
what I do and will aspire to, and what I hope one time or other 
to attain ; but pray tell me, how am I to accomplish it ? . . . 

" I am apt to think from the conduct of the French that we 
shall not long continue at peace. Pondicherry is fortifying 
with all diligence, and 'tis said considerable forces are expected 
out this year. At Chandernagore too they would fain make 
themselves secure, and under pretence of a drain have dug 
a noble ditch fifty feet wide and twenty feet deep, and the earth 
being thrown towards the town forms an excellent fortification. 
But this, I trust, is demolishing by this time, for if they will not 
do it themselves, our Gentlemen at Calcutta are determined 
to do it for them. 

" Every thing is quiet in Bengal. You must remember what 
an enmity subsisted between the King and Soujah ul Dowlah. 
They are now to all appearance perfectly reconciled, and after 
paying each other a visit, Soujah has undertaken to place his 
Majesty on the throne of Delly. They are now at Illahabad, 
but a circumstance has lately happened which it is thought may 
delay, if not entirely put off, his Majesty's journey : — Soujah 
had laid a plan for the assassination of Munire ud dowlah,*^' 
the King's old and greatest favorite. A faithful Coffree'^* 
saved his life by receiving the blow, which cost him his arm, 
and 'tis thought this may open his Majesty's eyes. 

" Our friend Mr. B. showed me that part of a letter from you 
relative to Rajah Pundat, and we shall soon take that matter 
into consideration. However, he is so much indebted to the 
Nabob for the countries he rented, to the Company and to 
individuals, that a compromise would be of little service to his 

" Your nephew Tom has executed his covenants as Writer, 
a good deal against his inclination, I assure you, for he seems 
greatly to prefer a military life : however, I hope to make a 
good Company's servant of him . . . Lewin Smith and Mrs. 
Mackay'^) leave us by this ship, and are just gone over the surf. 
The Bourchiers, Call and Ardley*'** will get away as soon as 
they can. Miss Mulkirke is married to Captain Bruce. Barker 
and Raitt*'"' died lately. . . 


[Holograph, 4 pp., 4^0.] 

(1) Munir-ud-daula was Naib Vizier in 1707. 

(2) Coffrce, a negro, from Ar. Lilfir, infidel. 

(3) Sarah Mackay, nde Stratton, wife of George Mackay, junior Member of Council, 

(4) Samuel Ardley. Vide]No. 52, p. 78, note 2. 

(5) Thomas Raitt was a civil servant of 176.3, 


[No. 80.] 
Ab[raha]m de Paiba to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1769, November 3rd. London. — I have been unable to see 
you lately to tell you about business done. I sold your diamonds 
last month to Messrs. Gumperts & Hymans at 7s. 9d. per pago- 
da, excepting the large stones, which will be disposed of later, 
and have paid in at Lee & Ayton's £4,100 in Bills of Exchange. 

" Ab^i- de Paiba." 

[Holograph, 1 p., 4/o.] 

[No. 81.] 
Robert Palk to [William Martin Goodlad.] 

1769, November 5th. London. Received 1st May, 1770. 
— " My Dear Billy, Your letter of the 11th March* ^> recording 
the unhappy state of affairs on the Coast gives me the most 
sensible concern and uneasiness. We have gone on from 
victory to victory without reflecting how the whole was to be 
preserved and governed, and what fatal consequences a reverse 
must have involved us in. When Nizam Aly settled with 
Hvder, certainlv we should have done the same. We should 
then have given all India a strong impression of our power, 
and probably have secured the Carnateck from future invasions. 
As it is, I dread and am very anxious for the next accounts. 

" Your kindness to Mr. Helling as well as my nephew has 
been very great. The latter I should rather have continued 
in the military, but his mother, reflecting on the loss of so many 
of his countrymen, will not hear of it ; and so I suppose he 
brings up the rear of the Writers, a piece of revenge in Direction 
which I did not deserve, and owing to those perpetual struggles 
at the India House, where the parties have for some years 
been violent to the last degree. At Mr. Vansittart's departure'^) 
a Coalition had taken place, which lasted only a few days, but 
I still hope it may be renewed ; though I know little of the 
matter, being just arrived from a six weeks' tour into Devonshire. 

" On Bourchier and Call's coming away I have desired that 
Wynch and you may succeed them as my attorneys. I have 
another copy of the letter from Rajah Pundit, and hope that 
long ere now a proper gratuity has been made him, as I had 
rather be at any expence than that any man should say I had 
done him any injustice. 

" Great preparations I find are making to send you every 
assistance. I am sorry the loss of so many officers makes a 
reinforcement of them necessary . . . The General and Mrs. 
Palk remember vou must cordiallv. I am ever, mv dear friend, 
most affectionately yours, 

"RoBT. Palk." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., Uo.] 

(1) No. 69, p. 94, 

(2) Henry Vansittart sailed for India in the Aurora in September, 1769. 


[No. 82.] 

General Sir R[ober]t Barker'^' to R[obert] Palk, 


1769, November 19th. Calcutta. — " Sir, I have had the 
pleasure to receive your letters of the 21st and 28th of February, 
1768, which were delivered me by Messrs. Everet and Fitzgerald. 
Both these gentlemen are in the Artillery Corps, and are inuch 
esteemed by their commanding officers. I have as yet had no 
opportunity of doing them any service. 

" I hope you and Mrs. Palk have enjoyed a good state of 
health since your return from India. I beg my compliments 
may be acceptable to her, and am. Sir, with regard, your very 
obedient humble servant, 

" Rt. Barker." 

[Holograph, 1 p., Uo.] 

[No. 83.] 
George Vansittart to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1769, December 3rd. Calcutta.—" Dear Palk, The Grafton 
brought me a short letter from you without date, but written 
I imagine in March, and we have since received news overland 
of my brother's and Mr. Sulivan's success at the April election. 
On many accounts I rejoice much at this event, but particularly 
from the hope that his directorship will pave the way for his 
return to the government of Bengal . . ." 

My family has lately been increased by the birth of a second 
boy, who has been named Edward. We return to-day to 
Midnapore. I have your letter appointing your nephew'^' to 
be your attorney jointly with me. " The partnership which 
I have entered into with Darell and Hollond puts it out of my 
power to act separately from them. Vansittart, Darell & 
Hollond must therefore represent me as one of your attornies 
and your nephew as the other. 

(1) Robert Barker came to India about 1749. In August 1753, when a lieutenant 
of Madras Artillery, he was employed as an Engineer at the request of Colonel 
Caroline Scott, tlie Engineer-General. Barker's fine draughtsmanship is attested 
by a plan of Port St. George executed by him in October, 1753, which is preserved 
in the King's Library of the Britisli Museum. In 175(1 Captain Barker conunanded 
the Artillery with Clive's expedition to Bengal, and served at the battle of Plassey. 
As Major he accompanied Draper's force to Manila in the same capacity, and was 
knighted in England for his services. Returiiiug to India, Colonel Sir Robert 
Barker was posted to Bengal, where he commanded one of the three brigades of 
the army, and in 1770 he became })rovincial Commander-in-Chief. He had great 
influence with the Nawab Vizier of Oudh, and in his interest negotiated in 1772 the 
Treaty of Fyzabad with the Rohillas against the Marattas. Disapproving of 
Hastings's army reforms. General Barker resigned the service and went home in 
1771. He entered Parliament, was created a baronet in 1781, and died in 1789, 

f2) Robert Palk, jun. 

113 [Xo. 83. 

" General Smith '^' is going home npon this ship (the 
Hampshire). Mr. Verclst*-) will follow in a few days upon the 
Lioness. The General has picked np a very large fortune, and 
as he has abilities and application, and seems disposed to busy 
himself in India matters, will probably have a good deal of 
weight when he gets to England. Harry and he w'ere connected 
formerly : I hope they will be able to agree. 

" I am appointed Supervisor of Dinagepore, but I am not to 
go there till the end of February . . . My Residency of Midnapore 
is to remain in my possession ..." 

[Holograph, 3. pp., flscp.] " George Vansittart." 

[No. 84.] 
Robert Palk, jun,, to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1769, December 22nd. Calcutta. — Dear Sir, I enclose bills 
drawn on Mr. Pybus for £540 on account of the estate of Captain 
John Adams, which please pay to Mrs. Eleanor Adams. <-^' I 
send two parcels of Soucey and Cossimbazar handkerchiefs, one 
for my father,'*' to be forwarded to Yolland Hill, and the other 
for Mr. Call. If you would like a pipe or two of wine, " I can 
purchase very good madeira, brought here in '66 by Captain 
Thomas Rous,'^) for 380 Arcot Rupees ... 

" I have nothing to mention regarding my own situation 
but that I am living in Calcutta at a great expence, unemployed 
and in great anxiety to hear the determination of the Court of 
Directors. I hope for success now that Mr. Van, Mr. Sulivan, 
&c., are in the Direction." 

Since I have been in Calcutta I have been treated with much 
kindness by Mr. Floyer.'^' I now stand 24tli on the list, and 
there are only four servants between George Vansittart and 

" Robert Palk." 

" P.S. — 24th December. The Governor'"' comes to town 
to-day to resign his government to Mr. Cartier, although he is not 
certain that he will be able to go before the end of the month." 

[Holograph, 2| pp., flscp.] 

(1) Richard Smith was a lieutenant on the Madras Establishment from 1753. 
As captain in 1758 he commanded at Chingleput and in 1760 at Trichinopoly, 
whence he attacked and seized Karur. In 1761 he resigned and sailed for England, 
and three years later was appointed by the Directors to Bengal. In 1767 Colonel 
Smith assumed command of the Bengal Army. He retired at the end of 1769 as 
Brigadier General. He married at Madras in 1756 Amelia, daughter of Charles 
Hopkins, sometime Chief at Devikota. 

(2) Vide No. 54, p. SO, note 8. 

(3) Cf. No. 211. p. 220. 

W Walter Palk, of Yolland HiU, Ashburton. 

'») Thomas Bates Rous commanded the Britannia on her voyage to Bengal in 
1766. He was a Director of the East India Company from 1773 to 1770. 

(6) Charles Floyer, jun., entered the Madras civil service in 1755, and in 1767 
was transferred to Bengal as Tenth of Council. After a visit to England in 1772 
he reverted to Madras. He took an active part in the sul)Vcrsion of Lord Pigot's 
government in 1776, and was recalled to England. In 1782 he was serving in 

(7) H. Verelst. 



[No. 85.] 
1769, N.D. 

" Estimate 
of the Expences of the Military Establishment on the Coast of 

Choromandel in 1769. 
3 regiments of infantry 
1 battalion of artillery, 5 companys 

1 troop of cavalry ( Pags. 6,99,307 or 
19 battalions of seapoys and 7 [ Rs. 24,47,921. 

independent companys 
Lascars in all the garrisons 
Of which the Nabob to be charged with 
10 Carnatic battalions of seapoys 

2 independent companies of seapoys , 
and a proportion of the lascars in the \ [Pags ] 2,50,000 
several garrisons, all which will amount 
to about 

The Company's annual charge, about Pag^- 4,49,307. 
[On the reverse] 

" The Nabob's Agreement to pay in discharge of his debt, asfolloivs : 

In ready money by the 20th January, 1770 Pags 5,00,000 

In money or f by ultimo June, 1770 do. 8,00,000 

Soucars'(i) securitv ■< by ultimo April, 1771 do. 10,00,000 

[by ultimo June, 1771 do. 2,00,000 

Pags 25,00,000 

[Unsigned, Ij i?., Mo.] 

[No. 86.] 
Lieutenant Thomas Palk to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1770, January 12th. Condapillee. — " Honoured Sir, ... I 
expected my brother*-' out the last season from what my mother 
acquainted me in her last letter, and the accounts I heard from 
cousin Thomas at Madrass. The latter informed me there was 
one of our name coming out on one of the ships. But I was 
agreeably disappointed, for I think he was then rather too 
young to set out in the world . . . But even though he had come 
out the last year in a military capacity, he would not have yet 
been an officer, for out of the 50 or 60 cadetts that arrived the 
last season there are not more than 6 or 8 have got com- 
missions ... I am still a lieutenant, and expect to continue so 
for some time, as there is now between me and a company 
sixteen . . . 

" Colonel Wood,'^' Captains Kelly'^' and Orton'^' were tryed 

(1) Vide No 20, p. 35, note 1. 

(2) John Palk. 

(3) Vide No. 55, p. 82, note 2. 

(4) Vide No. 78. p. 100, note 5. 

(») Captain liodorick Orton, when in command of the fort of Erode in December, 
1708, was summoned hy Ilaidar to surrender. He went out under a safe conduct 
to arrange terms, and was constrained by Haidar to sign an order to the garrison 
to capitulate. He was tried by court martial in 1709 and cashiered. 

115 [No. 86. 

lately at Madrass by a court martial for sonic misconduct tliey 
were guilty of during the late war with Hyder Ally. The former 
was, I hear, charged with eight crimes. The sentence of the 
court is not yet made publick in general orders . . . Most of the 
3rd Regiment has been stationed at Ellore ever since peace was 
concluded, under the command of Lieut. Colonel Tod. He 
will not remain there long it's thought, as Colonel Hart is 
expected there very soon . . . 

" About 5 months since I was ordered from Ellore with 4 
companies of Captain Madge's battalion to the command of 
this garrison . . . Captain Madge at the same time marched 
with the remaining six companies and relieved Captain 
Bellingham from the command of Samalcottah." The latter 
goes to command the Chicaeole Circar. 

I have not been able to ascertain what effects were left by 
Mr. Mould, who " was drowned from on board a vessell in 
Madrass roads." Mr. Bourchier resigns the chair to Mr. Du 
Pre about the end of this month. When my brother arrives 
I shall ask Mr. Call to get him appointed to the 3rd Regiment, 
now in the Circars. " Captain Madge . . . will inform you 
this season of young Mr. Smerdon's elopement from Madrass. 
He took a journey there about six months since on purpose to 
endeavour to get him home on some of the last ships, but he 
went off before his arrival there, and has not since been heard 
of I believe . . . 

" Cousins Robert and Thomas are both very well. I keep a 
constant correspondence with them, and heard from each of 
them very lately. The latter informs me he has an intention 
of paying his brother'^' a vissit this year with the two Mr. Stone- 
houses. . . . Be pleased to remember me most affectionately 
to Mrs. Palk, and to Mr. Palk's'-' family at Ashburton . , . 

" Thomas Palk." 

[Holograph, 3| pp., flscp.] 

[No. 87.] 

Robert Palk to [his Attorneys at Madras.] 

1770, January 23rd. Spring Gardens. — " Gentlemen, The 
sudden departure of the bearer, Mr. Snelling,''^' only gives me 
time to say that I have received on his account £40, wdiich I 
desire may be paid to Mr. Goodlad, and that he will advance 
him from time to time as occasion may require ; and if any 
more should be wanted before he gets a commission, I desire 
he may be supplied moderately. I must request also that Mr. 
Goodlad will speak to Mr. Du Pre and Mr. Hastings to send him 
to one of the out-garrisons under a good officer who will have 

(1) Robert Palk, jun. 

(2) Walter Palk. 

(3) A cadot. 

No. 87.] 116 

an eye to his conduct, and that my nephew Tom will take care 
of him during his stay at the Presidency . . . 

" RoBT. Palk." 
[Holograph, 1 p., Mo.] 

[No. 88.] 
Warren Hastings to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1770, January 29th. Fort St. George. — " Dear Sir, I have 
received your favor of the 23rd June by the Lapwing, and am 
much obliged to you for your good wishes. A part of these is 
happily accomplished. All wars are at an end, and if there is 
not the fairest prospect of the continuance of peace, there is a 
very hearty inclination to it and a determination to maintain 
it if possible on our side, which is the best security for it. Our 
people are yet sore of their late ill success, and are all more 
anxious to secure the Company's property than to extend their 
dominion or retrieve the reputation of their arms. There is 
certainly some defect, whether in our civil or military system 
I will not say, which ought to be removed before we engage 
in new wars, as I do not find that either Hyder Alice's abilities 
are of the first kjjid, or his horse equal to those of Shuja Dowla ; 
and I believe we have been successful against as powerful 
enemies, and with less than a fifth part of our present strength. 

" A reformation in this point I shall hope for from the abilities 
and experience of our friend* i' and his assistants. To explain 
the intimation in the beginning of my letter that we had not 
the fairest prospect of peace, I must add that we have been 
alarmed for some time past by formidable preparations made 
by all our neighbours, which have begun to shew their 
object by hostilities between Mahadebrow*^* and Hyder Alice. 
Negociations have been formed between them, and seem likely 
to take place by the payment of a sum to the former for the 
chout,<^' and a further aid, it is said, for an expedition against 
the Payengaut,'*' As the harvest, which has been very plentiful, 
is almost gathered, I hope we shall be provided both with grain 
and money to prevent the effects of their ravages if the Marattas . 
should make us a visit. 

" It gave me an unspeakable pleasure to hear of the new 
commission granted to Mr. Van, and to find such a man as 
Colonel Forde<^' joined with him. I cannot say I was so well 
pleased to see Scrafton's*^' name with theirs, but a further 
reflexion has reconciled me to it. All parties will be better 
pleased with the measures taken by the Connuissioners than if 

(1) Mr. Du Pr^. 

(2) Madhu Rao, the Peshwa. 

(3) Vide No. 19, /). 33, note 1. 

(4) Vide No. 19, /(. 34, nolo 1. 

(5) Colonel Francis Forde, who defeated the French in the Circars in 1758-59 
and took Masulipatam. 

(CI Luke Scrafton had preceded Hastings as Resident at Murshidabad. 

117 [No.fSS. 

Mr. Van alone, or joined only with his friends, had formed 
them ; and Scrafton is neither illnatured nor hard to manage 
when he has no troublesome people about him. Forde will, if 
I mistake not, have a great ascendant over him. He is a 
reasonable and steady man, and Mr. Van, from his superior 
abilities and knowledge of the methodical part of business, in 
which I believe the others are deficient, will certainly take the 
lead in every tjiing. I suppose the Commission will last during 
the period of Cartier's government, and our friend return to 
his former station. I know no other recompense the Company 
can make him for his trouble and the odium which the execution 
of such a trust will unavoidably draw on him. Bengal certainly 
requires such a ruler. The Company's affairs there have been 
declining very fast, and for their sake more than that of this 
Presidency, which stands in great need of such a reforming 
power also, I am most heartily glad the Company have adopted 
so wise a plan, the wisest they ever thought of. 

" Young Griffiths*^) has always behaved very well. He is 
goodnatured and willing, and his parts such as will mend. He 
lives with me, and I have put him under Goodlad in the 
Secretary's office. I hope you will have interest enough to 
obtain his appointment upon the covenanted list, as I fear 
there will be strong objections to a public recommendation 
of him from hence. I had Mr. Bolton's*^* promise, voluntarily 
given, for his appointment if he behaved well. He is now 15 
years of age. 

" I have lived almost in the Council Chamber since my 
arrival. I cannot boast of having done much in it, as our 
attention has been mostly taken up in clearing away the dirt 
of the late war. It seems to be the fate of the age we live in 
that all public acts shall be personal ; and it has been my hard 
lot to arrive at a time when the whole Settlement was ready to 
take fire at every measure of the Government, partly from past 
discontents and partly from present interest. Among other 
disagreable things, the Board were under the necessity of 
bringing Colonel Wood to a court martial, of disapproving the 
sentence by which he was acquitted, and of dismissing him from 
the service. From the great opinion I have of Mr. Sulivan's 
integrity, I am sure he will applaud the conduct of the Board 
if he believes it to have been just, and be the first to confirm 
their proceedings. But as it is possible to be prejudiced when 
we think ourselves guided by motives of strict justice : as Colonel 
Wood is a relation of Mr. Sulivan and will take more pains to 
vindicate himself than others to convict him : and as the 
proceedings of the court martial are so voluminous as to frighten 
any man who sets a value on his time from an attempt to read 
them, I hope, if he has any doubts of the propriety of Colonel 

(1) Henry GrifiSths, son of the Rev. Charles Griffiths, deceased. 

(2) Henry Crabb Boulton, a Director from 1753 to 1773, and three times 

No. 88.] 118 

Wood's dismission, he will take the trouble to examine the facts 
on which it was founded, and that you Avill have so much 
influence with him as to persuade him to this. My regard for 
his friendship, and my desire to see the authority of this Govern- 
ment duely supported (and it much wants it) are my inducements 
for mentioning this, though I believe it unnecessary. 

" I beg you will present my compliments to Mrs. Palk and 
the General, who with yourself have my sincere and hearty 
wishes. I am, dear Sir, your obliged and affectionate humble 

" Warren Hastings." 

[P.S.] — " It is necessary to advise you that I secured bills 
for the amount of my bond to Mr. Sumner, <i' which will go by 
the March ship." 

[Holograph, 6| pp., Uo.] 

[No. 89.] 
Tho[mas] Palk to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1770, January 31st. Fort St. George. — " Honoured Sir, I 
have now the pleasure to write you by the Britannia, Captain 
Rous,<^> who is come down from Bengal to carry our present 
Governour, his brother and Mr. Call home, all of whom I shall feel 
much the loss of in many respects, particularly my good friend 
Mr. Call, who has treated me like a friend, which is rare in this 
country. I have lived with Mr. C. ever since I gave up the 
sword . . . 

" Since my taking up the pen I have through oeconomy 
been applying to Mr. Bourchier, &c., to get me to a subordinate 
[station], and not to stay in this luxurious place . . . but the 
Governor told me it was your express desire that I should be 
kept in the office for three years, which is a long while to slave 
for a scanty eight pagodas a month . . . 

" In consequence of Mr. B.'s departure they have made me 
an allowance of twenty pagodas per month ... It has been 
my whole study to live on the little I have, and likewise to be 
as frugal as possible. It may perhaps, Sir, be made appear 
to you that I have been extravagant, but my study has been 
the contrary I assure you." With diffidence I venture to ask 
you for a loan, on which I shall of course pay you the usual 

" I have already began to merchandize. I do not know 
whether it is through Mr. Call's recommendation or not ; I 
believe not, as my brother wrote long since to me on the subject 
of sending me consignments. I have accordingly received one 
from him by the Britannia containing three bales of Radnagor 
raw silk, which he says is a little for a beginning, so I expect 

(1) William Brightwell Sumner, who had rf^tired from the Bengal civil service 
about 17(i7. 

2) Vide No. 84, p. 11:5, note 5. 

119 [No. 89. 

more soon, and I intend to apply myself very strickly to 

" The coming out of the C'onnnissioners in the Aurora frigate 
make[sj every body surprized it seems, as they will have it in 
their power to turn out and take in as they please. I hope not. 
If they do, it will be nuicli longer than I imagine before I eome 
to be of any rank who are [sic] the youngest servant on this 
Coast. Had you waited till the last election you might have 
got me at least at the head of the list. However, a certainty is 
better than an uncertainty. . . Your most dutiful and most 
obedient nephew, 

"Tho. Palk." 

[Holograph, ^pp., flscp.] 


t'[No. 90.] 
Tho[mas] Palk to [Robert Palk. Esq.] 

1770, February 5th. Fort St. George. — I send this by the 
hand of Mr. Call. " You desired me in your letter by the Duke 
of Grafton to give you some account of that wretch Smerdon. I 
am sorry he should have come here under your recommendation. 
He stayed here about a month after he arrived, and I believe 
behaved tolerably well. He then went recommended to Captain 
Madge and stayed with him about two months, which he spent 
in drinking , . . &c., &c., what is disagreeable for me to mention 
and much more so for you to peruse. Captain M. having tried 
every means and way to make something of him and took an 
immense deal of trouble, he was obliged to send him down here 

to Mr. , I forgot his name ; he came a free merchant 

recommended by you, who had promised to carry him to sea . .; 
but instead of waiting on that gentleman he has absconded, and 
no accounts have since been heard of him . . He squandered 
away a great deal of money, which he has left for poor Madge 
to pay, which I believe he will do on account of Mrs. Smerdon's 
desire, who wrote him on the subject of lending him a little 
money, and his coming very bare here ; but without ever signing 
her name to the letter, so that he is in doubt whether he will 
ever be paid ..." 

If you grant the loan asked for in my last letter, I would 
place the sum in the hands of my friend Mr. Morse, and be guided 
by his advice. " Mr. M. begins to be tired of the world : he 
is settling his affairs, and intends retiring into the country ; I 
imagine to the Mount, as he is building a house there . 

[Holograph, 3 jjp- flscp.] " Tho. Palk.' 


[No. 91.] 

W[illiam] Martin] Goodlad to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1770, February 6th. Fort St. George. — "We are still in 
peace, and I hope likely to continue so ; though as yet I think 
it altogether doubtful whether we shall or not. Hyder and 

No. 91.] 120 

the Marattas are at present disputing the superiority. Some 
skirmishes only have hitherto happened, though a considerable 
part of his country has been laid waste by them. Should 
matters be compromised, I think it hardly to be doubted but 
the latter will pay us a visit ; but their exorbitant demands 
on Hyder give us some hopes that no accommodation will 
take place. He has sent to demand our assistance in 
consequence of the late treaty, and Vackeels from the other 
party are shortly expected to arrive. If there is a possibility 
of keeping the mid channel, we certainly shall ; at any rate 
every species of delay must be used without coming to any 
determination ; for it cannot be our interest to espouse the cause 
of either, especially in our present situation as to cash. It is 
a most difficult card to play. 

" I am exceedingly pleased with the appointment of the 
Commissioners on many accounts. Such extraordinary poMcrs 
were absolutely necessary to regulate affairs in Bengal, where by 
all accounts the expences, as well civil as military, but 
particularly the latter, have grown to a most enormous degree. 
The Commissioners, however, have undertaken one task which 
I most heartily wish they may accomplish with honour — I mean 
the regulation of our political system. It appears to me to be 
attended with so many difficulties, and those of such a nature 
that I much fear they will fail in the attempt. Can any plan 
be fallen upon for so regulating the system that the three 
Presidencies may co-operate ? I think not. 

" Private letters inform us that restoring the Circars is to be 
another object of the Commissioners' attention. This there 
can be no difficulty in executing ; but why restore them ? The 
argument, I suppose, is that by keeping them our force is too 
much divided, and that in case of a rupture with the French 
such division would expose the whole of our possessions. It has 
weight, and for that reason our first principle, I think, should be 
to abandon them in case of such a rupture : but why give up 
at once a very considerable revenue (they will probably produce 
this year more than 5 lacks of pagodas, besides Cicacole), 
and by relinquishing these countries give the French the fairest 
opportunity they can have of firmly establishing themselves ? . . 
I cannot persuade myself that the Commissioners will restore 
the Circars, even though they should have come out with that 
intention . . . 

" I have acquainted you of the transactions of the Select 
Committee and Nabob's creditors in my former letters. These 
matters still continue on a very unsettled footing . . . for 
the creditors will not rely on the Company for the recovery of 
what is due to them, and the pressing demands of the Select 
Committee to have the Company's debt discharged in preference 
has prevented the Nabob from making any payments in dis- 
charge of his debt to individuals. There are amongst these 
some turbulent spirits . . . They address the Court by this 

121 [No. 91. 

ship, and liave appointed attorneys to act for them in England. 
General Richard Smith is at tlie head of them. Fairliehl/^' 
Calland,*-' AfHcek, Saunders, and, I tliink, nine others are in 
commission with liim, but what their instructions are I know 
not. . . The creditors have hopes that the Commissioners will 
liave it in their power to settle matters to the satisfaction of 
all })arties ; and I most heartily wish it may prove so, since it 
will relie\e the distresses of many, and restore harmonv to 
the Settlement, which we have long been strangers to. At 
present discontent prevails in every countenance. 

" I told you of the Court Martial on Colonel Wood, and 
expressed my apprehensions that the charge of having appro- 
priated to himself the provisions taken in the Coimbatoor 
country would appear too clearly for the Court to pass it over. 
I was, however, mistaken, for he was acquitted of every charge, 
though nine in number. But no sooner was the sentence 
known than the President and Council dismissed him from the 
service on a clear conviction that, though acquitted, the charges 
(or most of them) were proved beyond dispute by the evidence 
produced before the Court. The matter, as I take it, was 
thus : — the Court were convinced that several of the charges 
were proved, but they could not condemn Wood for many 
things which most of themselves had probably been guilty of, 
nor disapprove of his proceedings without acknowledging those 
perquisites to be illegal which they would fain establish as their 
right. The privileges of a Commander-in-Chief appeared 
therefore in great measure to depend on the issue of this affair ; 
and the President and Council found it necessary to assert 
their authority, and by dismissing W^ood convince the w'hole 
corps that they would not allow of those abuses, which began 
to be regarded as dues to the officers in command. I have been 
told that this step has given great dissatisfaction, and that the 
officers in general complain loudly of the injury done to the 
service bv the dismission of an officer on articles which he had 
been acquitted of by his judges ; but still I think the step was 
absolutely necessary ; and if the President and Council were at 
all culpable, it was in not publishing their reasonings on the 
proceedings of the Court . . ., because in my opinion conciliating 
the minds of the corps of officers and preventing as far as 
possible any discontent from getting possession of them is a 
point that should be materially attended to . . . 

" Verelst, I imagine, w^ill be in Elngland before this can reach 
you. His administration is greatly censured, and there are 
those who scruple not to say it was a compound of indolence 
and ignorance. 

" Mr. B., Call, James Bourchier, Debeck'^' and Frieschman'*^ 

(1) Richard Fairfield. Vide No 41, p, 63, note 5. 

(2) John CaUand. Vide No. 34 p. 55, note 3, 

(3) De Beck was in 1758 a Captain in the Madras European Regiment. 

(•11 Daniel Frieschman was an Ensign of Swiss Infantry in 1754. As Lieut.- 
Colonel he served in the first Mysore war. 

No. 91.] 122 

all leave us on the Britannia. Du Pre became Governor the 
31st ultimo agreeable to the Company's orders ; but he has 
hitherto remained quiet in his new station, and there will be 
no meeting till Mr. B. has left us. Then we shall see what 
we shall see, and you shall know how we go on. I have before 
expressed to you what my apprehensions are. Hastings's 
amiable disposition has, however, in great measure eased them, 
and I am willing to hope that his mildness will prove a palliati\e 
to the rigour of the other. 

" Mr. B. and myself have been on the most friendly footing 
during his whole government . . . His administration has been 
truely troublesome and unfortunate, and he now labours under 
the displeasure of the Court for faults which I cannot think 
were his own ... To me it is past a doubt that our want of 
success has been in great measure owing to Call ; and I will 
frankly declare to you that I have seen sufficient of him most 
heartily to wish that he may never have the administration of 
affairs lodged in his hands. I will go so far as to sav he has 
neither steadiness or abilities for such a post ; and after saying 
this you must not imagine you are reading the opinion of a 
prejudiced person, for Call and I have had no sort of dispute ; 
we have rather been on an intimate footing. I speak from 
conviction that he might make a good Counsellor, but that he 
would be a wretched Governor. 

" I have nothing to say to you on the subject of Madras 
news, except that Jack Hollond<^' has brought a young wife 
from Bengal, who is more admired for her good sense than 
beauty, though in the latter she surpasses most of our females. 
But this is mere hearsay, for I have been so tied to my desk 
that I have not paid a visit for many months .... 

" The matter which you wrote about to Moodu Kistnah and 
me still remains in the same situation. I wish I may not 
shortly have occasion to observe your instructions on that 
head. I have my fears however . . . 

" W. M. GOODLAD." 

[Holograph, 9| pp., Uo.] 

[No. 92.] 
Robert Palk, jun. to Robert Palk, Esq., Spring Gardens. 

1770, February 25th. Ingerlee. — I am sending a parcel of 
" 20 neck cloths for my brother Walter," who is to divide them 
with my father if the latter needs them. I came here yesterday 
to see Mrs. Floyer on board the Anson, as the lady is going to 
visit Madras. 

" We have some appearance of troubles again up the country. 
Cossim Ally Cawn*^* is reported to have mustered up a strong 

(!• John Hollond, a Madras civil servant of 1701, entered Council in 1777, became 
Resident at Hyderabad in Kuniljold's administration, and in 1789 acted as 
Governor of Madras for a year. 

(2) Ka'iim All Khan (Mir Kasim), late Nawab of Bengal, who was responsible 
for tiie Patna massacre of 1703. 

123 [No. 92. 

force, wliich in ;ili j)r()l)ability will be joined to thai of Slnija 
Dowla. A liircairah*'' has been taken in conveying letters from 
the one to the other. If the French do not tronblc us, we shall 
give a very good account of our northern i'riends . . Ceorge 
and his little family at Midnapore are all in good health . , . 

" Robert Palk." 

" P.S. — Young Mr. Sulivan*-' is with me. lie is just arrived 
from China, where he was obliged to go for the recovery of his 

[Holograph, 2 pp., 4 to. Wax seal ivith the Palk crest.] 

[No. 93.] 
I{ob[er]t Palk to [William Martin] Goodlad. 

1770, March 15th. London.—" Dear Goodlad , . . The French 
are not likely, I think, soon to disturb you, for their situation 
in Europe is certainly more pitiful than ours. They have been 
obliged to make use of the sponge, finding it impossible to raise 
supplies sufficient to pay the annual interest of their debt. 

" Oceans of people are gone this year to India, and I am at a 
loss to guess how they can all be provided for. However, the 
num])er is much less for Sulivan's opposing it. To support a 
proprietary interest the Directors are in a manner obliged to 
overload India. It is very uncertain which party will be 
triumphant this year in Leadenhall Street ; both sides seem to 
be sure of success. Whoever carries it, I should think it will 
be the last great struggle, and wdiichever way it goes I think 
your little brother'^' will have a good chance of seeing you 
next year. 

" In m}^ last I told you we w^ere on our journey into Devon- 
shire, where I have at last, near Exeter, pitched my tent — in a 
good house and very pleasant country, close to the road when in 
good time you land at Plvmouth . . . 

"RoBT. Palk." 

[P.S.] — " Mrs. Mackay came home in good time to save the 
dismission of her husband." 

[No. 94.] 

Warren Hastings to [Robert Palk, Esq.] 

1770, April 3rd. Fort St. George. — " Dear Sir, I wrote to 
you by the Britatniia, and at the same time acknowledged the 
receipt of your fa\ or of the 23rd of June last. By this packet 
I have sent bills to my attorneys to enable them to discharge 
my bond to Mr. Sumner,*^* and have directed them to apply 
to you to assist in settling that account, w^hich is the last trouble 
that I shall have occasion to give you in this business. For 

(1) Hircarrah, from Hind, harkdra, a messenger, spy. 

(2) John Sulivan. Vide No. 19, p. 29, note 3. 

(3) Richard Goodlad. 

(4) William Brightwoll Simmer. Vide No. 88, p. 118, note 1. 

No. 94.] 124 

that which you have already had, and the risque you have 
undergone in it on my account, I repeat my thanks. 

" I hope I shall have your excuse for the trouble which I am 
going to give you in an affair of another kind, having taken the 
liberty to consign two bulses of diamonds to you, one marked 
No. 1, the property of Mr. Hancock,'^) the other marked No. 2, 
belonging to Lieut. Colonel Ironside.'^' It was the only way 
I had of complying with the pressing sollicitation of these gentle- 
men to remit money for the use of their families, as they had 
been disappointed of bills in Bengal. Having neglected to 
give proper directions to me concerning the consignments, their 
first application being for bills, they have made it necessary 
for me to request you to receive these commissions, as Mr. 
Hancock's attorneys can be but incompetent judges of the value 
of diamonds or the methods of disposing of them, and as Mrs. 
Ironside, like other ladies, is most probably acquainted with 
only one way of laying out jewels. 

" I do suppose that Mr. Hancock's attorneys will be glad 
to leave the disposal of his diamonds to your management. 
In that case I shall be obliged to you if you will dispose of them 
to the best advantage, and let them have the produce ; but if 
they should rather chuse to receive them unsold, be pleased to 
deliver them into their charge. I have only written to Mrs. 
Hancock upon the subject, by whose directions I request you 
will be guided. That lady, Francis Austen, Esq., and the Rev. 
Mr. George Austen are Mr. Hancock's attorneys. 

" The produce of Colonel Ironside's diamonds you will be 
pleased to pay to Mrs. Ironside, his lady. She is a relation of 
the General's, and of an amiable and deserving character. 
This will serve as an excuse for troubling you with her concern. 
I believe I shall have your ready permission for the other. 

" The late arrival of the Aurora gives us all much uneasiness. 
I never knew any object in which the wishes of all men seemed 
so heartily to concur as in the coming of the Commissioners, 
and this may be the reason why we are so alarmed at their long 
passage, which is what ought to be expected from the difficulty 
of the navigation round Ceyloan at this time of the year, and 

(1) Tyso Saul Hancock, a Madras surgeon, attended Clive at Tricliinopoly in 
1752, was transferred to Bengal in 1750, and resigned the service two years later. 
He continued to reside at Calcutta, where he practised medicine in conjunction with 
commerce. Hancock acoompanied his intimate friend Warren Hastings to England 
in 1765 and returned to Madras with liiin in 1760. In 1770 lie was reappointed 
to the Bengal medical service. He married at Cnddalore in 1753 Philadelphia 
Austen, aunt of Jane Austen the novelist, and died at Calcutta in 1775, aged 64. 

(2) Gilbert Ironside, descended from two Bishops of Bristol of that name, was a 
son of Edward Ironside, hanker, of London, who died when Lord Mayor in 1753. 
Born in 1737, Gilbert was educated at Wincliester, and wcMit to India, in 175{) as 
lOnsign of an independent comijany. Returning to lOngland by way of China, he 
re-embarked in 1750 as I<'nsign in the Bengal Army, lie accompanied Hastings to 
Patna in 1762, was employed on the Staff by both Clive and V^ansittart, became 
Lieut. Colonel in 1768, and served as Hastings's Military Secretary in 1772. As 
Colonel he commanded a brigade in 1774, retired in I78(i, and died in l"'ngland in 
1801. Ironside married in 1 7(!3 Let ilia, (laught(>i' of the Rev. Robert Roberts. 
He left unpublished works on logic, tactics and Persian grammar. 

125 [No. 94. 

the inexperience of the men of the Navy in these seas. Would 
to God they were come ! We are just arrived at the crisis in 
which I fear we shall be compelled to declare ourselves the 
friends or foes of Hyder or INIahdebrow. Both have been hitherto 
kept in expectation of our alliance, and that expectation only 
has, I believe, prevented the ravages of the latter. Grilliths 
is well, and goes on well. Pray present my compliments to 
Mrs. Palk and the General, and believe me to be with the truest 
esteem and regard, dear P., your obliged humble servant, 
[Holograph, 4 pp., Mo.] " Warren Hastings." 

[No. 95.] 
Warren Hastings to Rob[er]t Palk, Esq. 

1770, April 7th. Fort St. George. — " Dear Sir, I must 
trouble you again to desire that you will not sell the diamonds 
by an advance on the invoice price, which I understand is the" 
usual method, because they are, I am assured, of a superior 
quality to most sent to England by this ship. You will be 
pleased therefore to open the bulses, and rate them by their 
quality when you dispose of them. 

" Shall I beg the favor of you to send the enclosed to 
Lieutenant Douglass of the York man of war ? I cannot recollect 
a more particular direction to him. I am, dear Sir, your 
most obedient servant, 

[Holograph, 1 p., Uo.] " Warren Hastings." 

[No. 96.] 
W[illiam] ^I[artin] Goodlad to [Robert Palk, Esq.] 

1770, April 8th. Fort St. George. Received 15th October. 
— " My dear Friend, . . . W^e have been long looking out for the 
Aurora, and persuade ourselves that she must make her appear- 
ance very shortly. The Stagg arrived at Anjengo the 19th 
February, and we learn by her that the Aurora left the Cape 
between the 20th and 30th of December. According to the 
common course of passages she should be here now, yet the 
uncertain season makes us very little apprehensive for her, 
particularly as the Duke of Kingston was at the Cape at the same 
time, and ought by the same rule to have been with us. 

" Peace still prevails, and in my opinion we have little to 
apprehend for the present year. The season is already very 
far advanced, and the Marattas too much engaged with Hyder 
to trouble us. No compromise seems likely to take place between 
them, and the apprehensions of our joining Hyder will prevent 
their commencing hostilities as long as their disputes subsist. 
Each party would rejoice at our assistance, and 'tis possible the 
Marattas may endeavour to frighten us in order to obtain it ; 
but I cannot believe they will go further, and unless the}' do, 
I regard it as certain that we shall remain neuter. Thev have 
plagued Hyder confoundedly. ^lay they continue to torment 
each other ! 

No. 96.] 126 

" At present our prospect is very good. The Committee'^' 
had, previous to Mr. B's depa ture, settled very advantageous 
terms with his Excellency'-' for the disciiarge of his debts, and 
he has hitherto been very punctual in his payments. We shall 
be able to pay off our debt, assist China largely, and nevertheless 
provide an ample Investment. How different was our prospect 
twelve months ago ! 

" Colonel Wood did intend to have taken his passage on the 
Anson, but his unfortunate disputes with the Board have 
prevented it, for they would not give him leave unless he would 
give security to stand the issue of the suits commenced against 
him in the Mayor's Court . . . He talks loudly of the injustice 
done him in many respects .... 

" Matters have hitherto gone on very smoothly in the new 
government. Du Pre is very cleaver and calculated for business. 
We are punctual in every thing — registers closed, papers signed 
and dispatches delivered to an hour . . . and my poor pate and 
fingers have paid pretty severely for many days past . . . 

" A storm is said to be brewing in Bengal, and 'tis probable 
the name of Cossim*-^' will be once more familiar to us. The 
Gentlemen there, however, seem more alarmed with expectations 
of the French than from inland appearances ; with what reason 
I know not, but I am sure we are not equally apprehensive here. 
That great preparations have been making at the Islands '*> is 
certain, but in my opinion their views are more bent towards 
the entire conquest of Madagascar than this way .... 

" Calcutta itself is in a deplorable way, and the want of 
money felt to a degree scarcely to be conceived ; — -individuals 
daily becoming bankrupts, property sold by the Mayor's Court 
for not a third of its value, and, what is still worse, grain so 
exceedingly scarce that the distresses of the country people are 
beyond all conception. The Nabob Syfe ut Dowlah'^' thought 
to be past recovery in the small pox .... 


[P.S.] — " Pray, my respectful compliments to the General. 
The Nabob sent his annuity late last night ..." 
[Holograph, 3 j^P-, flscp.] 

[No. 97.] 
Lau[rence] Sulivan to [Robert Palk, Esq.] 

N.D. [1770, cir. May--September.]— " Dear Sir, That one of 
the best businesses in this life is to do good offices is your 
opinion, confirmed by practice. Indulge me then with a few 

" To carry the India election last year and to compleat it 

(1) The Select Committee. 

(2) Nawal) Wala.i;ili. 

(3) Kfisim A\i Klian. Vide No. 02, p. 122, mi(o 2. 
(*) Vide No. 47, p. 72, note 1. 

(•>) Nawal) Saif-ucl-daula, second son of Mir Jafar, succeeded liis brother Najm- 
ud-daula as Nawab of Bengal in 17GG, and died in March, 1770. 

127 [No. 97. 

the next has involved the fortunes of ]\rr. Vaiisittart and mvself, 
though I have since found wc did not start ahkc. I had then 
a comfortable independance ; it was necessary that he should 
once more sec India ; his wishes (thank God) are accomphslied, 
but the fortunes of botli are still at stake, a return to his former 
affluence still depending, and much, upon my interest and 
industr^^ It will be the joy of my life to see him happ}% and 
in seeking the recovery of my own prosperity it nevcT has or 
ever shall clash or take preference. Something then is due to 

" We are pledged and engaged mutually for large sums to 
prevent our suffering severely in the sale of stock in these hours 
of panic. As it was a common cause, I never considered who 
advanced the money necessary so long as one of us had the 
money to advance, and accordingly when he left England, and 
many months before, I had paid in twelve thousand pounds, and 
he was indebted to this joint concern 3,000/. Upon the eve of 
his departure we had very serious discourse upon the subject 
of his leaving me behind in a dreadfull situation, having no other 
resources left that I could reach but my estate and 3,500L 
India stock. He stated that 20,000?. of the French bills, 2,000 
India stock, his sallary from the Company and license to draw 
upon him for 10,000/. were the aids he would leave absolutely 
at my call under the direction of Mr. Motteux,'^' and if more 
was necessary he would leave a letter with that gentleman to 
be delivered to his attorney ; though this not to be done 
without the last necessity ; and at my earnest request promised 
that his attorney should have no negative in these aids, but 
directions absolute to comply. Supposing then (which I 
cannot doubt) that Van has not deceived me, how much must 
I be astonished at the behaviour of Mr. Boehm<-) towards Mr. 
Motteux and me ! He has demurred to grant what an enemy 
does not refuse me. You see by the enclosed what has been 
desired, which I will again explain to you : — Mr. Boyd'^> in last 
Direction lent us 9,000/. to make 18 votes,*'** and Messrs. 
Vansittart, Manship,*^' and Sulivan gave him an obligation to 
return him the stock by calling in these votes whenever 
demanded. Mr. Manship having quitted us — at least keeping 
himself to act as he shall please — demands that his name may 
be taken out of the obligation, but says, as he means always 
to act like a gentleman, will be content (if this is inconvenient) 
to have the 18 names with the receipts deposited with him. 
As I did not chuse to allarm Mr. Boyd or to trust Manship 
with votes that he would have the power to disqualifie, I asked 
Mr. Manship, instead of this, to take an obligation from me 
and Mr. Vansittart's attorney importing that his name to Boyd's 

(1) John Motteux, a Director in 1769. 

(2) Edmund Boehm, Attorney for Heniy Vansittart. 
f3) John Boyd, a Director from 1753 to 1764. 

(4> Vide No. 62, 7). 01, note 1. 

(5) John Manship, a Director from 1762 to 1809. 

No. 97.] 128 

obligation was null and void. Manship very kindly acquiesces 
and does us a real favour. Ought Mr. Boehm then to hesitate 
a moment, as Van's attorney, to sign with me such a paper, 
which Van himself, if present, must have done ? Don't I offer 
Mr. Boehm (which he has no right to claim of me) the same 
security that an enemy (Manship) is willing to accept ? Is 
Vansittart to ruin himself and me by appointing a person that 
will not act for him ? 

" Mr. Motteux's treatment hurts me, and may injure us if I 
cannot calm him. He has been a usefull friend indeed, and we 
owe him much. Mr. Pleydell,'^' in deep distress, applys for 
part of money lent, and often promised, by Van. We could 
not pay him. He is drove to state his situation to a friend, 
and he, wishing Van well, gives him 1,000Z. and takes his order 
upon Motteux. This person was Mr. Gainor [?] ; depending 
the draft would be honoured, waits upon Mr. Motteux, who 
states it to Mr. Boehm, and being daily dunned he writes him 
a letter whose answer is such as might be given to his clerk ; 
and Motteux has paid the money (for the honour of Vansittart) 
out of his own cash. 

" Such being the history, I am, in behalf of Van and myself, 
to implore your good offices (and remember that I positively 
ask and desire no more) with a person who, however good and 
amiable he may be in other respects, is acting in these instances 
deeply to the injury [of] Mr. Vansittart. I want no favour of 
Mr. Boehm, but common justice, to do that in behalf of Mr. 
Vansittart which he must and would have done if present, and 
which Mr. Boehm is instructed to do, or I am cruelly deceived. 
If he has not those powers and will not contribute those aids, 
Mr. Vansittart must share with me the consequences. I (not 
he) shall be ruined, but still with a balm to all good minds, 
honest to the last. I trouble you on many accounts ; — your 
friendship to us both, but particularly Mr. Boehm's asserting 
he can take up no point without your opinion and approbation. 
If I have a negative respecting Manship, who is to have his 
answer by Tuesday, I will directly put him in possession of 
18 votes. 

" I am ever, my dear Sir, yours most affectionately, 
" Sunday." 

" Lau. Sulivan." 

[P.S.] — " I understood you had lent lately to Mr. Boehm, 
for the purpose of serving Van in this business, 5,000Z. Mr. 
Motteux could with difficulty get 1,500. 

" The matter, as mentioned in Mr. Boehm's note relative 
to Messrs. Manship and Boyd, is that Manship would apply 
to Boyd demanding his name to be given up, to which Mr. 
Boehm has no objection." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., Mo.] 

(1) Charles Stafford Pleydell (or Playdell). Vide No. 256, p. 252, note 4. 


[No. 98.] 
Rob[er]t Palk to I William Martin] Goodlad. 

1770, June 16th, per Dolphin frigate. Received 20th 
February, 1771. — " My dear Goodlad, . . I join in all you say " in 
your letters of 16tli September and 19th November " coneerning 
poor Bourehier, and will only add the times have been very 
unfortunate. However, his reception will be more to his 
satisfaction than he expected. I only wish, instead of driving 
Calland to despair, he had moved him from St. David ... I 
desire you will still continue your application concerning 
Withecombe's money . . . 

" I hope in God you will continue in peace ; but as long as 
we are to protect the Carnateck troubles will sometimes arise, 
and it will require the most prudent management to keep clear 
of them. I have, however, great expectations from Mr. Du 
Pre and Mr. Hastings, if more cooks do not spoil the soop, and 
the Commissioners at least do no harm. The only good these 
gentlemen can do, I judge, at Madras will be to soften the 
severity of the Company's orders concerning the Nabob's 
creditors . . . The Company cannot set aside the rights of the 
creditors ; and the whole can only be meant to shew at a 
General Court that the Directors have exerted themselves, and 
there I suppose it will end. However, entre nous, it seems 
surprizing to me that the Governor and Council ever gave 
their sanction to such an Assignment, because the only induce- 
ment the Company could have in launching out their money 
to the Nabob seemed to be a just expectation that the Carnateck 
was bound for the security of repayment. I very sincerely 
pity the poor Nabob, and wish there was any prospect of an 
end to his troubles. I often advised him, when he was borrowing 
such large sums, of the consequences which might hereafter 
follow . . ." 

I recommend you to correspond with Mr. Purling* ^) on the 
Company's affairs, as he is strongly supported by Lord Clive, 
and the present directors are now firmly established. I am 
writing on my way to Devonshire for the summer. Hint to 
my nephew, whose letters show marks of carelessness, that more 
thought is called for. " Robt- Palk." 

[Holograph, 2| pp., Uo.'\ 

[No. 99.] 
C. Bazett(2) to Robert Palk, Esq. 
1770, August 9th. St. Helena. — I desire to secure a 
nomination as Writer for my son in England, and seek your kind 
recommendation and support. " C. Bazett." 

[Autograph, 2\ pp., Uo.] 

(1) John Purling was Deputy Chairman of Directors in 1770, and Chairman in 

(2) Several members of the Bazett family were domiciled at St. Helena. They 
appear to have been descendants of Captain Matthew Bazett, who was tefuporary 
Governor of the island in 1714, 


[No. 100.] 
George Vansittart to Rob[er]t Palk, Esq. 

1770, September 5th. Calcutta. — " Dear Palk, ... I must now 
communicate to you a piece of intelligence on which I cannot 
reflect without tJhe deepest sorrow, and which will be equally 
afflicting to you. The Aurora left the Cape the latter end of 
December, and has no more been heard of. Faint hopes are 
entertained that she may still be safe ; but for'my part I must 
confess that I can flatter myself with none. A storm, a rock 
or fire have, I fear, deprived us for ever of our brother. I write 
by this ship (the Lapzving) to you and^my eldest brother*^' only, 
and to you two I leave the disagreeable task of informing my 
mother, Mrs. Harry Van, Mrs. Palk and the rest of our friends 
of this most unhappy event ... I shall in future write fully 
to you whatever may occur to me relative to the transactions 
in Bengal as I used to do to Harry . . . 

" Councils are established at Moorshedabad and Patna for 
the management of the Dewanny revenues. Messrs. Becher, 
Reid, Lawrell and Graham compose the former ; Alexander, 
Vansittart and Palk the latter. Palk and I shall travel off to 
Patna in a few days . . . You will hear from your nephew that 
he is now a married man . . . Our little George Henry'^' has 
been very dangerously ill, but by Mr. Hancock's'^' good 
management is now recovered ..." 

" George Vansittart." 

[P.S.] — " Colonel Ironside is apprehensive of being super- 
seded by Colonel Lesly,'^' and has desired me to request your 
interest in his behalf . . ." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., 4to.] 

[No. 101.] 
Robert Palk [jun.] to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1770, September 8th. Calcutta. — I gratefully acknowledge 
the trouble vou have taken to obtain mv reinstatement in the 
service. Councils are nominated for Moorshedabad and Patna 
for revenue collection, and I am appointed to the latter with 
Alexander(^) and Vansittart. 

" George has told you in his letter how faint our hopes are of 
ever hearing of the Aurora. She left the Cape the 23rd of 
December, and has no more been heard of. The captain talked 
of making a short cut ; said the Indiamen took too great a 
circle in general. Our fears are that fire, a rock or something 
of the kind has for ever deprived us of poor Mr. Van — a cruel 
fate indeed ! His loss will be severely felt in India as well as 
at home. 

'1! Rolxu't V;in^ittart. 
(2) Afterwards General G. H. Vansittart. 
'3) Dr. Tyso Svul Hancock. Vide No. 94, p. 124, note I. 

('^'1 Colonel Matthew Leslie, a King's officer, had previously served in the West 

f5> James Alexander. Vide No. fiS, p. 02. note 0. 

131 [No. 101. 

" The Stag has been on her embassy to Persia, but I can give 
no account of lier proceedings there. She is daily expected 
from Madras with General Coote on board. 

" We have had a most drcadfull scarcity in Bengal and Bahar 
this year. Many hundred thousand of poor creatures have 
died for absolute want. In many parts of the country there are 
not hands enough to cultivate the lands . . ." 

My acknowledgments are due to Mr. Vanrixtal's father. I 
shall do my best for his son : " indeed I have often endeavoured 
to bring him out of a strange unaccountable way of life, which 
has brought on him much misery and must in a few years end 
his existance. . . 

" I hope some of the ships of the season will bring me the 
books you promised to send, Millar's Dictionary and Hooker's 
History. You sent me a very handsome supply of books from 
Madras, and it is with infinite satisfaction I dedicate an hour 
or two every day to their study, which, to my shame I say it, 
is more than ever I did before . . ." 

I correspond with my brother at Madras, who is now " in 
joint house keeping with James Call,"*^' and have consigned 
goods to him. I have heard nothing of Mr. Yarde,*-* who was 
in bad health when he left Calcutta to join the army. Mr. 
Becher(3> has been seriously ill, and intends making a sea 
voyage " as his last resource." 

" I have not yet communicated the most material piece of 
news regarding myself, and what will, I believe, surprise you 
much. You may remember how alert I used to be at Madras 
when in the company of Miss Stonhouse,(^) the propensity I 
had to make myself a favorite ; but George's coming down cut 
off all my hopes. I have, however, allyed myself to the family 
by marrying the second sister.*^' I fear you will think that by 
this act I have defeated your good intention of rendering me 
usefull to my friends at home ; but I give you my word, Sir, 
it shall be no obstacle to that end. I have no desire to see any 
of my sisters in India, but if you think proper to send either of 
them out, I shall give them a most sincere reception and take 
every care of them in my power. If either of 'em should come 
out, as well as I can recollect my youngest sister (Grace) is 
the best calculated ..." 

" Robert Palk." 

" 11th [Sept.] — I have just received a letter from Mr. Morse 
giving hopes of the Aurora . . . R.P." 
[Holograph, 10\ pp., Uo.] 

(1! James Call entered the Madras civil service in 1765. He never left India, 
and died in 17!tit. 

(2) Lieut. John Yarde, Bengal Army. Vide No. 51, p. 80, note 2. 

(3) Richard Bocher, Bonjial civil service. 

(4) Sarah Stonhouse. 

(5) Lucia Stonhouse. 


[No. 102.] 
A[lexande]r Wynch to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1770, September 16th. Masulipatam. — " Dear Palk, Happy 
indeed should I be could I by this ship give you some account 
of our friend Van. Our expectations and, I was going to say 
our hopes, are almost over, for every part [?port] where she 
could be gone to in the Indian seas we have heard from. Pitty 
you all I do ; I feel myself for the man I loved . . . Du Pre 
would think it a very fortunate event if Providence was to send 
the Aurora to Fort St. George, as at once they would be able 
to determine between the Governor and General.'^* The latter 
by his commission thinks himself the first person. The 
Governor will not give it up, nor can he in my opinion, as the 
President of each Settlement must be the Supreme over all the 
Company's servants both civil and military . . . Coote acts 
not now on the Coast, and if the Gentlemen at Bengali do not 
choose to give him the rank he expects, he intends home by 
the first ship. I am surprized there was not more circum- 
spection in the orders that were sent out with him. ' This and 
the altercation there has been with Sir John Lendsey*-) has 
made it disagreeable to all concerned. . . The dignity of the 
Governor is greatly lessened, and Walaw Jaw seems to look 
upon it in that light. He already has asked the Governor and 
Council if they know who he is, &c. Repent what he is now 
doing he will, as sure as the sun will shine again. An extra- 
ordinary commission Sir John's is, if what it is reported to be 
is the truth, that he is [to] negociate independant of the Company 
with any country Powers he pleases, to examine into what he 
pleases, and make use of any measures he may please in doing 
it, even underhand and private ones . . . Du Pre has a bad 
time of it, Hastings is, I think, to be pittyed ..." 

I am anxious to leave India on account of my age, and 
because my girls need me at home, but I must first find means 
to remit the little money I possess. 

" At present we as Englishmen are free from war, but whether 
we may not be under the necessity of assisting Hyder, who is 
going to be attacked again by both Soubah and Morattas, or 
of joining them to overset him, is more than I can say ; but 
this I do, that if both can be avoided without detriment to 
ourselves, that will be the measure we would choose. At 
Bengali they are free from war, but famine rages to the greatest 
degree. All above Calcutta 2 and 3 seer of rice only for a rupee, 
and thousands dye dayly . . . 

" My son George'^) will be 16 in November, 1771, and be ready 
to offer his services to the Company as a Writer. If you can 

d' Majoi'-Goncral Eyro C'ooto, Conimnndcr-in-Chiof in India. 

'-' Admiral Sir John Lindsay, Naval Conunander-iu-C'hief and Minister Pleni- 
potentiary, arrived in India in July, 1770, at the age of thirty-three. In the following 
year he was invested by Nawab Walajah at Chepauk with the insignia of the Order 
"of the Bath. 

(3) George Wynch was appointed a Writer in 1773. 

133 [No. 102. 

get him a god father he will, as well as myself, be obliged to 
you. Bengali or Madrass I would have him come to ; the first 
I would prefer, having 2 here already. . . . Billy' i' called here 
last month on his way to Bengali ; he is gone to see his aunt 
Watts. Alexander is just made a lieutenant, and ordered to 
Madge's battalion of sepoys. Madam lay in last month : 
another girl we have, so that when I come home I should want 
a whole Great Cabbin. I thank you for the attention you have 
paid to my son Bob. If a war should commence, I think he 
had better try his fortune this way, especially if he can be got 
into the Admiral's ship. His chance of promotion would be 
greater than at home, where I have but little interest with the 
gentlemen of the Navy. I dayly expect to receive orders from 
Madrass to go into the Circars again this year to settle the 
Zummabundy.*^) By what I did the last, the Zemindars begin 
to feel the good effects of our government, being free from all 
kind of oppressions, which under a rapacious Renter (and none 
I have known to be any other) they were not. . . . 

" I fear I shall never be able to enjoy the sweets of country life, 
for the education of my daughters will compel me to live where 
proper masters can be obtained. I have not heard this year 
from my daughter Sophy ". 

" Ar. Wynch." 

[Autograjyh, 8 pp., Mo.] 

[No. 103.] 

Mrs. Jane Morse to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1770, September 19th. Fort St. George. — " Dear Sir . . . The 
Aurora has not been heard of since she left the Cape the 24 of 
December. Providence has given ni}^ dear Mrs. Van a large 
portion of affliction, but I trust he will give her a proportional 
degree of fortitude to enable her in some degree to bear with 
patience this last most fatal trial . . . Mr. Morse is much 
afflicted : scenes of such interesting an nature are too much at 
his age to bear up against, especially to one whose life has been 
filled with care and anxiety. How shocked I was to hear the 
distracted state Mr. Van's affairs were in ! We thought his 
fortune much reduced to what it was, and therefore necessary 
for him to return again to India for the benefit of his family, 
but could have no idea that his fortune had suffered so largely. 
The losses our family has sustained in the stocks are much 
talked of here : there are no secrets in this place . . . Mr. Morse 
has not for some [time] past taken any of the allowance Mr. Van 
was pleased to give us, and by his care in letting the office and 
godowns the house has produced, clear of all charges and repairs, 
five per cent, for his money. Now I imagine it will be sold for 

(1) William WjTich entered the Madras civil service in 17(36. 

(2) Jamahandi, the annual settlement of fluctuating items of land revenue ; 
from Hind, jama, whole, and Pers. bandhi, settlement. 

No. 103.] . 134 

the most it will fetch. We shall then hire a house in the Black 
Town, there lieing none in the White<^' to be got but what are 
at too high prizes for us." 

Mrs. Van will be guided in everything by you and Mr. 
Bourchier, and desires to retire into the country for the sake 
of economy. 

" Mr. Palk is married to Miss Stonehouse. She is a prudent 
girl, and I hope she will make a good wife . . ." 

" Jane Morse." 

[Holograph, 3| pp., MoJ] 

[No. 104.] 
Nic[holas] Morse to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1770, September 30th. Fort St. George.—" Dear Sir, This 
waites on you by the Lapwing . . . and by her [I] have an 
opportunity to acquaint you that, to our great concern, we have 
not yet seen our friend in the Aurora, but hear she left the Cape 
of Good Hope the 24 of December, and from the report of 
Lieutenant Johnson of the Stag, who was aboard in the harbour, 
that there was a gale of wind on the next evening after the day 
the Aurora sailed, which he imagined might have occasioned 
the loss of her mastes, and the wind being from the south east, 
which generally prevails at that season, carryed them to the 
Brazils to refit. If nothing is heard of them by the month of 
January, it may be concluded that some accident has befallen 
them, and in that case a heavy loss to the family ; and my poor 
Mrs. Van [will] stand in need of all your kind care and regard 
to support her under so great an affliction . . . 

" This country is at present quiet, but Hyder and the Morattas 
are still in arms against each other, and it will be scarce 
practicable for the English to satisfy both. The French are 
increasing their military force at Pondicherry, every ship 
bringing officers, men and ammunition, &c. They have some 
ships in India already of 60 guns, and are reported to have 
large numbers of men both at the islands of Mauritius and 
Madagascar. At this last they have erected a strong fort, 
and are training the natives to arms ; so that I should be glad 
to sec some of his Majesty's ships abroad to be ready for them, 
as it is very probable the rupture will begin in these parts . . . 
You will hear that the Governour and Council here have had 
some differences with General Coote in regard to the extent 
of his commission, as has occasioned the General to decline 

George Vansittart and your nephew Robert have been 
appointed to the Committee for collecting the revenue of Bihar, 
and the former has resigned the Chief ships of " Midnapore and 
Dynagcpore " in consequence. 

. (1) The White Town lay within the walls of Fort St. George ; the Black Town 
was the native citv sitiiated north of the Fort. 

135 [No. 104. 

" The famine in Bengal has been so great that in some parts 
rice was not to be bought for more than two seer for a rupee, 
which used to be at 30 and upwards ; and the number of dead 
bodies has occasioned a sickness, so that the country is in deep 
distress. Loaves of bread that were at 32 last year per rupee 
are reduced to 4 at Calcutta . . . 

" As Harry* ^^ is, I find, intended for India, the best way I 
think will be to send him in the civil service to Bengal to his 
uncle, who may have it in his power to serve him ; and that 
Settlement you are sensible has greatly the advantage of the 
others for persons to get forward in fortune . . . Pray let neither 
him nor any of his brothers be sent out cadets. 

" Mr. Carty, as one of Mr. Sloper's executors, applyed to 
me some months ago for money for bills for the portion of 
one of the daughters . . . but the match was broke off . . . 
Your nephew Mr. Thomas is well and under Mr. Goodlad in 
the office, and has his allowance of twenty pagodas per month. 
His brother at Bengal has made some consignments to him and 
Mr. James Call, and he has entered as a merchant ..." 

It is understood that Mr. Brooke is to go to the northward 
on the occurrence of a vacancy, although Messrs. Ardley, 
Stratton and Dawson are senior to him. The Nawab has paid 
in fourteen lakhs of pagodas to the Company, and about Pags. 
90,000 for the creditors, but the latter have not yet been 
allowed to receive the amount. The despatch of military 
officers from England is very discouraging to those on the Coast 

" I wish you much happiness in your new purchass,*-' and 
that you and Mrs. Palk may find it answer your expectations, 
and that a retirement may prove agreeable after the bustle 
and noise of a town situation. My house at the Mount is near 
finished, and we purpose, with the leave of Mr. Hydro and 
Moderow, to live there about 8 months in the year, or the 
greatest part of that time. Whether those great gentlemen 
will chuse to indulge us time is to shew . . ." 

[Holograph, 6f ijp., Uo.] " Nic. Morse." 

[No. 105.] 
William Jackson*^^* to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1770, October 1st. Madrass. — " You were so kind [as] to give 
Mr. Dunning'** in December, 1769, two letters of recommendation 
for me, one of which was to Mr. Stone, who has paid the utmost 
regard to your recommendation." For this I return you 
grateful thanks. 

[Holograph, 1 p., Uo.] " William Jackson." 

(1) Henry Vansittart, jun., son of Governor Henry Vansittart. 

(2) Haldon House. 

(3) William Jackson entered the Madras civil service in 1770. 

(4) John Dunning of Ashburton, barrister, became Solicitor General in 1768, 
and was created Baron Ashburton in 1782. 


[No. 106.] 
Lieut. Thomas Palk to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1770, October 1st. Condapillee. — " Honoured Sir, ... I 
have the pleasure to inform you that my brother'^) arrived at 
Madras the 30th of June last. He has been in that neighbour- 
hood ever since, so that I have not as yet had the satisfaction 
of seeing him. Just after his arrival he, with the rest of the 
cadets of this season, were ordered out to Poonamale in order 
to learn their exercise. Mr. Dupre then promised him he should 
be sent down to the Circars as soon as he had been there his 
time. . . All the cadets on this establishment were a few days 
ago appointed ensigns. »My brother has been very lucky in 
getting a commission so soon . . . ; but General Coote since 
his arrival has been the means of great alterations in the 
military corps." There are accounts of disputes between Mr. 
Dupre and General Coote, as well as between the Governor and 
the Commodore.*-' Much alarm is felt at the non-arrival of 
the Aurora. I am as far off promotion as I was a year ago 
owing to the number of captains sent out by the Conipany. 
It is reported that the Coast troops are to be brigaded as in 
Bengal. I have now commanded this garrison upwards of a 
year. Captain Madge, who is not hopeful of early promotion, 
is engaged with Poligars near Samulcotah. 

" I heard from cousin Thomas some days ago. He is well. 
He still remains at Madrass. Cousin Robert was married to 
Miss Stonehouse the 12th of June last, since which he writes 
me he has been appointed third to a Council of revenues for 
the Bahar Province, and that he and Mrs. Palk will shortly 
set out for Patna ..." 

" Thomas Palk." 

[Holograph, 4 jW-y ^io.] 

[No. 107.] 
Chocapah to the Honble. Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1770, October 1st. Fort St. George. — The Government have 
appointed two sets of Merchants to provide the Company's 
Investment. The first set, consisting of " Chippermall Chitty, 
myself, Subrumania Chitty, Lingapa Chitty, Condepah Chitty 
and Audynarayenah Chitty " are to supply longcloth, 
salempores, moorees, ginghams, Conjeveram beteelas and 
muslin handkerchiefs to the value of Pags. 108,000. The other 
set, comprising " Mannar Chitty, and Arnachella Chitty," will 
provide longcloth, beteelas Oringal and beteelas Pulicate. 

" Madavaraw would on no account whatsoever make up 
matters with Hyder. He left 30,000 horses under the command 
of Gopalraw in Hyder's country, and is gone back to his country 
[in] June last. It is reported that Madaviraw himself will be 

(1) John Palk. 

('-' Sir Juhn Lindsay. 

137 [No. 107. 

ill Hydcr's countr>' [in] January next, and if we don't assist 
Hyder the Marattys will certainly ruin him, and we are uncertain 
what troubles the Marattys may give us afterwards." 

Bengal is much reduced by famine, the scarcity of rice being 
unprecedented. The Armenian and native merchants have 
commissioned a ship for" Manila this year. The French are 
receiving supplies of men and military stores. " The French 
Settlements in India are entirely delivered up to the French 
King, and Mr. Law<i) is appointed Marshall de Camp and 
King's Governour, and they have now at Pondichery I nine 
hundred soldiers and four hundred seapoys ..." 


[Autograph, 2 pp., flscp.] 

[No. 108.] 
Jos[iAs] Du Pre to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1770, October 4th. Fort St. George. — " Dear Sir, Give me 
leave in a few words, for I have not time for more, to thank you 
for your two obliging letters of the 11th November, 1769, and 
9th March, '70. You will have grief enough on hearing that we 
have no news of the Commissioners. I shall therefore say no 
more than that it is a disappointment to us, who, far from fearing 
the result of their enquiry s and the effects of their power, 
thought them the only means by which we could find redress, 
and effectually refute the malevolent insinuations which must 
have gone home in private letters and have been magnified 
there to answer private purposes. 

" You say Coote was to have the same powers General 
Lawrence had. You will find his ideas run much higher : he 
thinks himself above controul. We would not submit to be 
trampled on, and so he refused to sit with us or to act, and is 
gone down to Bengal'-' in a great huff. How he will be received 
there I cannot tell. It would take up a volume to give you the 
history of our quarrel 1 : my brother Alexander Avill be able to 
give it to you at large. We have also been drawn into a 
correspondence with Sir John Lindsay, by which I suppose 
Ave shall draw on ourselves the vengeance of the Ministry who 
sent him out. These are dangerous times, and I wish I was 
well out of them. What is doing between Sir John and the 
Nabob, I can't say, but I believe no good to the Company or 
their servants now and for years past. We are no more what 
we were. We have neither controul nor influence over the 
Nabob. People at home think him full of virtue and honor. 
Good God ! that a man so devoid of both should by deceit have 
acquired such a character ! You hope, now that peace is 
concluded, we may be able to put the immense length of country 
we have to protect into a better state of management and 

U) Jean Law, Governor of Pondicherry. 

(2) Coote changed his mind at the last moment and went to England via Basra. 

No. 108.] 138 

security ; but how, my friend, are we to do [it] ? The Company 
abuse us hke pick-pockets, send over a mihtary officer to quarrell 
with and tyrannise over us and throw us into confusion. The 
Government send Sir John Lindsay to threaten and awe us, to 
wrest all our actions into crimes and to support the Nabob 
(perverse enough before) against all our measures ; and then, 
if misfortunes happen, we must bear the whole. I tell you. my 
friend, the Company's affairs never were in so dangerous a way. 
We are surrounded with enemys, and the most dangerous are 
neither Hyder, the Morattas, the Soubah or the French. 

" I hope Mr. Hastings will write you more at large of our 
situation. I have no rest night or day. 'Tis a great comfort 
in my distress to have such a man as Mr. Hastings. We are 
upon the best terms, and he supports me cordially. I think 
myself obliged to you for your friendly letters : you will add 
to the obligation if you will not expect long answers. Mrs. 
Du Pre expects next month to be in the straw : she joins to 
mine her sincere good wishes for your and Mrs. Palk's health 
and happiness. I am, dear Sir, your most obedient humble 

[Holograph, 3 pp., Uo.] " Jos. Du Pre." 

[No. 109.] 
Tho[mas] Palk to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1770, October 9th. Fort St. George. — I miss my friends who 
sailed in the Britannia, especially Mr. Call, with whom I lived 
from the time I quitted the army. I am now in the office 
under Mr. Goodlad, but should like to change to the Accountant's 
branch. From " the intimate friendship that appeared to 
me to subsist between you and Mr. Hastings it was natural for 
me to expect he would pay some kind of attention to me, but 
to my surprize he never once asked me in his house ; though 
from one in his station, and so superciliously disposed, it is not 
extraordinary. Mr. Morse is exceeding kind to me and very 
much my friend." I thank you for the allowance of Pags. 20 
per month, which you have made me. My brother in Bengal 
has been very good in sending consignments of raw silk to me 
and Mr. James Call jointly. He has lately been appointed to 
Patna. " I make no doubt, Sir, but you will be surprized to 
hear that he was, on the 12th June last, married to Miss Ston- 
house, sister of Mrs. George Vansittart's, a very agreeable girl, 
and above all a young lady of sense ..." 

No news has been received of the Aurora since she left the 
Cape ten months ago. " I feel greatly for poor Mrs. Van : 
the loss of a husband and son*^' at once must be a killing stroke 
to her. Mr. and Mrs. Morse are very deeply afflicted . . ." 

'D Arthur, second son of Henry Vansittart, accompanied his father. The latter, 
writing from Madeira on the 16th Oct., 1769, says, " Arthur is well, nukes a good 
sailor, takes well to his Persian." (Brit. Mus. Add. MSS. 34,686.) 

139 [No. 10!). 

The (i()\erii()r and Council are much at variance with General 
Coote and Sir John I^indsay, and the General is about to sail 
for Bengal. 1 laid aside the sword with regret and only in 
deference to the wishes of my friends. 

"Tho. Palk." 

" P.S.— As I should be very glad to peruse some of the latest 
of the old news papers and magazines, I hope your goodness 
will excuse the liberty I take of requesting you will enclose me 
a few now and then. . ." My respects to the General and 
" to that good lady Mrs. Jiourchier." 

[Holograph, 7| pp., Uo.] 

[No. 110.] 
Warren Hastings to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1770, October 12th. Fort St. George.—" Dear Sir, I wrote 
to you two letters by the Anson, and informed you that I had 
taken the liberty to consign two bulses of diamonds to you, 
requesting you to sell them and pay the amount of them, of 
one to Mrs. Hancock and of the other to Mrs. Ironside, for whose 
use they were sent. Enclosed are duplicate bills of lading 
and invoices of both. 

" I have since received your favors of the 10th November 
and 23rd March last, with two recommendations, which I will 
gladly comply with as far as I am able. Mr. Morse has also 
communicated to me, by your desire, several letters from you 
to him and Mr. Van, for which I return you my thanks. I wish 
I could give you any hope of the Aurora, or could form a 
conjecture that could account for her long absence on the 
supposition of her safety. I fear it is now impossible. 

" I presented your letter to the Nabob, who received it with 
great demonstrations of friendship both for you and for myself, 
for which I am obliged to you. I will with great pleasure join 
Messrs. Morse and Goodlad in the charge of your affairs whenever 
they shall have any occasion for my assistance. They cannot 
be in better hands than those they are now in. I am glad to 
hear that my French bill has been received, and thank you 
for clearing off so much of my bill due to Sumner.'^) The rest 
I hope is by this time discharged. 

" I shall write to you a second letter by this packet, and shall 
only add in this my desire to be kindly remembered to Mrs. 
Palk, the General and such of my friends as you shall meet with. 
I have written a long letter to Mr. Sulivan, which I have desired 
him to shew you. 

" I am, dear Sir, your most obedient and obliged humble 

[Holograph, 2 pp., Uo.] " Warren Hastings." 

(1) Willijnii Brightwoll Sumner. Cf. No. 88, p. 118, note 1. 


[No. 111.] 
Warren Hastings to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1770, October 12th. Fort St. George.— " Dear Sir, This 
letter requires no apology. I have been informed that his 
Excellency*^) has written a long remonstrance either to the King 
or to Sir J[ohn] L[indsay] for his M[ajesty]'s information, 
containing the particulars of all the injuries, indignities and 
losses which he has sustained from the Company and their 
Governors since his connection with them ; that yourself and 
Lord Pigot stand among the foremost of these, charged with 
such high crimes and misdemeanors as, if true, would cost 
you (to use the expression delivered me) both your heads ; and 
that whatever had been at any time received by either of you 
from his Excellency as pledges of his benevolence was extorted 
from him by violence and contrary to his inclination. This 
information I received in confidence from Mr. Brooke,'^) by 
whose permission and desire I repeat it to you, that you may 
be upon your "guard against the effects of such an attack, if it 
be true that such an one is made upon you. He had it from a 
friend, who told it to him with authority, having himself 
received it from some of Sir J. L.'s family who had read the 
remonstrance. I am told I am also begrimed in the same black 
list, I am sure without cause. 

" Stone has already told you that you could not expect any 
recommendation of young Griffiths in our general letters. It 
is peremptorily forbid. But I hope you will have interest to 
obtain his appointment. He is a good, well tempered, decent 
boy. He has been lately admitted into Stone's office, and is 
as good a hand as Stone has, willing and improvable. He will 
do credit to the service, and I heartily wish you may be able 
to place him in it. He lives with me, is stout and healthy, 
and advances fast towards six feet. 

" We are still in peace abroad, but in open war at home. 
General Coote is returning to England in disgust, because we 
will not acknowledge his supremacy. Sir J. L. stays, because 
(as I suppose) his Excellency acknowledges his supremacy. 
Appeals will be made by both to their respective constituents, 
and all the powers of the Company and of the Crown called upon 
to punish us for disobedience, contumacy and rebellion. The 
history of these contests is too long for a letter. I never was 
concerned in any business in which I was so perfectly satisfied 
of the propriety of my own conduct as in both these instances, 
yet I doubt the issue of them at home. 

" The Ministry will certainly support Sir J. Lindsay, and if 
Coote's friends are in the Direction, they will justify him. Yet 
I think it impossible to furnish reasons for either. I am very 
uneasy at the dismal prospects which these contests afford me, 

(1) Nawab Walajah. 

(2) Henry Brooke. Vide No. 31, p. 51, note 2. 

141 [No. 111. 

and more for other more alarming symptoms which I dare not 
mention. I have been able to write onlv to Mr. Sulivan, and 
to him I have been very explicit. 

" I hope I am not unreasonable in desiring your advice and 
information where you think cither may prove of utility to me, 
as in a thousand instances it would be. I write this in the 
Council Chamber, and have not time to add more, though I have 
much that I wish to say to you. 

" I am, with a real regard and esteem, dear Sir, your most 
obedient servant, 

[Holograjjh, Sh pp., Uo.] " Waeeen Hastings." 

[No. 112.] 
Reyxo[ld] Adams'^) to [Robert "Palk, Esqr.]. 

1770, October 12th. Fort St. George.—" Dear Sir, . . . Mr. 
John Palk ... is arrived safe .t has been, since he came, in 
cantonment at Ponamallee, and is going shortly to the north- 
ward. jMr. Thomas Palk is here and very well." I shall 
render them every service in my power. I hope you duly 
received the pipe of madeira which I sent you by the Britannia. 

" Be pleased. Sir, to present my best compliments to Mrs. 
Palk and to the fair Miss Nancy.*-' She may be assured that 
her house in Fort St. George shall not be neglected, but all 
possible care taken to preserve and keep it in good repair. . . 
Bengal has and does groan under a most dreadful famine and 
pestilence, which has swept off many thousands. . . The 
is not yet arrived. I understand there is a person'^' on her 
appointed to succeed me. I hope I shall not be superceded . ." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., Uo.] " Reyno- Adams." 

[No. 113.] 
Nawab Walajah to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1770, October 12th. IMadrass. — " I received your letter of 
the 10th November, and understand the contents. Mr. Van- 
sittart's not being heard of must give you great concern, as 
it does me and all his friends here. General Coote also is going 
to Bengal, so that what the Company expected from the great 
abilities of these gentlemen coming here is come to nothing. 
The Carnatick is as much exposed and threatened as ever. I 
am very glad that you, the General and your family are well. 
I wish you a continuance of health and happiness." 

[Autograph cipher, 1 p., 4/o.] 

[No. 114.] 
Henry Brooke to Robert Palk, Esqr., London. 
1770, October 12th. Fort St. George. — The mortgage bond 
of my three houses here Avill expire in September next. I am 

(n RejTiold Adams, a Madras free-merchant of 1764, was appointed Master 
Attendant (or Harbour Master) in succession to George Baker. 
(2/ Anne, elder daughter of Governor Palk. 
(3) George Taswell, afterwards Master Attendant. 

No. 114.] 142 

willing to renew for a further period of five years if we can agree 
as to terms. 

" Henry Brooke." 
[Autograph, 1 p.. Mo.] 

[No. 115.] 
Nic[holas] Morse to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1770, October 12th. Fort St. George. — " Since what I 
mentioned to you concerning General Coote, I have since been 
told that he designed [to have] gone for Bengal, but that was 
not allowed, and that [he] has now determined to proceed to 
Europe, and the Hawke man of war [is] to land him at Bussorah, 
who sails to-morrow. This is the news of the dav . . ." 

"Nic. Morse." 

[Holograph, 1 p., 4/o.] 

[No. 116.] 

R[ober]t D[unca]n Munro'^) to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1770, October 12th. Madras. — I thank you for your careful 
execution of the trust placed in you by my deceased father. 
By the death of Mr. Fergusson'^) you are left my only friend in 
England. My mother and sister join me in good wishes for 
yourself and family. 


[Autograph, 3 pp., Uo.] 

[No. 117.] 

J[ohn] M[axwell] Stone to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1770, October 12th. Fort St. George.—" Dear Sir, . . . Our 
situation becomes every day more precarious. Maudavarow 
is expected to return as soon as the season will admit in order 
to make another attempt to reduce Hyder, who warmly solicits 
our aid ; and the Nabob as strenuously urges our joining the 
Morattas, notwithstanding it is evident that, if IMysore were 
once reduced to the Moratta yoke, the Carnatic would be 
constantly exposed to their ravages. They would soon overrun 
the whole province with their numerous bodies of cavalry 
without our being able to bring them to action. Our care must 
be confined to our forts, which nnist also soon fall for want of 
revenue to pay the troops for their defence. It should therefore 
seem that it is not for the interest of the Carnatic that Hyder 
should be entirely reduced, as he is the only cheek on the 
Moratta power in these parts ; for while he is in a condition 
to oppose them we may hope for peace. But it is to be feared 
that he will scarce be able to withstand the force they can, and 
probably will, bring against him. . . Although peace ought to 

(1) Vide No. 33, p. 55, note 2. 

(2) William Fergusson. Vide No. 3, p. 7, note 2. 


143 [No. 117. 

be (Uir principal object, and we should strenuously avoid all 
measures that may tend to involve us in war, yet, if we could 
assist Hyder effectually, our interest as well as engagements 
with him would lead us to do so rather than see his country 
added to the power of the Morattas. But we have not the 
means within ourselves, and without them it would be imprudent 
to attempt. For want therefore of ability, we must remain 
quiet untill we are actually attacked . . ." We had hoped 
something from the arrival of the Commissioners, but it is 
feared that some fatal accident has befallen their ship. 

" To increase our perplexity and embarrassments we have 
lately been engaged in very disagreeable altercations with Sir 
John Lindsay and General Coote . . . On Sir John Lindsay's 
arrival the letters and presents from their Majestys were, 
agreeable to the Company's orders, delivered to him to be 
presented to the Nabob. He soon after took an opportunity 
of acquainting the Governor with the plenipotentiary powers 
with which he was invested by the King to treat with the Princes 
of India. His first application to the Board was for them to 
attend him in the delivery of the letters and presents to the 
Nabob. This the Board declined, since their acquiescence 
would have degraded this Government into a mere attendant, 
and which would not fail lessening its authority in the eyes of 
the country Powers . . . Sir John Lindsay then required to be 
put in possession of our original proceedings, or authenticated 
copies of them, with respect to the Nabob, the Soubah and other 
Powers of India since the conclusion of the Treaty of Paris, to 
enable him to make a faithfull report to His Majesty of the rise 
and progress of the war with the Soubah and Hyder Ally. In 
answer to which he was told that the whole of our proceedings 
were transmitted to the Company, to whom application might 
be made in a regular and proper manner ; that Ave had no 
authority to expose the records of the Company to the inspection 
of any individual, and which our oaths and covenants to the 
Company prevented us from doing. He at last, in the course 
of his correspondence, required the counsel and advice of the 
Board to enable him to treat with the Powers of India ; and 
offered the sanction of His Majesty's name to give weight to 
our negotiations. To which it was replied that we had all 
reason to believe the Company were entirely unacquainted with 
the powers with which he was invested ; that we understood 
from the publiek papers and pamphlets that the Ministry did 
apply to the Court of Directors to give the Commander of His 
Majesty's ships in India a seat and voice in their councils 
abroad ; that this proposal was laid before a Court of Proprietors 
and formally rejected. That we could not therefore agree to 
what our constituents had refused. This, my dear Sir, is a brief 
recital of what hath passed with respect to Sir John Lindsay. 
I shall only add that we begin to feel very sensibly the ill effects 
of these very extraordinary and unprecedented powers ; and if 

No. 117.] 144 

the Company do not take some measures very speedyly, they 
may bid farewell to all influence and consequence in India. 

" I come to General Coote, who arrived here very full of the 
powers granted him by his commission of Commander-in-Chief, 
which I must acquaint you is exactly the same as that granted 
to General Lawrence. He has indeed, by the Company's orders, 
a power of calling for returns from the several Presidencies, 
and is authorized to form a general plan of discipline for the 
whole. The first difficulty which occurred was the manner in 
which he should be given out in orders. The Board would not 
consent to his being given out simply as Commander-in-Chief, 
since the Governor's commission as Commander-in-Chief must 
thereby be abrogated. It was therefore proposed that the 
Company's orders of February, 1766, (wherein the powers of 
the Governor are fully, clearly and positively laid down . . .) 
should be given out at the same time. To this General Coote 
objected. . . It was then proposed that circular letters should 
be wrote by the Board to the several commanding officers, 
directing them to make returns to General Coote in the same 
manner as to the Governor, and for them and all others to obey 
him as their superior officer. This General Coote approved, 
and letters were wrote' accordingly." Shortly afterwards he 
put forward a plan for the seniority and promotion of officers 
and their distribution to commands, which, as it ignored the 
control and approbation of Government, was rejected. The 
question as to the superiority of his or the Governor's commission 
was decided in favour of the latter. " General Coote then 
withdrew, and declared his resolution of remaining here in a 
private station untill he could receive the sentiments of the 
other Presidencies respecting his commission. We have sent 
a particular account of the above correspondence to Bengali, 
to which place General Coote purposed proceeding ; but he has 
since altered his resolution, and embarks to-morrow on the 
Hawke sloop of war, which Sir John Lindsay has lent him, in 
order to go to Bussorah, and from there over-land to England. 
His sudden arrival will no doubt have a strange effect in 
Leaden Hall Street. A short letter is, however, now wrote to 
the Company to go by the same way, advising them thereof, 
and desiring them to suspend their judgment till the arrival 
of the Larpwing. 

" I have thus, my dear Sir, given you as particular an account 
of our situation as time will admit ; and I believe you will 
readily allow that, what with Morattas, Hyder, Sir John 
Lindsay and General Coote, we have had trouble and vexation 
enough ..." 

"J. M. Stone." 
[Holograph, 9 pji., fiscp.] 



[No. 118.] 

W[illiam] M[arttn] Goodlad to [RoRERT Palk, Esqr.]. 

1770, October 12th.— " My dear Friend . . . We still continue 
in peace, but how long it will last I think is very uncertain. 
It appears to nie that the neutral part we have hitherto pursued 
cannot much longer be supported. The Marattas will not let 
us be quiet, and our situation is altogether exceedingly critical. 
We are surrounded with difficulties, and those of a nature which 
it appears impossible to surmount. The Nabob is totally 
changed. Presents and letters from the King have turned his 
brain. He looks for support from thence, and the friendship 
of the Company seeins scarcely a consideration with him. He 
shews himself every day more independant, and hence springs 
our grand obstacle. He has an inveterate enmity against 
Hyder, and wishes to overthrow him even at the ruin of himself. 
If we must take part in the Mysore quarrel, we ought doubtless 
to make Hyder our friend — he is the only barrier against the 
Marattas ; but the Nabob will not hear of it, and prefers the 
Council at any rate to join the Marattas to effect the overthrow 
of the other, though it is evident that the Carnatic will next 
fall a prey to them. To join Hyder by ourselves is 
impracticable : to support the Marattas is impolitic to the last 
degree. If we could remain as hitherto it would be well, but 
I must say that I have scarcely a doubt but that in three months 
the scene will be totally altered. We are bound to see it out. 
But this is only one of our difficulties. 

" Sir John Lindsay arrived here in July, and to our great 
astonishment declared himself Ambassador and Plenipotentiary 
from his Majesty to treat with the Princes of India. Such secret, 
independant and unprecedented powers are truely alarming. 
The Company (as we imagine) wholely unacquainted with their 
existance, had been entirely silent on the subject, and the 
Governor and Council were obliged to withstand the attacks 
of the Plenipo, and support the cause of their constituents, 
uninstructed by them in the smallest degree . . . The Company's 
loss of inffiience is every day more visible, and the most trifling 
exertion of Sir John's authority will render them cyphers 
indeed ... To me it appears that Sir John's powers strike 
at the very root of the Company's existance. 

" I have told you . . . how totally the Nabob is changed. 
You will naturally conclude that the Ambassador's presence 
tends not a little to widen the breach with the Company. E^^ery 
action, every letter from him breathes independance with 
respect to the Company, and reliance for support on the Crown. 
Judge then of our situation. We are not the same beings as 
when you left us. 

" But the discription of difficulties does not end here. 
General Coote came amongst us as Commander in Chief of all 
the forces in India under the respective Presidencies. As such 
he thought himself supreme and independant, and refused to 


No. 118.] 146 

submit to the approbation of the Council matters which have 
ever been within their immediate province. He regarded his 
commission as superior to that of the Governor, and the 
arrangement of officers as depending on himself alone. The 
Governor, who, you well know, bears a commission of 
Commander in Chief ; who the Company have declared to be 
their superior military officer ; who was clearly pointed out 
as such when the old General and you were amongst us, could 
not depart from his authority : he had it not in his power to 
relinquish the trust reposed in him. Dissentions ensued ; the 
point of seniority became the subject of debate. The Council 
were unanimous in giving it to the Governor. General Coote 
refused to act, retired as a private gentleman, and is now'on his 
way to Bengal ..." 

What the intentions of the Company were in giving the General 
his commission it is hard to say. Time will show. " The 
command of the military must rest in the Board or, if seperated, 
our system must be wholely altered, for the direction of military 
and political matters cannot be divided : they are inseperable. 
Take away one, and you must take the other ; and consequently 
the Council, though charged with the protection of the Carnatic, 
become mere providers of long cloth ordinary." 

13th October. — Coote has since decided on going to Europe, 
and the Hawke, sloop, conveys him to Basra. The Bengal 
Council are understood to approve our action in regard to both 
the Genera] and Sir John Lindsay. 

" I have said above that the Nabob is totally changed. An 
instance this moment occurs to prove that he will do every 
thing in his power to represent the servants of the Company 
in the worst colours. You remember the orders from home 
about reducing the interest to 10 per cent. They were positive, 
and directed the dismission of all who should lend at an higher 
rate. His Excellency has just wrote a letter to the Board 
representing that Charles Smith, (^' Monckton,*^) &c. (without 
mentioning other names) have lent money in the Jaguire*^' at 
the accumulating interest of 54 per cent, per annum, which 
he, to preserve the Companies possessions from utter riiin, has 
made good to them at his own immediate expence. The charge 
is heavy : that the money was lent is certain, and that the 
orders of the Company are positive is equally so. It may 
possibly go hard with them : but will you believe me when I 
tell you that this money was absolutely lent with the Nabob's 

(1) diaries Smith, a Madras civil servant of 1764, was in Council twenty years 
later. On the suspension of Whiteliill in 1780 he served as provisional Governor 
until Macartney's arrival. He niai-ried first Elizabetli Carvalho in 1702, and 
secfjndly Francos Law in 1772. 

(2) The Hon. Mdward Monckton, who entered the Madras c'wW service in 1762, 
conducted a mission to Quedah ten years later. He married Sophia, elder daugjhter 
of Lord Pigot, in 177(5. 

(3) The Conipany's .Tagliire (from Pers. and Hind, jdglr, an assignment of land) 
comprised gi-ants of territory made by Nawali Muhammad Ali in 17.5(1, 1756 
and 1703. The area- embraced the greater part of the present Chingleput District. 

147 [No. 118. 

consent, and that there is the strongest presumptive proof that 
it was aetually borrowed by himself ! Tis scarcely credible ! 
But a charge like this is nuts to an Ambassador, and a noble 
bone for tlie Ministry to get hold of against the Company and 
their servants ..." 

No payments liave been made to the Nawab's creditors. 
The Commissioners have instructions, but they, alas, have not 
been heard of since they left the Cape. 

" Taken all in all, our situation is critical indeed. The 
Council, I think, were never so responsible for their conduct as 
at this juncture ; the Nabob doing every thing to thwart them ; 
a Government spy picking holes in their coat on every occasion, 
and the Commander of the Army bellowing out vengeance 
because he cannot be supreme. They have need of every 
support at home. If they meet with it, matters may again 
be conducted in their former channel. If they fall, a great 
remove must take place, for they are unanimous in their conduct. 
Desirous as -I am of distinguishing myself in the Company's 
service, it would concern me to rise by such a step. I shall 
wait this and other great events with a becoming patience . . . 

" Every thing is quiet in Bengal, but the most terrible famine 
ever known has raged throughout the provinces for many 
months. Calcutta itself has felt the dreadfull effects of it, and 
when the last letters came away the dead were still laying in 
heaps about the streets. This has naturally made Calcutta 
very sickly to the Europeans, and indeed great mmibers have 
been carried off. Tis asserted that more than two millions 
have been swept away in the different provinces. We have 
also been very sickly here, and the liver has prevailed more 
than I ever remember it before. Charles Westcott'^' was carried 
off by it, and many others have been in great danger. Captain 
Frazer'^) is at last no more. 

" Your nephew Tom and his cousins are all well. Snelling'^' 
has had the money advanced him which you desired, and a 
trifle more. I have got him to Pallamcotah, where George 
Brown**> will take care of him : he is a promising young man . . . 
The affair which you entrusted to Moodu Kistnah and me shall 
very shortly be adjusted ... I now enclose you a bill for £400, 
being the money given by the Nabob to Withecombe's 
friends ..." 


[Holograph, 10 pp., 4to.] 

(1) Charles Westcott, a free merchant of 1768, died in September, 1770. 

(2) Captain Robert Fraser died in May, 1770. 

(3) J. Snelling. Vide No. 87, p. 115. 

(4) Captain George Brown commanded a l)attalion of native infantry in the 
first Mysore war, and was present at the battles of Changama and Trinomalai. 
In 1780, as Lieut. Colonel, lie conducted a Madras force to Surat to join General 
Goddard's expedition to Guzerat ; and in the following year he commanded a 
brigade in the second battle of Polihir under Sir Eyre Coote. 


[No. 119.] 
Rob[er]t Palk to [William Martin Goodlad]. 

1770, December 7th. Received 11th July, 1771, per 
Hursenden. — ^" My dear Billy, I have both your letters of the 
6th February and 8th April. '^> I have been long a stranger to 
the politics in Leadenhall Street, but I could never have con- 
ceived the giving up of the Circars to be a part of them, and 
hope they are wiser than to entertain such a notion, since most 
of the force may be drawn from them upon occasion, and still 
Masulipatam, Ganjam, &c., be preserved. 

" I am disquieted beyond measure about the safety of the 
Aurora, and begin almost to despair of it . . . 

" You do well, my friend, to interest yourself so deeply in 
the Company's prosperity, and I doubt not in due time your 
thorough knowledge of their affairs will be amply rewarded. 

" The Nabob's creditors' agents have hitherto made little 
stir in their commission, most of them as individuals being 
inclined to do as you and others have done in India, and expect 
justice from the Company, who in the end will certainly give 
their assistance . . . 

" You reason very justly on the subject of Colonel Wood's 
dismission, and I wonder the Governor and Council did not, 
to silence all clamor, make known their reasons for disagreeing 
with the Court martial and dismissing the Colonel. I have 
long entertained the same opinion with you of Call : from the 
moment the conquest of Misore was projected I foresaw the 
impracticability of the wild plan and dreaded the event, and 
was heartily sorry our friend B. had so readily submitted his 
own judgment to such an extravagant idea. That sore is now 
in some measure healed, and if you could avoid taking part 
with Hyder or the Marattas, I think we shall soon arrive at 
our former prospect of prosperity. 

" Mr. Bourchier was very well received by the Court of 
Directors, and having no party to support or enemies to contend 
with, I think he will very happily enjoy the fruit of his labors 
among those he loves . . . His father,*^) after living to see his 
sons so happily returned, expired in their arms last week . . , . 

" We are preparing with all our might for war with Spain, 
whose Ambassador, however, having full powers to settle the 
dispute, wc have some reason to expect an accommodation, 
more especially as the French are not prepared for war, their 
finances being undoubtedly in a much worse state than ours, 
and their country laboring under a prodigious scarcity of grain 
and a bad vintage. 

" Little Dickf'^) is all ready for imbarking . . . No contest 
this year for Directors. Opposition has been crushed with a 

(1) Nos. 91 and 96. 

(2) Richard Bourchier, a " seafaring man " of Madras, was appointed Chief at 
Anjonf^o in 1713, and suliscquonlly became Governor of Bombay. 

('i) Kicliard Uoodhid, brother of W. M. Goodlad. 

149 [No. 119. 

vengeance, and they make Sulivan the a7?iende honorable by 
readmitting him to their society in April : indeed it seems 
necessary that there should be somebody there a little 
acquainted with India matters ... I am always, my dear Billy, 
your sincere, affectionate and obliged friend, 

" RoBT. Palk." 

[P.S.]— " Thank ye for the bill of lOOl. 

" 12th December, — Alas, my friend, it is but too true that you 
had no accounts of the Aurora the 14th June. Our only small 
hopes now are on Batavia, or that after attempting the Coast 
she is gone to the Maldivias or Bengal. 

" Two days since I was surprized^ with an intended appoint- 
ment of a Mr. Stewart(^) to be Secretary at Madras. I 
acquainted Mrs. Goodlad, and we are trying to prevail on our 
friends that you may at least have it in your option to remain 
your own time. They say they mean no ill to you, but the 
contrary, but that this same gentleman, whom I know not, 
must be provided for." 

[Holograph, J^^ pp., 4>to.] 

[No. 120.] 

Rob[er]t Palk to W[illia]m M[artin] Goodlad, Fort St. 


1770, December 13th. London. Received June 1771, by 
Mr. Ley. — " Dear Billy, The bearer, Mr. Ley of the Ponsborne, 
being a particular friend, I request your notice of him and 
advising him of any thing that may be of benefit to him in his 
vovage. Yours most sincerely, 

" RoBT. Palk." 
[Holograph, \p.. Mo. Wax seal with crest, defaced.] 

[No. 121.J 
Rob[er]t Palk to Mrs. Goodlad. 

1771, January 4th. Haldon House. — " Dear Madam, Finding 
Mr. Bourchier's letter in my possession, 'tis proper to return it 
to you, as you may think necessary to send it to Billy. 

" I have talked to several of the Directors on this subject, 
and most of them know nothing of the matter, and all seem 
well inclined to be well pleased and satisfyed with the present 
Secretary ; but as Mr. Bourehier thinks Billy wants to be 
relieved from the post, we must rest satisfyed that they will 
recommend at least his being taken care of. Mr. Bourehier, 
however, I think must be mistaken that the Governor and 
Council have requested a perpetual Secretary, for I think Mr. 
Du Pre and every Governor would chuse to keep the appoint- 
ment of so material an assistant to himself. However this be, 

'1' John Stewart (or Stuart). Vide No. 256, p. 252, note 3. 

No. 121.] 150 

I have no doubt of Billy's deserving the attention of the 
Directors, and if wrong is done him in this instance they 
must make amends. 

" I am come here from Berkshire for a few days all alone. I 
wish you and all yours most heartily many, many happy new 
years ; and by the help of pressing, and bad weather, may yet 
return soon enough to see Mr. Richard before he imbarks. If 
I should not, pray give him my sincerest wishes. 

" I am always, dear Madam, your faithful and obliged humble 

" RoBT. Palk." 

[Holograjjh, 1^ p., Mo.] 

[No. 122.] 
Reyno[ld] Adams to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1771, January 21st. Fort St. George. — Received 12th July. 
" Dear Sir, . . Mr. and Mrs. Morse are both well but much 
afflicted, as well as myself, at the non-arrival of the Aurora, 
which we are much affraid leaves very little hope of her safety, 
notwithstanding the supposition of her having gone to the 
Brazils . . . Mr. Tom Palk and his two cousins to the north- 
ward are well . . . One Mr. Taswell, who, I apprehend, you have 
heard of, is come out to succeed me in my employ,'^) and I hear 
is arrived at Bombay. This, I am informed, is in consequence 
of a report that I was about to come home, though I never 
dropped a hint of such a thing, nor can I entertain any thoughts 
of that sort for some years to come." I hope you will prevent 
my supersession. 

Captain Madge is anxious that the collections on account of 
Captain Cranch's estate should be remitted. Two methods 
offer ; Company's bills at 8,§. 5d. per pagoda payable in three 
years without interest, or private bills at 7s. 4fZ. from Pelling 
and de Fries payable in 90 days. The former method appears 
the more favourable, but as cash must be paid in dollars, which 
are hard to procure, I am remitting by private bill. 

" Reyno- Adams." 

[Holograph, 3| jjp., Uo.] 

[No. 123.] 
Tho[mas] Palk to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1771, January 22nd. Fort St. George. Received 12th 
July. — I have not time to write, as the ship Houghton sails 
to-day and I have much to do. " My brother Bob is married, 
of which I imagine he has acquainted you with. My love to 
Mrs. P. and family. Your most dutifull, &c., nephew, 

"Thomas Palk." 

[Holograph, 1 p., Uo.] 

(1) As Master Attendant, i.e., Harbour Master, at Madras. 


[No. 124.] 
Ensign J|ohn] Palk to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1771, February 2nd. Camp near Samulcotah. — " Sir, After 
the great kinesses and civilitys I received from you while in 
London it would be ingrateful in me should I omit any oppor- 
tunity of letting you hear from me. . . We sailed from Spithead 
the 11th of January with a fair wind that earried us elear of 
the Channel and to the Island Madeira in three weeks. We 
stopped there 10 days, during which time I found the place 
very agreable, the English merchants residing there being very 
hospitable people. 

" After having sailed from Madeira we had a pleasant passage 
untill doubling the Cape of Good Hope, where we meet with 
severe weather and were harassed about for some weeks, in 
which time we had the misfortune to loose several topmasts 
and to have our rigging damaged much, so that it was no small 
satisfaction to all on board to double that dangerous promontory. 
We had a very pleasant passage the remaining part of the time 
we stayed on board ship, and arrived at Johanna*^) the 25th 
of May. On our landing we found the island very pleasant and 
agreable. Having stopped there five days, we sailed for 
Madrass and landed safe on the 30th of June to the great joy 
of all the passengers. I was much surprised to find the Super- 
visors had not been seen on the Coast nor heard of, and am sorry 
to tell you that they are now given over for lost . . . 

" On my landing I meet with my cousin, who behaved very 
kind and genteel to me. . . The letter you was so kind as to 
give me to Mr. Dupre, after several applications got me changed 
from General Coote's regiment at Poonamallee that was formed 
of this year's recruits, where I was first appointed, into Captain 
Madge's battallion of seapoys at Samulcotah. I am very much 
pleased with the situation, and likewise with my commanding 
officer, who, I find, is worthy of the great character I have heard 
given him in England. 

" I have not seen my brother yet, but expect to see him in a 
few days, as he is coming down from Condapillee in order to 
join these six companies that are encamped near Samulcotah, 
waiting for orders to march against the Totapillee Rajah, who 
refuses to comply with the Company's demands in paying his 
tribute. It is thought we shall have a despirate service of it, 
as we shall be obliged to pursue them over the mountains, 
which are very unhealthy, and where Europeans never were 

" General Coote behaved very kind to me, and I believe 
would have done anything to serve me ; but his power here was 
very little on account of the Governor and Council, who took 
every step in their power to thwart his designs. A story prevails 
here that he is comming out again. I could wish it were true. 

(1) One of the Comoro Islands in the Mozambique Channel. 

No. 124.] 152 

" At present every thing is quiet at the southward. There 
was a Morattoe war expected this season in the Carnatic, but 
I beheve at this time it is all hushed up, I am, Sir, with the 
greatest respect, your much obliged and most humble servant, 

"J. Palk." 

[Holograph, 2\ pp., Mo. Wax seal with Palk arms and crest.] 

[No. 125.] 
Chocapah to the Honourable Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1771, February 5th. Fort St. George. — The Merchants have 
delivered a great part of the goods for the Company's Investment. 
In Bengal there has been good rain and grain is fairly cheap, 
though trade is bad. The news from Manila is that our people 
have sold the " blue goods," but could not dispose of the 
" paintings'^) and chey goods. "(2) At Pondicherry affairs are 
stationary through want of money. 

" Madavarave with his large force came as far as the river 
Kistna. His intention was to distroy Hyder first, then to 
trouble us for money if we don't give him assistance ; but in 
the meantime he had some family disputes, which obliged him 
to return back to his country. . . Hyder is at Mysore, and 
unable to beat off the Marattys that are in his country. . . I 
can do nothing with Jangama Chitty. He is very poor, and 
remains in prison for money due to Mr. Lewen Smith ..." 

" Chocapah." 

[Autograph, 1^ p., flscp.] 

[No. 126.] 
W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to R[obert] Palk, Esqr. 
1771, February 7th. Fort St. George. — " His Excellency 
[i.e. the Nawab] seems rather more reconciled to his old friends. 
This, however, is regarded as a mere temporising scheme till 
he can see what turn affairs will take at home. We are in 
peace, and I think have nothing to fear during 1771. The 
Nabob has promised to pay 10 lacks to his creditors during 
the year . . ." 

" W. M. Goodlad." 
[Holograph, 1 p., Uo.] 

[No. 127.] 
Tho[mas] Palk to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 
1771, February 8th. Fort St. George. — " I continue still 
in Mr. Goodlad's office, the business of which I do with a great 
deal of ease to myself, and I hope with a deal of satisfaction 
to my Secretary. The Carnatic at present remains very quiet, 
but the Morattoes have lately demanded the assistance of our 
arms ; who have been refused . . . The Morattoes are now this 

(1) Paintings, i.e., chintz coloured by hand or stamped with wood blocks. 

(2) Chey, chay, from Tarn, saya, a plant whose root furnishes a fine red dye. 

153 [No. 127. 

side the Kliistna and will very shortly move, 'tis feared, towards 
the Cariuitic. They have earried their conquests a great way 
into the Mysore country, having plundered and destroyed the 
country to the very gates of his capital, and Ilyder remains 
shut up in Seringapatam . . . 

" I make no doubt but ray brother has long since acquainted 
you with his change of life. I have received many very pressing 
invitations to visit them, which I intend to do, and go down 
in one of the September ships. All my country men in the 
military are well, and very fine young fellows. My friend Major 
Fitz-Gerald takes his passage on the Van-Sittart, who was 
always kind to me ..." 

"Tho. Palk." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., Mo.] 

[No. 128.] 

Tho[mas] Pai-k to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1771, February 8th. On board the Vansittart.^—luetter of 
introduction for Major Thomas FitzGerald.'^' 
[Holograph, 2 pp., 4fo.] 

[No. 129.] 
Lieut. Thomas Palk to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1771, February 26th. Camp at Ragapatam. — I was relieved 
at Condapilly in January, and on the 9th February I joined 
Captain Madge at Samulcotah. He took the field against some 
refractory poligars. " On the 20th we left Samalcottah with 
6 companies of seapoys*and 2 guns against the Polygars who had 
occasioned the rupture, and are now advanced 50 miles into 
their country, which is the most romantic I ever saw, being 
covered with high mountains intercepted with pleasant valleys, 
where are fine villages abounding with plenty of grain. The 
Rajah of the country on hearing of our approach fled to his 
strong holds further in among the hills. We have meet with 
no opposition as yet from any of his people ; on the contrary, 
numbers have excepted [sic\ of the company's cowl,*^' and put 
themselves under our protection ... so that in all probability 
the country will be soon settled and the Rajah drove out of it . . . 

" By the last accounts from Bengali it is reported that 
iiostilities are commenced between Surajah Dowla'^' and the 
Company . . . General Coote left India last November very 
much dissatisfied with the reception he meet with from the 
President and Council at Madrass . . . 

" My brother was appointed to this battalion in November 
last and joyned Captain Madge at Samalcotah soon after, who 
has behaved excessive kind to him. He has made him a present 

(1) Vide No. 144. p. 156. 

(2' Coiol. Vide No. 14, p. 18, note 10. 

(3) Shuja-iid-daula, Nawab Vizier of Oudh. 

No. 129.] 154 

of a horse and shewed him many other civiUties ... I have 
been honoured with but one letter from you since your return 
to England. I seldom miss an opportunity of writing you, 
and should think myself highly honoured were I to hear oftner 
in return ..." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., Uo.] " Thomas Palk.' 


[No. 130.] 

Robert Palk to Messrs. Stone and Goodlad, Secretaries at 
Fort St. George. 

1771, March 14th. London. — " Gentlemen, I beg leave to 
recommend to you Mr. Willet, Secretary to Sir Robert Harland,(i' 
who being quite a stranger, your notice and assistance will be 
of much use to him. I cannot think or write much on other 
matters in this state of great uncertaintv of the Aurora's safety." 

" RoBT. Palk." 

[Holograph, 1 p., Mo. Wax seal, device defaced.] 

[No. 131.] 
Chocapah to the Honorable Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1771, March 23rd. Fort St. George. — There are reports 
from England via Basra that war is about to break out in 
Europe. Our Manila ship has arrived, bringing upwards of 
200,000 dollars. Half as much again was sent to China on 
Madras account. 

" The Nabob made a grand wedding for his elder son,'^' and 
is going to make another wedding to his second son.*^' The 
wedding was very expencive and with, the greatest pomp and 
magnificence. We think we shall have no trouble at all with 
the Marrattys this year ; and there are now some disputes 
arrising between the Nabob and the Kingof Tonjore, but I hope 
this will be made up in an amicable manner." 

The Merchants have fulfilled the Investment contract. Most 
of the goods have been delivered into the Company's warehouse, 
and the balance is ready for sorting. 

[Autograph, 1 p., flscp.] " Chocapah." 

[No. 132.] 
Custoory and Casavah to Robert Palk, Esqr. 
1771, March 25th. Fort St. George. — Our family has sus- 
tained a great loss by the death of " our poor Rama Kisna " <*' 
on the 9th February. Our chief anxiety is to preserve his 
Charity Choultry, and we beg you to write to Mr. Hastings 
about it. 

[1^ p., Uo.] " Custoory and Casavah. 


(1) Admiral Sir Robert Harland, Bt., succeeded Sir John Lindsay, arriving at 
Madras in September, 1771. 

(2) Umdat-ul-Umara. 

(3) Amir-ul-Umara. 

(4) Cf. No. 77, p. 104. 


[No. 133.] 
W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to I Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1771, March 2Gth. Fort St. George. — I have received your 
letter of the 16th June,<^> and rejoice that Mr. Boiirchier's 
reception was friendly. Your remarks about Calland are just : 
he will probably return here this year. 

" His Excellency has promised to pay ten lacks of his debt 
in the course of the year, and the whole in fourteen months 
should peace continue . . When you express your surprise 
that the Governor and Council ever gave their sanction to the 
Assignment, I know not what to make of you, for the Assignment 
was actually made during your government. It bears date the 
1st January, 1767, and the letter from the Nabob promising 
such Assignment was received in the month preceding, so that 
you were consenting. This circumstance, I imagine, must have 
escaped your memory." 

I have written to Mr. Purling as you suggested, and hope he 
may get my brother Richard to Bengal this year. 

" Although your last letter is silent on the subject of the 
person*-) concerning whom you wrote to Moodu Kistnah and 
me . . , I have lately had an interview with him. The terms 
are settled agreeable to your recommendation, and by the next 
ship I shall write you the particulars. I have not yet drawn 
on Mr. Morse on this account. Every thing has been managed 
as you could wish, and nothing will transpire. 

" By great good management we still continue in peace, but 
we are surrounded with embarassments, and you cannot 
conceive a Government more harassed and perplexed. But 
for unanimity amongst ourselves every thing would be in the 
utmost confusion. In this respect we are happy, and have 
men of ability at the head of affairs. The Marattas and Hyder 
still continue hard at it, and though the latter has lately suffered 
a considerable defeat, he is not rendered incapable of prolonging 
the war and giving them infinite trouble. This may probably 
prevent their molesting us for some time, though we are not 
without our apprehensions, for the late conduct of Tanjour 
indicates a promise of support from some quarter, and we know 
not whence it can come but from them. He has lately marched 
a very large force against the Marawar,'^' and even laid siege 
to the capital (Ramanadaporum). A compromise then ensued, 
and he has returned to Tanjour. Though necessity obliged 
us to look on upon this occasion, we were by no means silent, 
and it is said that the Rajah's return was owing to our letters ; 
but this will never serene him. The Treaty of 1762 with Tanjour 
obliges us to support the cause of the Nabob. Marawar is 
his tributary, and an attack might as well have been made upon 

(1) Vide No. 98, p. 129. 

(2) Royala Punt or Rajah Pundit. Cf. No. 70, p. 97, and No. 78, />. 108. 
'^) The Marawar. Vide No. 19, ji. 26, note 2. 

No. 133.] 156 

the Carnatic. Preparations have accordingly been made for 
calhng him to account. Joe Smith* i) is gone for Trichenopoly, 
and unless his Rajahship makes very humble submissions, blows 
must ensue. But this is a most critical business. Circumstances 
are not wanting to render it dangerous at any rate. If we 
commence hostilities, we lay open to the Marattas ; Fazul Beg 
Cawn'-) threatens the Circars, and advices from Bussera give 
us reason to expect a national war. If we continue quiet, the 
Nabob's Government is calmly suffered to be invaded ; we are 
wanting in attention to the Treaty of Paris, which ensures the 
jjeace of the Carnatic ; and the natural conclusion is that, were 
the Carnatic itself attacked, we should be equally passive. 
These are ministerial speeches from the mouth of our Minister 
Plenipotentiary. He has lately wrote a letter accusing us of 
this latter conduct. The answer is : — ' We account to our 
superiors for what we do ' ; and my gentleman is left just as 
wise as he was before. The N[abob]'s conduct has latterly 
born more the appearance of confidence in us than it has before 
since Sir John's arrival, but it is evident to me that he is merely 
temporising. Matters cannot much longer continue in this 
state. The orders from home must be decisive one way or the 
other. Our authority and influence must be restored, or we 
must be reduced as formerly to mere providers of long cloth 

" In Bengal matters look threatening. A brigade is watching 
the Marattas : Cossim'^* has collected a rabble of Pitans and 
Rohillas with some disciplined seapoys under a soldier of 
fortune, and is now to the northward of Delli, prepared to 
join the Morattas should they invade the provinces. The 
generality of people suspect that war must shortly ensue. 

" From this sketch (run off in an hurry) you will be able to 
form some judgment of the present posture of affairs — Nabob, 
Plenipo, Tan jour, Marattas, Fazul Beg Cawn, Bengal — the letters 
from the Court totally unconfidential, and the Council left 
entirely without orders to guide them. Can you call to your 
recollection circumstances half so intricate ? Our friend 
Bourchier would have sunk under the weight of them. Du 
Pre, though indefatigable, is almost harassed to death ; Hastings 
knows not which way to turn himself, and the Secretaries (for 
I am employed in all departments) have not a moment that they 
dare call their own. Glorious times ! Happy circumstances ! . . ." 


" P.S. 12 at night. — I have with much concern received 
intelligence just now that Lieut. Thomas Palk died at Ellore 
the 20th instant ..." 

[Holograph, 7 ])p., 4>to.] 

(1) General Joseph Smith. 

(2) Fazil Beg Kliau, tlie Nizam's hakhshi. 

(3) Kasim Ali Khan. Vide Xo. 92, p. 122, note 2. 


[No. 134.] 
Rob[er]t Palk to [William Martin Goodlad]. 

1771, April 2nd. London. — " My dear Billy, "I have received 
your letter of the 12th and 1.3tli Oetobcr.*^) " I suppose we 
shall hear more of the contents of thcni when Coote arrives : 
hitherto he has not been heard of. The Court of Directors 
judged they had given him the same powers with General 
Lawrence ; but as there is hardly amongst the Directors any 
who consider these matters attentively or endeavor to make 
themselves masters of the Company's affairs, such jarring orders 
and resolutions must always be the consequence. I was 
amazed when I heard they had appointed Coote to sit as one 
of the Commissioners. I took an opportunity to remonstrate 
against the measure, and I thought they had altered it . . . 
They are now, I hear, sending up a remonstrance to the King 
against his intermeddling, and I suppose the commanding 
officer will be told not to interfere, because the natural con- 
sequence must be the destruction of the Company's authority. 
They talk, I hear, of sending out more Commissioners, but I 
know not where they are to look for them." 

I told you of the intention to send out a Mr. Stewart as*^) 
Secretary. This I was able to prevent, and I said much in 
your favour. Hastings has been proposed for Bengal, and I 
supported him, but Mr. Rumbold's'-^* interest appears to 

" The loss of the Aurora , for I now give her entirely up, is a 
most severe stroke indeed to all this family. Henry VanSittart 
goes a Writer to Bengal in the Colehrooke. I hope you correspond 
fully with Mr. Purling, who, I find, is to be the next Chairman. 
For once there is to be no contest at the next election. Sulivan 
comes in singly with the consent of all parties. I should have 
thought, after all that is passed and in such times as these, 
he had better have relinquished so troublesome and, to him, 
so very unprofitable an employ. However, it is to him the 
summum bonum . . ." 

Robt- Palk. 


[Holograph, 3| pp., Uo.] 

[No. 135.] 
Colonel Gilbert Ironside'^' to Robert Palk, Esqr. 
1771, April 7th. Fort William.—" Sir, I cannot let the 
earliest occasion escape of rendering my sincerest acknowledge- 
ments for your polite and friendly offers to Mrs. Ironside, whose 
happiness, of every thing on this side heaven, lies nearest my 

(1) Vide No. 118, p. 145. 

(2) John Stewart. Vide No. 256, p. 252, note 3. 

'3) Thomas Rumbold, afterwards Governor of Madras. Fide No. 320^ p. 315, 
note 4. 

(4) Gilljert Ironside. Vide No. 94, p. 124, note 2. 

No. 135.1 158 

" My request to Mr. Van Sittart to furnish her with money 
was made at a time when I had no opportunity to make the 
remittances I wished. I have since found means to get home a 
few thousand pounds ; but still, should any unexpected and 
pressing necessity require a sudden supply, your favouring her 
with it will confer an essential obligation on me. 

" That we shall ever see the Supervisors I now totally 
despond ; but that some tidings of their unhappy fate may 
still reach us is not, I think, altogether improbable. It has 
been long believed and currently reported that an outward 
bound French Indiaman descried the wreck of a vessel off 
Madagascar, which conjecture led to surmise might be of the 
Aurora : and on that presumption that some frigates were 
ordered from Bombay to cruise round that island for further 
discoverys . . . 

" About the 14th of Februar}^ arrived the Dolphin, a King's 
frigate, at Madras. Captain Dent brought with him, we hear, 
two red ribbands for General Coote and Sir John Lindsay, with 
powers and instructions to the Nawab of Arcot to invest them 
with the Order of the Bath. Also credentials to the Commodore 
to act as his Majesty's Plenipotentiary to all the European 
Powers in India. General Coote returned home the latter end 
of last year by way of Bussorah . . . 

" George, who is a sad idle fellow in every thing but down- 
right plodding business," asks me to obtain for you the second 
volume of the Code of IMuhammadan Law. It may be among 
some oriental manuscripts with Mrs. Ironside, who will submit 
them to you. Meanwhile I will try to procure the volume in 

" Both George and Palk are at Patna I believe. . . My latest 
letters from thence pronounce them all well, and the ladies, as 
all ladies should be, in a promising way. Permit me to request 
you will make my best wishes acceptable to IMrs. Palk and my 
old commander General Caillaud, whom I very affectionately 
remember ..." 

" Gilbert Ironside." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., 4io.] 

[No. 136.] 

[Copy of a] Par[agrap]h of a G[enera]l L[ette]r [Endorsed] 

"No. 4." 

1771, April 10th. — " Observing that you have appointed Mr. 
Palk one of the Board of Revenue at Patna, we cannot but 
express our astonishment that you should have gi^-en a post of 
that consequence to a person who had behaved so unbecomingly 
in the affair of the overcharge and abuses committed at the 
cantonments of Burampore, and who, since his being pardoned 
for that offence, had not given you proof sufficient of his integrity 
to justify you in making such an appointment. We therefore 

159 [No. 136. 

direct that he be recalled from that station upon receipt hereof, 
and employed in his proper rank in onr service at Calcutta." 
[1 p., 4 to. This cop}/ niai/ perhaps have formed an enclosure 
to No. 220.] 

[No. 137.] 
[Robert Palk] to his Excellency the Nawab Walajah. 

1771, April 17th. — I have received your letter of the 12th 
October. (^> I grieve for the loss of Mr. Vansittart on your 
account as well as my own, for he contemplated the promotion 
of your interest together with that of the Company. 

" I have often repented not staying longer in India. On 
many accounts it was necessary, but you know that, seeing my 
services were not so well received here as I thought they deserved, 
I determined to make room for Mr. Bourchier, whom I wished 
to be more fortunate ; but surely no man could take more pains 
than myself, or was ever better inclined to labor day and night 
to do my duty both to the Companj^ and yourself. I watched 
over their expences and yours with the most scrupulous and 
unceasing attention, and how far I succeeded must be left to 
the Company and yourself to judge. 

" A squadron of good ships is now sent to India, commanded 
by Sir Robert Harland, a gentleman of great experience, and 
who, I hope, will be able to co-operate in the most effectual 
preservation of the peace in India. A regiment is also appointed 
here to raise the best soldiers to be sent out as recruits : all 
which will shew that neither his Majesty nor the Company are 
neglectful of proper measures. I only wish that harmony 
as well as great abilities may be established in the right use of 

" By the eldest son of Mr. Vansittart, who is obliged to seek 
his fortunes abroad, I send this letter, and also a new Persian 
grammar for your acceptance. A new dictionary by the same 
author is soon to be published, and shall also be sent to you. 
General Lawrence and Mrs. P[alk] add their good wishes to 
mine for the continuance of your health and the prosperity of 
the whole family." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., 4 to. Unsigfied draft in PaWs hand.] 

[No. 138.] 

Henry Vansittart, jun. to Robert Palk, Esqr., at Edmund 
Boehm's, Esqr., Size Lane, liondon. 

1771, May 22nd. Madeira. — " Dear Sir, Deferring all other 
intelligence for a further opportunity, I send you the account 
only of my health and arrival here last Sundaj^ the 19th, by 
a King's packet, which goes by the way of the West Indies. 
As the other conveyance will most probably be the earliest, I 

(1) Vide No. 113, ;;. Ml. 

No. 138.] 160 

shall by that forward a more enlarged account of what has 


" Belive me your dutiful nephew, Henry Vansittart." 

" P.S. — The Packet sails in a few hours." 

[Holograph, 1 ii., Uo. Wax seal with the Vansittart arms.] 

[No. 139.] 

Captain T[homas] Madge to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

[Endorsed in Palk's hand] " Account of the Death of Thomas 
and John Palk." 

1771, June 15th. Ellore.—" Dear Sir, My last letter con- 
cluded with some accounts of your two cousins, which did 
honor to their family as well as themselves. It was, however, 
the last opportunity allowed me to speak of them with satis- 
faction unalloyed with regret, for very shortly after the despatch 
of the letter dated from the unwholsome hills which terminate 
our possessions in the Circars, a pestilential disorder broke out 
amongst the detachment under my command, which in less 
than the space of three weeks destroyed two thirds of the 
Europeans that composed it, and has rendered the condition 
of those that have survived it little deserving the estimation 
of existence from the havoc it has made in our constitutions, 
many of which are irrecoverably ruined ! 

" The end of the expedition into those fatal hills having been 
accomplished by the successfull effort to surprise the Pollygar 
by Lieut. Palk, we retired from them the fourth day after his 
again joining the main bod}^ of the detachment, congratulating 
ourselves on having escaped the disorder so generally experienced 
in those hills by all strangers who reside any time amongst them. 
But we had not made one day's march into the open country 
till it began to shew it had got footing amongst us. Your two 
cousins and myself were the first officers it affected, and as 
they appeared to be more so than me, I sent them down to 
Rajamundry recommended to Mr. Wynch, w^ho at that time 
resided there on account of settling the revenues of the Circars, 
and had a surgeon to attend him. The business of the service 
would not admit of my availing myself of the assistance of a 
surgeon, and obliged me to remain so long in the field that when 
I got to Rajamundry my condition was pronounced too 
dangerous by the doctor to admit of my proceeding any further. 
Your two cousins had almost recovered their health under his 
management, and were at last thought so far out of danger 
as to run no risk from proceeding to Ellorc, whither they were 
in consequence sent with some other officers and soldiers under 
charge of a surgeon. They arrived at Ellore the 18th of March 
last in a very promising way for recovery ; but the day after 
their arrival the disorder took an unfavorable turn, and in 
spite of every possible assistance carried off the eldest almost 
suddenly : the youngest survived his brother but four days 

161 [No. 139. 

only. Tlic disorder had gained so mnch gromid on me from 
neglcctino- it tliat it was thought impossible for me to survive 
it many days after my comiug- to this place, diu'ing which 
time the fate of my two young i'riends was kept a secret from 
me. They had, however, all the attendance possible from the 
surgeons, who ne\'er left them for a moment whilst they could 
be of service to them, but the disorder soon rose superior to 
medicine and ballled all their skill. After three relapses I have 
at last some hopes that I have entirely got the better of the 
disorder, but ImAC suffered so much from its malignant effects 
in my constitution that I fear I shall never again recover my 
former state of health. Out of twenty Europeans two only 
escaped the disorder, and eight only that were infected by it 
survived it ! 

" The concern this unfortunate event must give their mother 
and every individual of their family may be partly conceived 
from the universal regret it has occasioned amongst your cousins' 
slightest acquaintance in India. The gentle manners of the 
eldest had so much endeared him to me that I cannot refrain 
from tears whenever I reflect on his untimely fate. I shall 
endeavor to pay the most essential tribute to their memory 
and your friendship in my power on the occasion by taking 
care of their estate, which when collected together will, I hope, 
amount to nearly 2,000 pags., a sum few subalterns can boast 
of having honestly acquired in so short a time as the eldest 
was in the service, and I think does as much honor to his 
prudence as it will afford satisfaction to his friends . . . 

" I have desired your nephew at Madrass to administer to 
their estate, as there is no will ; to whom I shall remit the 
amount of it as I receive it. And I hope you will have no 
objection to the money's being paid to your attornies in India, 
nor to your remitting it to their mother in Cornwall as soon as 
they advise you of its having been received by them in India." 

I see no prospect of early promotion, owing partly to super- 
sessions from England and partly to our being saddled with 
the newly created corps of engineers, who will probably claim 
a share of " off-reckonings." My best respects to Mrs. Palk 
and General Lawrence. 

"T. Madge." 

[Holograph, 6 pp.. Mo.] 

[No. 140.] 

W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to [Robert Palk, Esq.]. 

1771, July 21st, Fort St. George. "My dear Friend, . . . 
Your apprehensions for the Aurora . . . are but too justly 
founded, for it is beyond a doubt that she must have been 
lost. Circumstances give reason to think that she struck on 
a reef of rocks off the N.E. end of Madagascar, but we have no 
certain accounts . . , 


No. 140.] 162 

" All disputes with the Nabob's creditors have been for some 
months at an end. The President and Council discharged their 
duty amply. They insisted on the preference, and obtained 
the payment of all they were authorised to demand and insist 
on ; for false representations had so much weight with the 
Court that the Nabob had consented to the payment of | of the 
charges of the Mysore war. Their orders did not authorise 
demanding it. The Nabob, who has intelligence from home 
of all that passes, had learnt their sentiments, and refused to 
make good his agreement. He defrayed the current charges, 
and then stopped. The Council had no further demand on 
him, and upon his proposing to pay 10 lacks to his creditors 
they readily consented . . . 

" Private advices tell us that the sentence of Wood's court- 
martial is approved, and that he is restored. Had he been 
restored without approval of the sentence, we should all have 
acquiesced with pleasure ; but . . . reversing an Act of Govern- 
ment is a humiliation to that Government : it weakens its 
faculties and impairs its honor. . . . But perhaps it is intended 
that the faculties of Government should be weakened. In that 
case . . . where will be the authority over the military in 
future? ..." 

When I last wrote the Tan j ore situation was precarious, as 
the Rajah had palpably violated the treaty of 1762. " We were 
pressed on every side to call him to account, and urged to 
measures which must have involved us in endless difficulties. 
An immediate attack upon Tan j ore was repeatedly urged by 
the Nabob and the Ambassador ; but the consequences were 
too apparent for such a scheme to be rashly entered into, and it 
was evident that the plan from first to last was intended pur- 
posely to oblige us to assist the Marattas against Hyder — the 
favourite system of the Nabob and the adopted plan of his 
champion (the Ambassador). . . . The Council therefore 
refused compliance, but promised to call Tanjore to account 
when circumstances would admit. Everything necessary for 
such an expedition has accordingly been prepared at Tricheno- 
poly, and our readiness declared : but mark the end. The 
stimulators and advisers of the measure, seeing that we will 
not be forced into their plan, draw in their horns, and when 
the Nabob is told we are ready to undertake the expedition, his 
apprehensions of the Marattas are declared, and he cannot 
venture on such an enterprise at the risk of an invasion. . . . 
Thus we stand at present : we have avoided the junction 
with the Marattas, we have not assisted Hyder, and we continue 
in peace. But Tanjore must finally be called to account. . . . 
The two Marrawars and Tondeman^' have felt the effects of his 
arms, and unless he be checked, what may not be the consequence 
in the end ? " 

I am pleased at Sulivan's return to the Directorate and at 

(1) Vide No. 19, p. 26, notes 1, 2 and 4. 

163 [No. 140. 

Boiirchier's good reception. I should be mortified if I were 
nio\cd from my post as Secretary, which I would not excliange 
for anything short of a seat in Council. I have offered to 
become a regular correspondent of Mr. Purling. The Ponshorne^s 
stay was so brief that Mr. Ley could not land, so I recommended 
him to my brother Anthony in Bengal. The death of Lieut. 
Palk and his brother is deeply regretted by me. Your nephew 
Tom has been on a trip with the General'^' to Trichinopoly. 

" You will see by your account current what has been done 
in the affair you recommended to me to settle. I can only say 
at present that nothing, not one syllable, has transpired, and 
I have acquitals of the most ample nature should anything of 
the matter be talked of hereafter, . . ." 

[Holograph, 12 pp., Uo.] " W. M. Goodlad." 

[No. 141.] 

Henry Vansittart, jun., to Robert Palk, Esq. 

1771, October 3rd, Capeof Good Hope. "Dear Sir, — After our 
departure from Madeira the 5th of June we have chiefly met 
with either contrary winds or calms after the latitude of 
8 South. We saw the Canary and Cape de Verd Islands, 
and crossed the Line the middle of July. About a month 
afterwards we saw the coast of Brazil at Rio des Ilhos, a 
little below the Bay de Todos Santos. We spoke with the 
Britannia the 1st of September, who left England the 23rd 
of June. We arrived in False Bay the 22nd of September, 
which is about 20 miles distant overland from the Cape 
Town. The old Governor died a few weeks ago, and a 
deputy is appointed till advices are received from Holland. 
The Lord Holland sailed from hence the 12th, and the Hampshire 
the 24th. The Britannia goes to-morrow, and the Colebrooke 
the next day if possible. A French ship bound to Mauritias 
came in the 25th and sailed yesterday. Sir Robert Fletcher^^) 
and Captain Parker'^) proceed from hence in the Britannia to 

(1' General Joseph Smith. 

(2) Robert Fletcher was engaged locally as a monthly Writer in Madras in May, 
1757, but was shortly afterwards commissioned as Ensign. In 1700 he was 
dismissed for insubordination, but was reinstated at the instance of Eyre Coote. 
Captain Fletcher served as Brigade Major in the Manila expedition of 1702, and 
in the following year was transferred to Bengal as Major. In 1706 Lieut.-Colonel 
Sir Robert Fletcher, who was then commanding one of the three brigades of the 
Army, supported the junior officers who combined to protest against the withdrawal 
of Mir Jafar's special grant of batta. He was tried by court-martial and cashiered. 
Returning to England, he obtained reinstatement on the recommendation of 
Lawrence and Caillaud, and he was posted to Madras as Colonel. Succeeding 
General Joseph Smith in the conmiand of Army in 1772, he proved so obstructive 
in Council that he was ordered to Trichinopoly by Du Pre's Government. He 
claimed to resume his seat in Parliament and returned to England. In 1775 Sir 
Robert Fletcher again arrived in Madras as Brigadier General, took command of 
the Army, and supported the Majority of Council against Lord Pigot, in whose 
deposition he assisted. In 1776 he sailed for the Cape on sick leave, and died on 
the way at Mauritius. 

(3) Probably Captain J. N. Parker, who as Lieut.-Colonel won tlie battle of 
Bomorey in June, 1776. ' 

No. in.] 164 

Aiijango, and Trom thence overland to Madrass for the sake of 
expedition. I lodge with Captain Morris at Mr. La Febre's, 
but proceed to-morrow to False Bay. I have been used very 
civilly by the captain and the rest of the passengers. iNIr. 
Johnson presents his compliments to you. Pray give my love 
fo ^Irs. P;ilk, and remember me to Nancy and Lawrence. I am 
your (lutiful nephew, 

" Henry Vansittart." 

\Ho}o!lraph, 1 p.. flscj).] 

[No. 142.] 
W[illiam] MfARTTN] GooDLAD to RoBERT Palk, Esqr. 

1771, October 4th, Fort St. George. I have not heard from you 
for some time, and am impatient for a reply to my letter of 
the 13th October, 1770<i) by the Lapwing, as I think the fate 
of the Company will depend on the turn of affairs at home 
after the receipt of the advices by that ship. 

By the Duke of Portland, which sailed in July last, I gave 
you a history of the Tanjore affair.'-' " We were then prepared 
to call the Rajah to account, and waited only for the concur- 
rence of the Nabob to set an expedition on foot. From his 
behavior at that time I confess that T little expected he would 
have been brought to act at all, for, baulked in his darling plan 
of an immediate attack in hopes of introducing the Marattas 
and thereby obliging us to join them against Hyder, he seemed 
resolved to pass over the Rajah's conduct rather than call him 
to account at a time which, however it might promise success, 
clashed with his favourite project. But matters had gone too 
far for him to recede, and it was evident to himself as well as 
his champion that they could not justify inaction. . . . After 
many objections on his part and repeated urging on ours he 
at length resolved to commence a negotiation, and we promised 
to support his demands by a force sufficient to reduce the capital, 
even should those demands be refused. . . . He would not 
stir one step till we totally relinquished every idea of becoming 
mediators in consequence of the guarantee of 1762, and he 
refused to act unless the negotiation were left wholely and 
solely to himself. . . . Upon this footing, therefore, was 
the expedition undertaken. The eldest son proceeded with 
full powers to negociate or proceed to hostilities as occasion 
might require : the second son set forward charged with supplying 
the army with provisions ; and the English army, the finest 
I believe that the Company ever had in the field, proceeded as 
mere auxiliaries, to act hostile or otherwise as the eldest should 
think eligible. How I feel when I reflect on the situation we 
are reduced to ! 

" The last convoy and the last detachment . . . reached 
the banks of the Coleroon about the 24th August, but a most 

H) Vide No, H8, p. 145. <2) Vide No. 140^. p. 162, 

165 [No. 142. 

untimely swelling of the river prevented tiieir crossing for many 
days, and it was not till the 12th September that the whole 
force proceeded from Trichenopoly. Demands on the Rajah 
had been made and refused previous to their marching from 
thence. Hostilities were consequently commenced, and the 
army proceeded with very little interruption to \^ellam (about 
6 miles N.W. from Tanjore), where they arrived on the 16th. 
The place refused to surrender, and it cost four or five days to 
reduce it, but the acquisition was great indeed, for (Vellour 
excepted) there is not so strong a fort in the Carnatic. . . . 
Our army reached Tanjour the 23rd in the morning, and it is 
expected that batteries must have been opened about the 3rd 
instant. In that case our accounts give us reason to think 
it cannot hold out above a fortnight more. . . . Should 
Tanjore fall, and fall I think it must, how glorious a stroke for 
the Company, how fatal a blow to the French ! Could there be 
so dangerous an enemy as one in the heart of the Carnatic ? 
Could there be so noble an ally for the French ? . . ." 

Notwithstanding his late defeat, Hyder still keeps the 
Marathas at bay, so we have little to fear from the latter at 
present. The Circars are peaceful and the Nizam quiet. We 
are providing great part of the Investment from the Circars. 
Sir John Lindsay's recall has, I hope, put an end to disputes 
with the Ambassador. Sir Robert Harland possesses the same 
powers, but desires harmony. 

" I know not what to say to you on the subject of affairs 
in Bengal. . . . The King resolved many months ago to 
throw himself into the hands of the Marattas upon their offer 
to seat him on the throne of Delli. He set forward accordingly, 
but the rains and the uncertainty of the real intentions of the 
Marattas detained him on the frontiers of the Corah<^) Province 
till very lately. He is now again set forward, the Marattas 
having delivered over the city and fort of Delli to his officers. 
You will allow that it is hard to judge what may be the event, 
but troubles I think must ensue should the Marattas assume his 
name, and make that a cloak for their depredations. . . . 

" 10th October. Since writing the former part of this letter 
we have news from Tanjore. The enemy made a most vigorous 
sally on the 1st instant upon the covering party, but were 
repulsed with great loss after continuing the attack from | past 
10 in the morning till 3 in the afternoon. Our battery opened 
on the 2nd, and by the 3rd at night the fire from the fort was 
nuich reduced. Every thing promises fair . . . but they 
will never lose the fort but by storm, and the issue of such an 
event is always uncertain. . . ." 

I do not feel satisfied with my own position, though I would 
not change it for any other outside the Council. Still, I have 
had over nine years' service, and see little prospect of reaching 
Council in nine more. " Must I be contented to drudge on 

(1) Corah (Kora) a district of Oudh. Cf. No. 227, p. 231, uoto i. 

No. 142.] 166 

in the plain line of preferment ? I know your answer will be, 
' Patience and perseverance, Billy ' ; but can you tell me no 
method that will push me forward ? I have opened a corres- 
pondence with Purling : he is certainly my friend. Shall I 
write to Sulivan ? ... In good truth this fagging and 
fagging and still fagging on with a prospect almost as distant 
as the steeple of St. Paul's is not the thing. ..." 

14th October. Our latest news of Tanjore is favourable. 


[Holograph, 10 pp.,flscp.] 

[No. 143.] 

W[iLLiAM M[artin] Goodlad to RoBERT Palk, Esqr., 

Spring Gardens, London. 

1771, November 2nd, Fort St. George. I have only time to say 
that " the Nabob has concluded peace with Tanjore. It 
happened on the 27th ultimo. In a few days I will write you 
further. This goes by way of Bengal. . . ." 

" W. M. Goodlad." 

[Holograph, 1 p., Mo.] 

[No. 144.] . 

Major Tho[ma]s FitzGerald*^) to Robert Palk, Esqr., 

Bruton Street, London. 

1771, November 5th, Angelville. I received your friendly letter 
with much pleasure, and wish I could have met you in London 
to communicate some messages from your nephew Tom. I feel 
sure that Tom was better fitted for the army than the civil 
service. You are more competent to judge, but I assure you he 
is deserving of promotion. Captain Oats*^' begged me to thank 
you for all your kindness to him. He is a first-class officer. 

"Thos. FitzGerald." 

" P.S. — I must beg of you to tender my best wishes and 
compliments to Mrs. Palk, the good General and all your family. 
My being travelling some hundred miles in this kingdom to 
make a purchase, which I have at last effected if the title deeds 
are made clear to me, hindered me of replying sooner to your 
friendly favor. If ever I should be honored with a line from 
you, please to direct to me at Mr. Finlan's, Merchant, Breda 
Street, Dublin." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., Mo. Wax seal hearing arms and crest.^ 

(1) Captain Thomas FitzGerald took part in 1764 in the second siege of Madura, 
and in tlio following year defeated the rebellious Raja of Ongole. As Major he 
served with distinction during the first Mysore war, was present at the battle of 
Trinomalai in 1767, and in 1768 extricated Colonel Wood from a critical position 
ncMr Hosur. His report led to Wood's recall and trial. Major FitzGerald was tlien 
sent with a detached force into the Barauiahal in pursuit of Elaidar, whom, 
however, he was unable to overtake. FitzGerald left India early in 1771. 

<2) Captain Thomas Oats married Ann, daughter of Thomas Felling, of Madras. 


[No. 145.] 

Captain J[ames] Rennell*^' to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1771, November 12th, Bengali. I fear my several letters to 
you have miscarried, as I have not received any rei)ly. I 
asked your interest towards getting me placed on the Invalid 
List so that I might enjoy a pension. " I might have saved 
you the trouble, for by the regulations established I find 
myself too rich a man to partake of the provision. I have 
an epithet at my tongue's end which I could with propriety 
have prefixed to it, but which I suppress out of respect to you. 
If the makers of those regulations think that a man can 
subsist genteely on the sum allotted, my only wish is that 
their fortunes may be stinted to it. 

" With respect to my health, I find myself very well during 
the cold season, but the heats and damps of the other season 
are too powerful for the present relaxed state of my nerves. 
I could therefore wish myself at home ; but previous to a step 
of that kind 'tis necessary that I should be provided with means 
to subsist comfortably. Had the Fund been settled agreeable 
to the scheme originally proposed, that is, £200, or £180 a 
year to a Captain, I might at the end of this year have left 
India and have had sufficient for a decent maintenance at 
home ; but now I am left to shift for myself. 

" I have entirely done my business in the field, and all that 
remains to be done to compleat the General Survey of Bengali, 
Bahar, our part of Orixa, and the Provinces of Allahabad and 
Awd will be compleated within these four months. The sea 
coast and rivers also have had a regular survey, and a surveyor 
in a sloop has been all round the Bay of Bengali and described 
the sea coasts and islands. It will now be mv business to 
compile all these surveys, and for that purpose I am now 
setting down seriously for at least 13 months. The general and 
particular surveys are to be drawn in about 45 or 50 large folio 
maps, and will be a very compleat work when finished. Each 
province is to be drawn in a separate map, and most of these 
provinces are as big as the County of Norfolk, and some as big 
as Yorkshire. . . . 

" I have inclosed this to Mr. Barrington,(-> a very particular 
friend of mine and a neighbour of yours. J. Rennell." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., Uo. Endorsed in Palk's hand] " Capt. 
Rennell, 12 Nov., 1771. [Received] 26 July." 

(1) James Rennell, of Chudleigh, Devon, entered the Navy in 1756. After 
seven years' service, three of which were spent on the East India station, Rennell 
was transferred to the Company in 1763, and received command of a ship at the 
age of 21. WhUe engaged in transporting troops and stores for the siege of Madura 
he surveyed the coast down to Palk Strait. In 1764 he was appointed Surveyor 
General by Vansittart, and was commissioned in the Bengal Engineers, becoming 
Captain in 1767 and Major in 1775. His great work, the General Survey of Bengal, 
Bihar and Orwsa, begun in 1764, was completed within twelve years, and Rennell 
retired on a pension in 1777. His Bengal Atla.s was published two years later. 
Other geographical works followed. Rennell was elected P.R.S. in 1781 : he 
died in 1830, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

(2) Fitzwilliam Barrington was a Director from 1759 to 1767. 


[No. 146.] 
W[illiam] Aldersey<^) to Rob[er]t Palk, Esq. 

1771, November 25th, Calcutta. I received your letter of the 
17th December, 1770, by the hand of " Mr. Clevland," but he 
has been so unwell since his arrival that I have not yet seen 
him. " The adventurers to India of late have found them- 
selves woefully disappointed with barren prospects." I will 
do what I can, however, for any who may be recommended 
by you. 

" Poor Mr. Van ! What a loss to the publick, to his own 
family and to society in general ! " Please refer for news to 
my friends Russell'^' and Kelsall,''^' who go by this ship. 
Remember me to Mrs. Palk, General Lawrence, the Bourchier 
family and other Indian friends. 

" W. Aldersey." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., 4to.] 

[No. 147.] 
Henry Vansittart, jun., to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1771, November 29th. — " Honoured Sir, — Being by this 
day's observation in the latitude of 2d. 16m. South, our 
passage has been very favourable from the Cape, which we left 
the 11th of October. We now think we shall arrive at Bengal 
in the beginning of January, but in these seas conjectures are 
seldom found true. The Dutchman that is now in sight has 
desired us to give him our letters. He left Point de Gol 8 days 
ago, so that we shall now taste some Indian fruit. From 
Batavia, to which he is now bound, he will sail directly for 
Europe. I have time to write no more letters at present, but 
should be obliged if you would let Mama and the rest of my 
friends partake in this information. We are 122 Dutch leagues 
from Ceylon. 

" I am your dutiful nephew, 

" Henry Vansittart." 

[Holograph, ^ p., flscp.] 

[No. 148.] 
Mrs. LiETiTiA Ironside to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1771, December 2nd, Chilton Lodge, near Hungcrford, Berks. 

I enclose a letter to you from my husband, which reached me 
last night. I am now staying with General and Mrs. Smith, <*' 
and forward this to your seat in Devonshire. When I hear 
that you are in London I will send you my husband's Persian 

") William Aldersey, V-ide No. 44, p. 09, note 1. 

C-i) Claud Kussell. Vide No. 12, p. 15, note 3. 

(3) Thomas Kclsall. Vide No. 27, p. 45, note 2. 

(•!' General Richard Smith. Vide No. 83, p. 113, note 1. 

169 [No. 148. 

Soon al'ter I reached England I heard that a gentleman in 
India named Leslie^^' was trying to supersede Colonel Ironside. 
Being nnsnccessfnl there, he has eome home to renew his efforts. 
" The Directors say INIr. Leslie was recommended to them as a 
jewel worth their preserving. If those gentlemen will take the 
trouble to enquire Mr. Ironside['s] character of the General 
officers who he has served under, I make no doubt but they will 
find him equally qualified with Mr. Leslie to hold any post in 
their service." I hope you will use your influence in the 

" L^TiTiA Ironside." 

[Holograph, 1| p., Mo.] 

[No. 149.] 
Rob[er]t Palk to [William Martin Goodlad]. 

1771, December 2nd, Haldon House. — " My dear Billy, . . . 
I am glad that you have found out a method of adjusting a 
most impudent and rascally demand. What the man gave he 
gave of his own free will. In my life [I never] asked him or 
any other person for a douceur, and I cannot yet bring myself 
to believe that this is a claim of his own setting up. I should 
think, my friend, some European has done me this injury. 
The sum I am vei'y indifferent about, though I suppose it is the 
first instance of the kind. To you, however, I am much obliged, 
and shall be well satisfy ed with any proper mode you judge 
least dishonorable. . . . 

" I know nothing of the present politics of the India House, 
where all seems confusion and a want of steadiness and 
reflection in the Company's affairs. God grant you a 
continuance of more wisdom than they seem to shew at home. 
My love to all friends, and INIrs. Palk's and the General's. 

" I am ever and most affectionately yours, 

" RoBT. Palk." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., 4fo.] 

[No. 150.] 
Edmund Veale Lane<-' to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1771, December 17th, Bombay. — I have received your letter 
brought by Mr. Facey^^^ on the Dutton, and was glad to be able 
to show that gentleman hospitality and supply him with money. 
He duly received his commission and rank, and lives at present 
at no expense, so " it will be his own fault if he does not do 
well. I hope he will, as he seems to be a very prudent young 
man." I am very grateful for all your past kindness to me. 

" Edmund Veale Lane." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., 4/o.] 

(1) Colonel Matthew Leslie. Vide No. 100, p. 130, note 4. 

(2) Edmund Veale Lane was a Bombay civil servant of 1767. He died in 1780 
at Bombay. 

(3) Ensign George Facey, Bombay Infantry. 


[No. 151.] 
John Crighton to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, January 25th, Canton. — Having instructions from Mr. 
Nicholas Morse to remit to you the sum of Spanish dollars 
6,159hV at 5s. 3d. per dollar, I send a bill of exchange for 
£1,616 18s. 3d. " Jno. Crighton." 

[Autograph, 1 p., Mo.\ 

[No. 152.] 

Henry Vansittart, jun., to Robert Palk, Esqr. at 

Edmund Boehm's, Esqr., Sice Lane, London. 

1772, January 29th, Bengal. — " Dear Sir, I shall leave 
Kedgree in about | an hour, and hope to arrive at Calcutta in 
3 days. The Asia and Speke sail too soon for me to write from 
town. My uncle and Mr. Palk are well at the Durbar. I shall 
be able to add nothing more till the dispatch of the Rochford. . . 

" Your dutiful nephew, Henry Vansittart." 

[Holograph, | p., Uo.] 

[No. 153.] 
Rob[er]t Palk to [William Martin] Goodlad. 

1772, February 2nd, Park Place. — " Dear Goodlad, I thank 
you for your letter of the 21st July,*^' which, considering the 
busy life you lead, is much longer than I had a right to expect. 
It reached me at my house in Devonshire early in a morning, 
and I found afterwards that it was dropped by Colonel 
Campbell,(2> who passed within a mile of me, but was in too 
great a hurry to call upon me. 

" I rejoice that the Nabob's creditors are made easy, and hope 
they are now in a fair way of being paid off. As to the measures 
of the Directors, they are passed finding out, and every day they 
are more and more convincing the world that the direction of 
the Company's affairs by a sett of men who have views of their 
own cannot be managed to advantage. They throw the blame 
on their servants abroad, and accordingly the King in his 
speech has strongly recommended regulations to be made; 
and the situation of affairs at Bengal is soon to be laid before 

" No complaints are made of the management of affairs on 
the Coast, but the Directors have sent Lord Clive and most of 
the Bengal Counsellors a long list of informations against them, 
which have been collected abroad by a Mr. Petre and supported 
by the Johnstones,<^> proving or attempting to prove many 

(1) Vide No. 140, p. 161. 

(2) Prol)al)ly Colonel Charles Campbell. 

(3) John JohiLstoiie, a member of the Bengal Council at Clivc's arrival in 176.5, 
was suspended for accepting gifts. He resigned, and became a bitter opponent of 
the Governor in England. His brother George Johnstone, M.P., likewise attacked 
Clive both in the Court of Proprietors and in Parliament. 

171 [No. 153. 

frauds in the salt duties and revenues to the amount of 5 or 
600,000/. Having never seen these charges, I cannot be more 
particular, but Lord Clive and the gentlemen themselves make 
very light of them, and say the Directors will be found nmch 
more to blame than their servants. It happens, however, at 
an unlucky time, mankind in general being willing to suspect 
that so many great fortunes cannot be fairly acquired. Govern- 
ment, I believe, are far from wishing to take the management 
out of the Company's hands, but they wish to see their affairs 
in a better train. 

" It is now very certain that Choiseul<^' had made preparations 
for beginning a war in India, to which is owing the great force 
collected at the Islands, which Lord North gives us to under- 
stand is to be recalled ; but till that happens we are to have a 
superiority at least in men-of-war, and it is for this reason that 
two ships of force are soon to sail to join Sir Robert Harland, 
which, however, are to return when the marine force at the 
Islands returns. 

" The approval of the sentence of Wood's court martial was 
certainly a severe stroke to Government, and till your letter 
told me so I never conceived any sett of men could have been 
so wanton in their resentments. I seldom see any of them, 
and when I do they are too knowing themselves to want any 
advice, and too secret to be communicative. Nothing, I 
understand, is yet determined about a successor to Mr. Du Pre, 
and it is a misfortune to the service that nobody near him in 
Council is thought proper for the station. Macguire,*^' it 
seems, applyed, and was very properly refused. Mr. Sulivan 
wanted to be a Supervisor, and on that account, I hear, they 
resolve at present to send none for want of being able to find 
fit men. It is not alledged that the Coast wants supervision. 

" I am afraid the calling Tan jour to account, which is become 
so absolutely necessary, will be attended with risk and difficulty. 
I hope Sir Robert Harland will be a better adviser. 

" Having long been acquainted with the good heart of 
Captain Baker,''^' let me bespeak your kindness to him, and 
likewise to the two Kennaways*'^' during their short stay with 

tl) The Due de Choiseul, French Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

(2) William McGwire of the Bengal civil service, who was dismissed by the 
Directors in 1701, when he was Chief at Patna. 

l3) George Baker, of Tor Mohun (now called Torre, near Torquay) a seafaring 
man, made his first voyage to India in 1743. In 1747 he was with Boscawen at 
Pondicherry, and ten years later, as master of the Cuddalore, did good service during 
the siege of Fort St. George. In 17(52, wlien commanding the London, he was 
appointed first Master Attendant of the port of Madras. On resigning this post 
he went to England, and in 1771, when residing at Kenton near Haldon, made a 
contract with the Directors to deUver water to the Madras Fort and shipping from 
a source north of Black Town, himself receiving fees for 21 years. lie returned to 
India in 1772 and duly executed the work. Baker died at Madras on the 4th July, 
1799. A monument to his memory was erected in Torre Church by his nephew 
William Baker. 

(^) John and Richard Kennaway, who were arriving to join the Bengal army and 
civil service respectively, were sons of William Kennaway, of Exeter, a friend of 
Robert Palk. 

No. 153.] 172 

you. I am satisfyed that you have balanced the account, 
though I was much more in debt than I expected. May every 
blessing attend you ! 

" I am, my dear friend, most affectionately yours, 

" RoBT- Palk." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., Mo.] 

[No. 154.] 
ANT[noN]Y GooDLAD to RoBERT Palk, Esqr. 

1772, February 20th, Fort William. — Expresses anxiety at 
not receiving any reply, excepting a brief note of 1768, to his 
many letters. Feels much gratitude for past favours. 

[Holograph, 2h pp., Mo.] 

[No. 155.] 
Jos[iAs] Du Pre to [Robert] Palk, Esqr. 

1772, February 25th, Fort St. George.—" Dear Sir, Receive 
my acknowledgements for your favours of the 6th August and 
2nd December, 1770. I have had as good a constitution as 
most men : it has been put to the tryal, and if it bears me through 
this year 'tis as nmch as it can. There is no end to embarass- 
ment. Our good friend Wallau Jau is daily carving out fresh 
matter. We have had a short war with Tan j ore, terminated by 
a peace, I know not why. After the Nabob had irritated the 
Rajah into unjustifiable acts 'twas necessary to call him to an 
account, and if we had the power of doing justice, it might have 
been done without firing a gun. As we had not, and consequent- 
ly the Rajah could not rely on us, 'twas necessary to put it 
out of his power to be dangerous, and, a war once begun, it 
seemed best to get as much power by it as we could : arrange- 
ments might afterwards have been made as should seem best. 
We were obliged — for a thousand reasons which a volume 
would not suffice to explain — to give the lead to the Nabob. 
Oh, what a falling off from the days of yore ! The Nabob 
blames the General, and the General the Nabob, A peace was 
made just when the breach was practicable. I will not take 
upon me to say whether 'tis better so, or worse than if the place 
had been taken, for that must depend on the ideas and measures 
at home. I know this, that either the Rajah must be so sup- 
ported in his government as that he may have a confidence in 
the Company, or he must be reduced. To leave him in continual 
fear of the Nabob will ensure his enmity whenever it may be 
dangerous to us and when we shall most need his friendship. 

" We have been under great apprehensions of a Maratta 
invasion — at least the Nabob made us believe we were in great 
danger, from which I believe that he will be able to relieve us, 
finding that all his arts and efforts could not drag us into an 

173 [No. 155. 

offensive alliance with them, seconded by the threats of the 
mighty Plcnipos. I begin now to hope that we may enjoy 
peace at least for this year. 

" I have been hap])y in the assistance and support of Mr. 
Hastings. He has left us to take upon him the charge of affairs 
in Bengal. I am afraid he will find diHiculties enough if he 
attempts, as he intends, a reform. He has had a good seasoning 
here, and is enured to difliculty and contest. I heartily wish 
him success, for he is a good and a valuable man. 

'' Mrs. Dupre begs to offer her good wishes to you and Mrs. 
Palk. I don't know whether my pen or my eyes are failing, 
but T can hardly see what I write. 'Tis late at night, but never 
too late to assure you that I am, with every good wish to you 
and yours, dear Sir, your most obedient and most humble 

" Jos. Du Pre." 

[P.S.] — " I have put the Nabob in mind of the General's 
annuity. Pie promised to send it. 'Tis not yet come. I shall 
give him another hint by and bv." 

[P.P.S.]— " 27th. The money is come." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., 4to.] 

[No. 156.] 
Reyno[ld] Adams to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, February 27th [Fort St. George].— I send you a bill of 
exchange for £1,000 from Captain Madge, and one of £800 on 
my own account. Please deal with the latter as you think 
best. By the Britannia I requested your acceptance of a pipe 
of old madeira, to be delivered to you by my relative Mr. 
Daniell. Mr. Taswell has arrived, but I hope there is no risk 
of his superseding me. 

" Reyno. Adams." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., 4to.] 

[No. 157.] 
Chocapah to the Honble. Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, February 28th, Fort St. George. — " Honourable Sir, 
Since I had the honour to write to you under date of the 18th 
July last . . . the Company's order and appointment of 
Mr. Hastings [as] Governor of Bengal arrived here, and that 
gentleman embarked on a brigantine and sailed to that place 
the 2nd of this month." 

The ship Carnatic from Manila made an unsatisfactory voyage, 
selling only part of her cargo, and that at the rate of a dollar 
per pagoda, " which grieves the merchants' hearts very much." 
Trade all over India is bad. 

" The Governour and Council appointed Mr. Monkton*^) to go 

W Tlie Hon. Edward Monckton. Vide No. 118, p. UG, note 2. 

Xo. 157.J 174 

to Quedda with a few soldiers and seapoys and all the necessary 
servants to settle a trade there for the Company, and also Mr. 
Desveaux'i' in the same manner to Acheen, Mr. Ardley*-' 
departed this life the 9th of this month, and Mr. Charles Smith'^' 
is admitted one of the members in Council .... 

" Our forces was very near of taking Tanjore, but in the 
mean time the King made up matters with the Nabob, paying 
all the expences of the expedition, and the tribute money due 
from him, and also the plunder and present that he had received 
from the Maravah of Ramanadapurum. Since my last the 
French received no ships, money nor any thing else from Europe, 
and they are as poor as rats at present, and if it was not owing 
to the capacity of Mr. Law, the Settlement of Pondichery would 
have fallen long before this. The Morattas tryed all they could 
to see if our Governour will give them assistance to beat Hyder, 
but our Governour by his great wisdom made the Nabob settle 
with the Morattas without sending them any force against 

" A great accident happened at Trichinopoly on the 14th 
instant. The expence magazine, a large stone choultry, with 
about 1.30 barrels of powder and a very large quantity of musket 
and fixed ammunition, was blown up. Stones of several ton 
weight were thrown to a considerable distance. By that accident 
about 200 Eiiropeans and about two thousand black people 
perished, and several of the houses, stores, etc., damaged, 
which is a very great loss, and such accident was never heard 
of in these parts. 

" His Majesty's squadron was at Trincanamally all the winter, 
and they are now at Madras, which is a great awe to all the 
country Powers abroad. . . ." 

" Chocapah." 

[Autograph, 2 pp., flscp.] 

[No. 158.] 

Tho[mas] Palk to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1772, February 28th, Fort St. George. — I received no letter 
from you during the whole of last year, and feel anxious as to 
the cause of your silence. By the Colebrooke, whose packet 
has just reached us, I heard from my father only. Mr. Hastings 
left in January to succeed Mr. Cartier in Bengal. He promised 
me, at the request of Mr. Morse, a transfer to Masulipatam 
under Mr. Brooke, who is to succeed Mr. VVynch as Chief. Of 
your many friends here none except Mr. Morse has taken the 
least notice of me. Mr. Morse, however, has been more like a 
parent than a friend. He has been seriously ill with gout, 

(1) Charles Desvceux, a civil servant of 1703, was employed under Call in 1764 
as an Engineer on the Madras fortifications. In 1772 he was a Junior Merchant. 

(2) Vide No. 52, /). 78, note 2. 

(3) Vide No. 118, p. 146, note 1. 

175 [No. 158. 

but is now better. Henry Vansittart, who went on to Bengal 
in tlic Britannia, is coming here on a visit to Mr. Morse. Mr. 
Call was expected to succeed Mr, Du Pre as Governor, but now 
it is said Mr. Cartier will do so. 

" By letters from my brother I am sorry to find that the 
Leaden Hall Street Gentlemen have not forgot the Cozimbazar 
afl'air. It is a most cruel thing to refresh his memory with 
what has already given him so much trouble. He is, he says, 
called down from Patna, which I should imagine might have 
been prevented, as Mr. Sulivan is in the Direction, and he 
consequently must have some friends. He has requested of 
the Gentlemen at Bengal to allow him 6 months' longer stay 
... to settle his affairs. He seems to be very happy in his 
present matrimonial situation. His spouse brought him a son 
and heir 30th September last. 

" The country is now very quiet again. The Morattoes 
have been threatening an invasion in the Carnatic, but are 
obliged to return to their own country to restore peace to their 
own dominions ; so that Hyder laughs at them, and is in 
possession of his country again. The Tan j ore expedition I 
am almost ashamed to mention ; but let it suffice that after 
having lost a great many men, and a practicable breach made, 
our army retreated back to Trichinapoly, notwithstanding I 
saw under Mr. Dupre's own hand that he was resolved to reduce 
that Rajah ; though it is not surprising, nor unlike every thing 
else that is done. 

"The following is an extract from a letter I received from 
Trichinapoly, dated 16th January, 1772, [from] a gentleman in 
the family of General Smith : — ' I should have set down and given 
you some account of the calamity that happened here the 14th, 
but till now I have been employed attending the people at 
work, at first in endeavouring to save those who had any remains 
of life, and afterwards getting the dead bodies removed. On 
the 14th, about 4 in the afternoon, we were surprized with an 
explosion in the fort, which was so violent that, though we 
were upwards of a mile distant, the doors and windows of the 
house, though bolted, were forced open with the shock. On 
going into the Fort we found the expence magazine, a large 
stone choultry, with the artillery,*^' part of the infantry barracks 
and all the buildings adjoining, particularly upwards of 60 
feet of a brick wall 4 feet thick and 40 in height, were blown 
up and laid level with the ground. You know the wall I mean : 
it is where the gentlemen sometimes play at fives (the Nabob's 
garden wall), and under which in the day there is a constant 
thorough-fare of people. About 40 Europeans were killed in the 
spot and a great number of natives, and had it happened at 
any other time of the day, God knows what would have been 
the consequences. The powder that took fire consisted of 
about 130 barrels, with a very large quantity of musket and 

W Note by T.P. " Not one gun remains serviceable scarce." 

No. 158.] 176 

fixed ammunition. Stones of several tons weight were thrown 
at a great distance, many of them into the houses, and after 
making their way through all, buried themselves in the earth. 
Ensign McNeal was killed by one on the opposite side of the 
Rock, though it is of an enormous height. The cavalry that 
were picketed on the glacis were obliged to fly : part of a six 
pound fell on the terrace of Warriore Plospital*^' ; in short 
the poor inhabitants were under, for some time, a most 
tremendous shower of stones, shells and shot, and the shock so 
great that they were scarce able to stand. Many thousands 
fled to the fields, and a more melancholy scene [than] that they 
left behind cannot possibly be imagined. The unhappy 
sufferers buried in the ruins, the heads of some appearing above 
the rubbish, the arms and legs of others, and many torn to 
pieces. The unhappy mothers, who on the first alarm flew to 
save their children, lying dead with their infants clasped in 
their arms. Spare me from going farther with this scene ; it 
is too shocking to bear a recital. The General's house in the 
Fort is a perfect wreck. Mr. Hay's'^* and many others suffered 
much, and himself covered with rubbish. Major Braithwate,'^' 
passing the main guard, was thrown out of his palankeen : 
his peon, to save him, threw himself on his master, who had 
just then received a bruise on the side of his head by a six 
pound shot in its fall. His house is beat in, one of his servants 
killed and both his horses, which must also have been his own 
fate had it happened three minutes later and he had time to 
get home. To mention the particulars of this affecting scene 
would be endless. 

" ' It is not known how the accident happened. There were 
13 artillery men and some lascars drying ammunition, who 
were all killed. It is, however, supposed that one shott falling 
on another communicated fire to the powder in the linnen bags, 
and by that means occasioned all that happened.' 

" The above is a very perfect account [of the] melancholy 

" Tho. Pai.k." 

P.S. — Please do me the favour of having two or three rings 
made for me in memory of my poor cousin Tom Palk. A 
newspaper or magazine of recent date will be acceptable. 

[Holograph, 13| pp., Uo.] 

(1) Note by T.P. " One mile distant or upwards." 

(2) James Hay. Vide No. 230, p. 235, note 2. 

(3) Major John Brathwaite reduced the Poligars of Madura and Tinnevelly in 
1772 and, as Licut.-Colonel, took Mah(i from tlie Frencli in 177!). Wlion commanding 
in Tanjore in 1782 lie was badly defeated by Tipu, taken prisoner and carried to 
Seringapatam, whence he was released at the peace of 1784. General Brathwaite was 
Commander-in-Chief, Madras, for four years from 1792, and captured Pondicherry 
in 1793, 


[No. 159.] 

W[illtam] ]M[arttn] Goodlad to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1772, February 28th, Fort St. George. Received 20th 
September. — " My dearest Friend ... To the best of my 
reeollcction you have had a clear account of matters to 
the saihng of the Stag in October last.<^* We were then in 
the height of expectation in respect to Tan jour .... Peace 
ensued without our accomphsliing the reduction of the 
capital. Various were the conjectures on this occasion, and 
the motives for such a step are not to this hour ascertained. 
Six hours more would have rendered the breach practicable, 
and in all human probability a storm would have ensured us 
the capture. But curbed by the Nabob ; acting as auxiliaries 
without a will of our own, and having our operations wholely 
subservient to Indostan politics, the object of the campaign 
was in great measure frustrated. Vellum, it is true, was taken 
and remains in our hands ; a sum of money was paid, and some 
countries were relinquished by the Rajah ; but our prospects 
promised more substantial benefits, and we lost the opportunity 
of compleatly humbling a dangerous rival situated in the very 
heart of the countries from whence we draw our support. The 
Nabob, unwilling to discover the real cause of the accommoda- 
tion, would willingly attribute it to the General, but all 
unprejudiced minds seem to hold him blameless. For my own 
part I am willing to believe him so ; and if I could venture to 
start an opinion of my own. I would declare the loss of Tanjour 
to be solely oAving to the Nabob's apprehensions of the 
Marattas. Did I say solely ? I meant it not. A jealousy of 
the Company, never to be eradicated, had its share in his 
determination. In short, Tanjour was within his grasp, but 
his apprehensions would not suffer him to seize it ; and thus 
ended our expedition. It has nevertheless certainly been 
attended with good- effects, for the Rajah^is evidently humbled, 
and the possession of Vellum must be a great check upon him ; 
but there is this to be said, that the Rajah will never regard 
an accommodation (to which we are not Guarantees) as binding 
on the Nabob. He will look for fresh troubles when the Nabob 
has it in his power, and he will consequently take the first 
opportunity of throwing off the yoke by affecting [sic] a junction 
which it was one object of our expedition to prevent. But we 
must rest satisfied. The Company are not what they were, 
and never will recover themselves whilst Ministry interposes ; 
and this accommodation may justly be regarded as one of the 
many bad effects of the ministerial plan. The Nabob would 
never have thought of laying aside the guarantee had he not 
depended on support from the Crown ; and, had the guarantee 
been regarded as subsisting, we had never quitted Tanjour till 
the Rajah, admitting an English garrison, had put it out of 

(1) Vide No. 142, p. 164. 

No. 159.] 


his power to become troublesome in future. And thus ends 
my history . . . 

" I have been so particular before in describing to you the 
cause we had to apprehend a Maratta invasion — the warmth 
of the Nab()l)'s solicitations to join them in reducing Hyder ; 
our desire rather to assist Hyder if a part nnist be taken ; and 
the repeated entreaties of both that we would take part in their 
disputes — that a repetition here is unnecessary. Matters have 
lately become much more serious, but, greatly to the honor 
of Du Pre, we have hitherto surmounted all difficulties. A 
determined firmness has overcome every obstacle, and we 
continue in peace notwithstanding every threat and every 

" The very pressing applications from both parties, and the 
apparent consequences of our acquiescing or refusing, rendered 
every art of procrastination necessary. The expectation of 
the Commissioners long afforded an excellent plea, and their 
non-arrival gave still further time. Orders from home in 
consequence of their loss were then represented as necessary 
for our determination. In short, every twig was grasped at 
to prevent us from sinking, but at length it became necessary 
to resolve. The Marattas were on our borders, and had even 
committed hostilities, though they denied the intention of so 
doing. The Nabob used every argument to bring us over to 
their party . . . The Minister backed his representations . . , 
but the Covmcil still continued firm, and when matters came [to] 
a cricis, declared openly that they would defend the Nabob's 
possessions to the utmost, but would join neither party. The 
Nabob and Minister both found they had struggled in vain ; 
and as the Marattas had been fed with hopes of our assistance, 
it became necessary to recompense them for their disappoint- 
ment. They are gone off, and we are promised peace for a 
time. The causes which have produced this may easily be 
guessed at, though they cannot with any certainty be declared. 
" You will see from the foregoing that our new Minister has 
not been idle. He long remained silent, and we had hopes 
that he would have given us little interruption ; but he at 
length assumed his character, and promised to be more active 
than his predecessor. Blustering was not wanting, but it is 
no match for calmness. After attempting to speak daggers, 
he sheathed his weapon, and (to the best of my judgement) we 
remain triumphant. It is suspected that during the height of 
our disputes he was checlced from home. From the most 
hauty stile he descended at once to (wliat I call) the lowest 
submission, and has since been perfectly calm . . . 

" I have frequently told you how much the Nabob's conduct 
was altered since the arrival of the Plenipos . . . You must 
have beared of the Agreement between the Company and the 
agents for the creditors in England. He refuses absolutely 
to acquiesce, hints that he will pay each seperately, but will 

179 [No. 159. 

make no declaration that he will really discharge his debt to the 
Company . . . Many of the creditors have declared their 
resolution to abide by the Agreement, and have appointed a 
connnittee to transact their affairs, at the head of which I am. 
The Council promise us every assistance in their power . . . 

" Hastings left us the 2nd instant, much regretted, for he is 
a very valuable man both in his public and pri\^ate character. 
Unless my letters from Bengal tell me wrong, he will have much 
on his hands, for matters there are represented to be in a state 
which will require the exertion of all his abilities to reform them. 
Ardley died the 9th instant. Pyne'^' and Charles Smith are in 
Council. When shall I be there ? Alas ! the reflection gives 
me pain . . ." 

[Holograph, 8f pp., Mo.] " W. M. Goodlad." 

[No. 160.] 

W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

N.Y. [1772], February 29th, 2 a.m. [Fort St. George.]—" I 
have wrote you so particular a letter by the packet per Lord 
North that I request of you to use your utmost endeavours to 
procure it. Pray send word to my mother that I am in health 
and spirits. May every blessing attend you ! Adieu. 

"W. M. Goodlad." 

[Holograph, 1 p., 4io.] 

[No. 161.] 
W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, March 20th, Fort St. George. Received 20th Sept. — 
Since I wrote by the Ijord North last month,*-' nothing special 
has occurred. The Nawab totally disregards the Agreement 
made between his creditors and the Company, and is resolved 
to suit his own convenience in regard to payments. 

" Whatever the Minister may be about in private, he continues 
silent, and all correspondence is dropped ; but there is no 
cordiality subsisting between us, and indeed if I had time to 
describe to you in how many instances he descends beneath 
the dignity of his character, you would not be surprised at it. 
We are free from apprehensions as to the Marattas for the 
present . . . Hastings is arrived in Bengal, but we have yet 
no accounts of his having taken possession of the Government, 
or of the situation in which he has found affairs there . . . 

" I enclose you a bill on my mother for £200, interest to 
August, 1772, on the money I am so much obliged to you for. 
Accept it with my best thanks, my dearest friend, and be 
assured there does not exist a more grateful heart than in the 

U) George PjTie, a civil servant of 1753. 
l2) Vide No. 159, p. 177. 

No. IGl.j 180 

the breast of your ever obliged and affectionate friend and 

[Holograph, 4i pp., Uo.] " VV. M. Goodlad." 

[Enclosure] — First of Exchange for £200 at 90 days to Mrs. 
Goodlad, King's Road, Gray's Inn, London, in favour of Robert 
Palk, Esqr. 

[1 p., Uo.] 

[No. 162.] 

Henry Vansittart, jun., to Robert Palk, Esqr., at Edmund 
Boehm's, Esqr., Sice Lane, London. 

1772, April 2nd, Fort St. George. — " Dear Sir, I landed in 
good health at Calcutta the 31st of January, and in consequence 
of several pressing letters I received from Mr. Morse, left it in 
order to proceed to Madras in the Lord Holland in the latter 
end of February. I had before my departure been introduced 
to Mr. Hastings, who has invited me to live with him when I 
return. After a passage of 25 days we arrived in Madras road, 
and I had a happy meeting with Mr. and Mrs. Morse the next 
day. The time of my stay here is not yet settled, but, however, 
I shall find employment in the study of the Persian language 
and in the instructions of my grand father. The Nabob, having 
heard from Mr. Du Pre of the letter you have sent by me, has 
already given me an invitation to come and see him, and when 
Mr. Morse thinks proper he will carry me there. I have 
received many civilities here, but I cannot say that I am so 
fond of this place as Bengal. Mr. Alexander*^' and Mr. Floyer,'^' 
who are going in the Lord Holland to Europe, have treated me 
in the most obliging manner during my stay in that ship, and 
to them I chiefly am indebted for my passage. 

" Remember me to Mr. Tripe,'^* and give my duty to Mrs. 
Palk, and love to Nancy and Lawrence. Your dutiful nephew, 

" Henry Vansittart." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., Uo.] 

[No. 163.] 
J[ohn] M[axwell] Stone to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, April 4th, Fort St. George. — I have lately received your 
letter of the 2nd April, 1771, and now reply by the Lord Holland. 
Alexander and Floyer go in her, the former " to enjoy his 
fortune at ease," the latter to procure reinstatement on the 
Bengal establishment. 

" Our situation for these two or three years past has indeed 
been very distressing and perplexing, and my wonder can only 
be equalled by the satisfaction I feel to find that we have got 

(1' James Alexander. Vide No. 65, ]>. 92, note 6. 

(2) t'liarles Floyer. Vide No. 84, p. llo, notf ('.. 

(3) Nicholas Tripe, of iV3lil)urton, who married Giace I'alk, niece of Governor Palk, 

181 [No. 163. 

thus far in safety. Great merit is certainly due to Mr. Du Pre, 
who, notwithstanding all the embarrassments and diffieulties 
with which he was surrounded, notwithstanding the disagreeable 
and vexatious altercations he has been obliged to maintain 
with the Nabob, His Majesty's Ministers and General Coote, 
could persevere with such steadiness and resolution in the line 
he first laid down." 

At the end of last December we learned with gratification 
that the conduct of the Governor and Council in regard to the 
Nawab, the Marattas, Hyder Ali and the King's Minister was 
approved at home, though nothing was said about Coote. 

" Sir John Lindsay did not cease plaguing us till the end of 
July last, when it may be supposed he had got as much as he 
could expect, and the news arrived of Sir Robert Harland's 
being appointed to succeed him with plenipotentiary powers. 
The Squadron arrived here the beginning of September, and 
Sir Robert Harland immediately upon his^ landing laid before 
the Board his plenipotentiary powers and instructions, the sum 
and substance of which were ; — to see that the Treaty of Paris 
of 1763 had not been infringed, and to receive from the Nabob 
any complaints he might have to make, and transmit them to 
the Ministry. These powers, which we understand were the 
same with Sir John Lindsay's, could not, you will say, authorize 
the steps taken by the Minister. However, by a very extra- 
ordinary construction put on the 11th article of the Treaty of 
Paris, they were used to that end. The Nabob, by the inter- 
pretation given to that article, is deemed an ally of the Crown 
of Great Britain, and as such has a right to the support and 
protection of the Crown. In virtue of which the Minister took 
upon him to urge the Government to such measures as the 
Nabob should dictate. You, I dare say, will be surprized at 
this forced construction put upon that article, and the arguments 
used in consequence, as you are well acquainted with the 
cause of that article being inserted, which was evidently with 
no other intent than to put it out of the power of the French 
to set up Chunda Saib's son<^' or any other pretender to the 
Phousdarv<2) of the Carnatic in opposition to the Nabob. If the 
interpretation now given to the article be admitted, the Nabob 
is equally an ally of the Crown of France as of Great Britain, 
as they are both equally bound by the Treaty to acknowledge 
him for Nabob ; and it is incumbent on England and France 
to support him against all the world, even against the Mogul 
and the Soubah, to whom, by the custom of the Empire and his 
own acknowledgment, he is subject. You will, I am certain, 
see the impropriety, I may say the absurdity, of this doctrine. 
But what will you say when I tell you that the Directors have 
adopted the like notions, which has been the cause of much 
embarrassment to us in our transactions with the Nabob ; 

(1) Raza Khan, commonly called Raja Sahib. 

(2) Phousdary, from Pers. faujddri, governorship. 

No. 163.] 182 

which must in the end prove very detrimental to the Company's 
affairs ; and I may venture to pronounce, without pretending 
to the gift of prophecying, that it is impossible matters can long 
remain in the present situation. The Company must adopt 
some uniform plan and system in their connexions with the 
Nabob, or give him up entirely. The defence and protection 
of the Carnatic rests on them, while the resources are in the 
Nabob's hands, who refuses to furnish the means necessary 
for that purpose, and counteracts and opposes every measure 
of this Government. There was a time when the arguments 
which worked upon his hopes or fears had some weight, but he 
now hears everything with the utmost seeming indifference. 
He no longer looks up to the Company as his friends and 
supporters, but places his whole confidence in the aid of the 
Crown. His drift seems to be to play off one against the other, 
by which means he hopes to free himself from any dependance 
on the Company ; and when he has gained sufficient strength 
he flatters himself with the idea of entire independancy. These, 
my dear Sir, are my thoughts of the consequences of the present 
system, or rather want of system with the Nabob, which I 
communicate in confidence to you ; and I can assure you they 
frequently give me much uneasiness, as I have little pro[s]pect 
of being able to retire from a scene which promises nothing but 
perplexity and embarrassment ; and more especially when I see 
the Company, whose interest I shall ever make it my study to 
promote, threatened with such imminent danger. 

" From the open and candid manner with which Sir Robert 
Harland exposed to us his powers, we hoped we should not have 
been again subjected to the like vexatious correspondence we 
had been engaged in for a twelvemonth before. But we were 
only led to hope what we wished. A Minister from the Crown 
without employment must be without consequence. He must 
render himself usefull to the Nabob in one shape or other, or 
the end of his mission is not answered. Sir Robert Harland, 
rather than remain idle, renewed the same subjects which had 
been so fully discussed with his predecessor ; but he ventured 
further. He threatened, when he found we would not adopt 
the Nabob's system of joining the Morattas, to engage the 
Crown in an alliance with them, and desired to know whether 
the Company would in that case assist them with their troops. 
He was told plainly, but in respectful terms, that they would not. 
About this time the advices by the Lord Holland arrived, and 
which it is believed brought orders to Sir Robert Harland from 
the Ministry respecting the powers he was vested with, as he 
wrote a letter a few days after very different in style and 
sentiment from those we had before received from him, and 
which might be almost construed a disavowal of his former 
conduct. He, however, still preserves a very close intimacy 
with the Nabob, who is no doubt led to expect powerfull support 
from him. This is our situation with regard to the Nabob, and 

183 [No. 163. 

which must, continue untill the extraordinary powers sent out 
are withdrawn, and the Nabob can be again brought to look 
for no other support from Enghmd but tlu-ough the means of 
the Company. But I nmcli fear such a change will not soon 
take place. It will be no easy matter to prevail on the Ministry 
to relinquish the footing they have gained in India, and the 
Nabob will give them all the encouragement in his power to 
persevere in the plan they have adopted untill his views are 

" The arrival of the Lord Holland gave the Governor and 
Coimcil an opportunity of acting as they had long wished to 
do with regard to the Morattas and Hydcr Ally, The latter 
had not ceased to solicit our assistance, and the Morattas had 
constantly demanded it with threats, in which they were 
supported by the Nabob and his Majesty's Minister. The 
Board were fully determined not to assist the Morattas, from 
the dangerous consequences to be apprehended from an increase 
of their power ; and the Nabob could never be prevailed on 
to take any measures in favor of Hyder Ally. Thus circum- 
stanced, the Governor and Council thought it expedient to 
return no decisive answer to either, and to inform both that we 
should be guided by the orders we might receive from England. 
Indeed we had so long made use of evasions that it was impossible 
they could ha\e availed us any longer ; and we must have been 
obliged to have declared openly in favor of the one or the other, 
or our resolution to remain neuter. The arrival of the orders 
by the Lord Holland put us out of suspence, and we no longer 
hesitated to declare plainly both to the Morattas and Hyder 
Ally that we were not empowered to afford assistance to either. 
When the Nabob found that neither his solicitations, the threats 
of the Minister, nor the fear of a Moratta invasion could induce 
the Governor and Council to adopt his favourite plan of joining 
the Morattas, he then, and not till then, set earnestly to work 
to prevent their ravaging the Province. They had already 
advanced to the borders, and some parties had actually entered 
the country and plundered some villages. The negotiation 
was begun and concluded in a few days, and the Morattas 
retired into the Balaghaut<i' on the other side of the hills, and 
were by the last accounts near Syringapatam. We know not 
on what terms they consented to withdraw, as the Nabob 
industriously conceals from us every transaction ; but we have 
heard that he only paid them the four lacks of rupees which 
remained due of the agreement made in 1760. The ease with 
which the Nabob settled this business, and that too at a season 
of the year the most favourable for the Morattas to lay waste 
the country, confirmed the suspicions we had long entertained 
that the Morattas had been encouraged, if not invited, by the 
Nabob himself to threaten this Province in order to frighten or 

(1) Balaghat, the country above the ghauts, the Mysore plateau. 

No. 163.] 184 

compell us into an alliance with them. And indeed a circum- 
stance came to light in the course of the correspondence which 
afforded further cause for our suspicions. It appeared that the 
Nabob had obtained from the Morattas a promise of the cession 
of the Barhamall<^> country and of the fort of Syringapatam 
in case he could prevail on us to assist in reducing Hyder Ally ; 
and although he could not be ignorant how little dependance 
was to be placed on such a promise from the Morattas, it had 
certainly great weight with him in his political system. Not- 
withstanding the Morattas had advanced to the very 
borders of the Province, and we received daily accounts of 
villages plundered by them, nothing we could urge could 
prevail on the Nabob to consent that the army, which was 
returned from before Tan jour to Trichinopoly, should move 
to some central position to protect the country. We could 
take no measures without his concurrence, because we had 
neither the means of paying or subsisting the troops in the 
field, and because, as the country is the Nabob's, we can 
attempt nothing for its security without his consent, as we 
should make ourselves responsible for all consequences, which, 
considering the present temper of the times, might be ha- 
zarding too much. 

" I have thus, my dear Sir, given you a faint, but I will venture 
to say a true, picture of our situation. I need not express my 
wish that this letter be only comnmnicated to my friend Mr. 
Bourchier, as it would be improper in me to offer my opinion 
unasked to others when my situation does not require it." 

I offer you my condolences on the loss of Mr. Vansittart in 
the Aurora. I had hopes that Harry Griffiths'^) would have 
been admitted to the service this year. He is a fine sensible 
boy, and works in my office without pay. I have urged Mr. 
Du Pre to exert his influence, but he does not care to ask for 
favours. Mr. Canning'^) is desirous of getting Harry Griffiths' 
brother William to India as a cadet. Your kindness to the 
Griffiths' father makes me hope for your aid. 

" Mrs. Stone having for several years labored under a very 
bad state of health, I have at last been under the necessity of 
consenting to her proceeding to England. She went the last 
season by the way of China, and I have had the satisfaction to 
learn from her that the voyage has given so favourable [a] 
turn to her constitution that she is perfectly recovered, and 
would have returned to me without going to England but on 
account of my dear little girl, whom it was necessary to send 
home. I need not say how very painfull this separation must 
be to me, but I have endeavoured to support myself under it 
with all the patience and resolution I am master of, and with 

U) The Maraiiiahal was the teiTilory situated S.l'L of the present province of 
Mysore between the lirst and second ranges of the Eastern Ghauts. It extended 
roughly from the Palar to the Cauvery, and took its name from the circumstance of 
its division into twelve districts. 

(2) Vide No. 88, p. 117, note 1. 

(3) The Rev. Richard Canning. Cf. No. 50, p. 76. 

185 [No. 163. 

the reflexion of my having acted for her's and the child's 
good ..." 

[Holograph, 14 pp., Uo.] " J. M. Stone." 

[No. 164.] 
Reyno[ld] Adams to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, April 4th, Fort St. George. — I was glad to receive 
your letter of the 14th April, 1771, brought by Mr. Vansittart. 
" It gives me much pleasure to find that the wine (a poor token 
of my gratitude) proved agreeable, which will induce me to 
repeat it when a favorable opportunity offers, unless any thing 
else might appear more acceptable." I have remitted to you 
Pags. 2,000, which I beg you to lend on mortgage or otherwise 
invest for me. 

" Reyno. Adams." 

[Holograph, 2| pp., 4to.] 

[No. 165.] 
W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, April 4th, Madras. — I was glad to receive your letter 
of the 2nd April, 1771,(^) brought by Henry Vansittart. The 
Plenipotentiary remains quiet, having probably received 
instructions to that effect, but the Company cannot recover its 
influence until the powers of the Crown are withdrawn. We 
have no decision yet regarding the dispute with Coote. The 
question of my supersession by Mr. Stewart*-' has been settled 
in my favour, and I am grateful to you for your help in the 
matter. I shall do what I can to make Harry Vansittart's stay 
here agreeable, but I have been so overw^helmed with work that 
I have not yet been able to see him. I am writing to Mr. Sulivan, 
to whom I owe my first appointment to the Company's service. 
I would address Mr. Bourchier if I could find the time. 

"W. M. Goodlad." 

[Holograph, 6 pp. -ito.] 

[No. 166.] 

Robert Palk to [William Martin Goodlad]. 

1772, April 7th, Park Place.—" My dear Billy . . The 
Directors were well pleased with the last accounts from Madras. 
The success against Tan jour will not raise the Stock, but if we 
fail it will have a confounded tumble. Sir Robert Harland 
possibly may have the same powers with Lindsay, but his 
instructions must be very different. Whatever they are, the 
House of Conniions will desire to see them, and next Tuesday 
is appointed for an enquiry into the state of India. On that 
motion Lord Clive spoke for two hours in vindication of his own 

(1) Vide No. 134, p. 157. 

(2) Cf. No. 119, p. 149. 

No. 166.] 186 

conduct. He was followed by Rumbold, Carnac and Coote. 
The last said that three times the number of troops now 
employed in India might be paid with the same money, but 
that the contractors and the canaille spent all the money. All 
which every officer who ever commanded in India is ready 
flatly to contradict." 

I have done all in my power to bring your merit to notice 
in Leadenhall Street. Sir George Colebrooke,'^' to whom I 
showed your last letter, will be pleased to hear from you. I 
shall also speak to Purling'-* ; " but they are all such ignoramus's 
that they understand little or nothing of the affairs abroad. 
They are only anxious for appearances and carrying on their 
own jobbs. Suhvan still is a candidate for the succession at 
Madras, but there seem to me many difficulties in his way." 

"RoBT. Palk." 

[Holograph, 2f pp., Uo.] 

[No. 167.] 
W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, April 13th, Madras. — I send this by way of Anjengo 
in hopes of catching the Bombay ships. The Lapwing arrived 
here yesterday, but the advices by her give us little information. 
" We shall never be restored to our formergfooting so long as a 
Minister from the Crown is continued in these parts. The little 
confidence which remained between His Excellency and the 
Board must be daily lessened as we find his character open 
more and more. It seems that the Lapwing was freighted with 
complaints to the Crown, and I suppose the subsequent dis- 
patches have been of the same nature. Is it possible to live 
on terms with the man who is known to endeavour all in his 
power to thus stab in the dark ? He makes no ceremony of 
telling the King that the Company's servants encrease his 
expences at pleasure. By Jove ! I — I am very angry, for I 
detest every thing so ungenerous." 

The Court of Directors are said to be displeased at the tone 
of recent letters from here. If any changes take place in 
consequence, Stone will probably become a member of the 
Board. In that case I shall try for the Military Secretaryship, 
and slave until I secure preferment. Purling seems to be my 
friend, and I hope to win over Sulivan. We continue at peace, 
but an expedition against the Marawars is talked of. On the 
whole the prospects on the Coast are promising. 

" W. M. Goodlad." 
[Holograph, 4<pp., Mo.] 

(1) Sir George Colebrooke, Bt., was Chairman of the Court of Directors in 1769, 
1770 and 1772. 

(^) John Purling. Vide No. 98, p. 12U, note 1. 


[No. 1C8.] 
CoLONET, Gilbert Ironside to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, April 13th, Fort William. — I am very grateful for 
your civility to Mrs. Ironside and her brother. I have just seen 
Mr. Palk and his wife. Although he incurred the Company's 
displeasure some years ago, I think he might have been treated 
more leniently in consideration of his good service at Patna. 
" From Mr. Hastings, however, I am persuaded he will meet 
with those instances of esteem and regard he can wish for from 
the Governour and the friend. George is now next to Council, 
and I am afraid will soon be called to the Board. 

" There was a talk not long since of Mr. Hastings' intentions 
to desire my assistance to promote the public cause, and in 
consequence to remain at the Presidency with him. Whether 
he perseveres in his resolution I know not. His accession to 
the Chair was on the 13th instant. A few days therefore will 
determine whether I am to continue a devious campaign life, 
or to repose under the olive shade 'till my rank entitles me to a 
brigade. The latter I think most probable, for though 
experience and disappointments have rendered me rather 
diffident of cherishing too fond and sanguine expectations from 
the smiles of power, yet I have the firmest reliance on the 
obligations of friendship . . . 

" From the library of the Nawab Mahmud Riza Chan'^* I had 
the good fortune to meet with a copy of the digests or pandects 
of the Arabian Canon and Civil Laws. One volume is entirely 
transcribed, and my Arabic writers are advanced far in copying 
the remaining one with the Comment. I thought it preferable 
to procure both rather than the second volume only that you 
wrote for, least the first of yours should be imperfect. They will 
be ready to dispatch by the packet of September. 

" In political matters here there is nothing very remarkable. 
The King, in the hands of the Morrattas, gained a considerable 
victory over the Rohellas in the course of the month of February, 
and afterwards besieged a strong fortress in the same country 
called Pattagur,(-> where he took an immense booty. Shujah 
Dowlah, against whom the Moratta[s], from former resentments, 
have long vowed vengeance, is at present with his forces on 
the Rohellah frontier, and one of our brigades at the Caram- 
nassah*^' in readiness to march to his assistance. But it is 
now the general opinion that they will not trouble him this 
season, for they entertain a very formidable idea of our force 
united to the Vizier's, and with reason. 

<!' Nawab Muhammad Raza Khan was Naili Diwan, or finance minister, of Bengal 
until the Company itself assumed the Diwani m accorilance with the grant procured 
hy Clive. 

'2) Patthagarh, a fort now in ruins in the United Provinces. The place was sacked 
by the Marathas in 1772. 

(3) The river Caramnassah (Karamnasa), a tributary of the Ganges, formed the 
boundary between the Company's Bengal territories and the country of the Nawab 
Vizier of Oudh. 

No. 168.] 188 

" All apprehensions of a French invasion may be laid aside, 
I tjiink, for this monsoon. Last year, indeed, they might have 
effected much from the supineness, negligence and weakness 
of our administration ; but neither in present nor in future 
can they have any great probability of succeeding, for we have 
now a very large force near Calcutta, and the fortifications on 
the river and at Fort William are advanced beyond an appre- 
hension of insult. Another year I hope completes them . . ." 

" Gilbert Ironside." 

[Holograph, 3f pp., flscp.] 

[No. 169.] 

Lau[rence] Sulivan to Robert Palk, Esqr., Park Place, 
St. James's. 

1772, May 27th, Queen Square. — " Dear Sir, I am now to 
give you a melancholly state of those affairs that in the decline 
of life have compleated my ruin. 

" When Mr. Waller's bond is recovered we have suflficient 
(within one hundred pounds either way) to discharge every 
debt (your own excepted), and upon the close will stand 
thus:" . . To you I owe 10,490/. 25. lid., and to Henry 
Vansittart's estate 7,325/. 5*. 2d. ; total 17,815/. 85. Id. 

" For these sums it's at present out of my power to offer 
more than my bonds, my estate being (between ourselves) 
mortgaged to Mr. Dunning'^' . . . My India qualification is 
also mortgaged. I have nothing left. All that I can at present 
secure to you or the familly is " the sums due from Mr. Maclean,'^' 
Lord Shelburne, Lord Verney and Mrs. Forest, aggregating 
9,070/. " If these are accepted as transferrs, my debt of 17,815/ 
8*. Id. will be reduced to 8,745/. 8s. Id. ; or my bonds may be 
taken for the whole sums, and these made over as part payment 
when received. I have not a shilling more to appropriate. 
We live now principally upon my son's income, the good youth 
hardly allowing himself 100/. a year. My wife (who merits a 
better fate) suspecting and dreading (though not knowing) my 
circumstances, has often pressed me to part with our two 
houses [? horses], coach and some servants, which indeed I had 
agreed to, but Mr. Motteux'^) soon convinced me that such a step 
would defeat all my prospects both as to India or even the India 
House, giving my enemys the very proof they were in diligent 
search of for to destroy me. 

" I trust, however, that nobody shall suffer, as my deter- 
mination is fixed to go to India, and hope and believe there 
will be no dilliculty ; but my desperate situation and the 
contents of this letter must be lodged in your own breast, for 
in its extent this is known to no soul living but your self. 

As I have experienced your affection, I build upon your 


<1) John Dunning. Vide No. 105, p. 135, note 4. 

(2) Colonel Lauchlan Macleane. 

(3) John Motteux. Vide No. 97, p. 127, note 1. 

189 [So. 109. 

friendship to settle for me with Mr. Van's executors before you 
leave town, and indeed I ask and entreat it as the greatest 
favour; for my feeUngs are such and my heart, thank God, so 
pure, tluit disagreeable altercations with Mr, Boelini*^* or even 
the most distant insinuation writ [?] would hurt me beyond 
expression ; for though I will never complain, I must do 
justice to Mr. lioehm's character as an honest man. Yet I, 
cannot forget him (and I hav^e a witness to remember) as the 
cause of my present extensive misery. I will not doubt but 
the familly have some regard for me, and good policy must lead 
them to every act of consistent tenderness, for abroad I may be 
of essential service, and even at home (should it be wanted) a 
usefull friend, and I think my conduct has ever been such as 
to claim their confidence . . . 

" As the ballance of my account differs from the amount in 
the books kept by Mr. Motteux, ... I shall be ready to meet 
Mr. Boehm at Mr. Motteux's to explain the whole to him . . " 

" Lau. Sulivan." 

[P.S.J — " I look upon the whole that Mr. Maclean owes to 
be very secure, for (not to be mentioned) Sir George Colebrooke 
is pledged to send him to India to some very lucrative post."'^' 

[Holograph, 2 pp., flscp. Wax seal hearing arms.^ 

[No. 170.] 
L[aurence] Sulivan to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr., Park Place. 

N.D. [1772, cir. end of May]. Wednesday. — " Since my letter 
to you was closed I have received from Mr. Motteux the 
accompany[ing] note sent him by Mr. Boehm. It is Mr. 
Motteux's desire to do no more than to deliver Mr. Boehm 
copys of my account and Mr. Vansittart's, deceased, as they 
stand upon the books ; or the books themselves for Mr. Boehm 
to take copys ; or he will meet Mr. Boehm and me (if I ask it), 
and follow our directions. I have given Mr. Motteux no answer, 
nor will he be in town untill next week. 

" I can have no objection to settle my account, and leave out 
the unliquidated claims, and there are but two ways of 
adjusting : — the one as stated to you in my letter, where I 
consider my self as answerable for the whole deficiency, to you 
for your whole debt, and to Van's estate for his ballance ; or, 
to you for my half of your debt, and Van's estate answerable 
to you for the other moiety. This no doubt you may claim, 
which puts my debt to Va[n] at upwards of £12,000, and to 

(1) Edmund Boehm. Vide No. 97, p. 127, note 2. 

(2) Laucblan Macleane entered the Bengal Army as Captain in 1758, and retired 
as Major in 1766. Re-appointed by the influence of Sir George Colebrooke, who 
was Chairman of the Court of Directors in 1772, Macleane returned to India with 
the rank of Lt. Colonel and the appointment of Commissary General, Bengal. In 
1775 he was selected to act as Hastings's agent in England. He watched the 
Governor General's interest in Parliament, negotiated with the King's Ministers 
and the Court of Directors, and took part in the conference at Haldon House which 
led to his tender of Hastings's conditional resignation. Colonel Macleane, who 
also represented Nawab VValajah in England, died in 1778. 

No. 170.J 190 

you 5,240Z. It will be kind (and I trust safe) if you suffer 
me to be your debtor for the whole, when the executors will 
make no great difficulty in taking my bond for the 8,000 and 
odd pounds. They may for 12,000/, 

" My dear friend, the hour grows critical to me and those 
who depend upon payment. Rash and imprudent conduct may 
be destructive. For this reason I dread vour going out of town. 
For God's sake fix matters for me before you go. It shall be 
the last trouble I will give you. My obligations to you are great : 
my heart will ever gratefully feel them, and I pledge myself 
you shall not suffer by me. The Supravision I think will take 
place in a fortnight or three weeks, which will end all my 

" I am, dear Sir, your faithfull and most affectionate 


[Holograph, 1| p., Mo. Wax seal with a^'ms.] 

[No. 171.] 
Lau[rence] Sulivan to Robert Palk, Esqr., Park Place. 

N.D. [1772, cir. end of May]. Queen Square. — " All in my 
power is to thank you, and, if Providence favours me, you shall 
not suffer. I will meet Mr. Boehm at Mr. Motteux's at 
11 o'clock next Wednesday. 

" Mr. Ley has desired to continue with Captain Hough, and 
Hough and Mr. Lane'^' are as desirous to keep hiin," Should 
he wish a transfer to another ship I will do what I can, but it 
will be best for him to remain in the Ponsborne. 

" Lau, Sulivan." 

[Holograph, | p., Uo. Wax seal with arms, defaced.] 

[No. 172.] 
Henry Vansittart, jun., to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1772, August 28th, Bengal. — " Dear Sir, Mr. Palk sent me 
your letter from Calcutta to Cossimbuzar, where, after the fatal 
accident that carried off Mr. Morse, I was sent bv mv friends, 
and became one of Mr. Hastings's family. From thence I set 
off a week ago for Patna, and am now advanced on my way as 
far as Raja Mall. 

" As I shall never be settled till I see my uncle, I long much 
for the time, as I do not doubt, from the affection he expresses, 
he will afford me all manner of assistance, and particularly in 
my study of the Persian language . . ." 

" Henry Vansittart." 

" September 9th. I arrived yesterday at Monghyr, which is 
situated at the distance of more than 300 miles from Calcutta. 
Mr. Finch, ^-' who was my shipmate, is now an ensign upon the 
Coast, and at present is stationed at Trichinopoly . . ." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., Uo.] 

(1^ Thomas Ley was third officer of the Ponsborne, under Captain Samuel 
Hough, jind Thomas Lane was managing owner of the ship. 
(2) Ensign James Finch. 


[No. 173.] 
Ensign J. Snelling to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, September 2nd, Jillmore.'^' — My brother Corwarcled 
to nie your kind letter of condolenee on the loss of my mother. 
Thanks to you, 1 am now able to support myself. 1 saw Mr. 
Morse shortly before his death. Both he and Mr. Goodlad 
showed me kindness. T was unfortunate in not seeing service 
either at Tanjore or in the Marawa expedition. When my 
battalion left Palamcotah lor Madras I was transferred to this 
place, which is near Ganjam. 

[Holograph, 2 p/?., Uo.] " J. Snelling." 

[No. 174.] 
Warren Hastings to Lau[rence] Sulivan, Esqr. 

1772, September 7th, Cossimbuzar. — " Dear Sir, I hope you 
will not expect a long letter from me when you see the name of 
the place which I write from. I will be more communicative by 
the Lapwing, which perhaps will arrive as soon as this ship, 
unless I hear before that you are certainly on your way to Bengal 
as a Commissioner, or to Fort St. George as a Governor, for 
report says you must be one. 

" I have made use of the information and talents of Nund 
Comar. I have obtained a reward for him equal to his future 
services, be they ever so important, and far beyond his past 
deserts. And I have avoided to give him such trust or authority 
as he could turn to the Company's detriment. This was the 
proposition laid down for me in the letter of the Secret Committee 
and enjoined in yours. I beg you will support and confirm your 
own work. I am happy that you recommended it. It was the 
only measure which could have effectually broken the power 
of Mahmud Rizza Cawn<^'. 

" Munny Begum, the widow of Meer Jaffier, is appointed 
Superintendant of the Nabob's household, an irreconcileable 
enemy to Mahmud Rizza Cawn. 

" Rajah Goordass, the son of Nund Comar is made Dewan of 
the Nizamut. 

'' The Nabob's stipend is reduced from 32 lacks to 16. This 
ought to have been done 7 months ago. 

" The settlement of the revenue of Bengal has been begun 
and compleated as far as 60 lacks for a term of .5 years upon 
the plan of which you were informed in a former letter. The 
remainder will take up some months more. The Company 
will not lose nor the inhabitants suffer from our arrangements, 
although the depopulation by the late famine and mortality 
exceeds all belief. 

(1' Jelmur in Ganjam, where Narayan Deo was defeated by CoJonel Peach 
in 1768. Cf. No. 42, p. 68, note 2. 

(2) Muhammad Raza Khan (vide No. 168, p. 187, note 1) was arrested in 
A-ugust, 1772, on charges of peculation. He was eventually acquitted. 

No. 174.J 192 

" The Collectors still remain, but their power is much reduced. 

" It has been resolved, as the most effectual means of con- 
ducting the Dewaunee on the system ordered by the Company, 
to transfer the collections to Calcutta, which will become the 
seat of the Dewaunee and the capital of the Province. 

" Regulations have been framed for the administration of 
justice, which will do us little credit with the learned in the law, 
but they will prove of service in a land which to this day exists 
without any Court or forms of Justice. 

" The principles of all our measures have been to establish 
the new system which the Directors have adopted ; to 
break the influence of the former administration ; to avail 
ourselves of the present minority to establish the line of the 
Company's power, and habituate the people and the Nabob to 
their sovereignty, and to make it acceptable to the former by 
an attention to their ease and by a mild and equal plan of 

" I beg of you to read such of the proceedings of this Committee 
as have been communicated to the Board. You will find them, 
I suppose, in the Consultations. 

'' Much has been said against Nund-Comar, whose real 
character I have endeavored to delineate. 

" The reasons assigned for dividing the offices of the 
Nizamut'i) and giving the chief administration to a woman 
deserve your attention. The preface to our judicial establish- 
ment will also shew the state of the Courts and offices of Justice 
before in being, and fully evince the necessity as well as the 
propriety of those which we have adopted. 

" The examination of Mahmud Rizza Cawn still remains in 
suspense. I am inclined to leave it , to the Supervisors, for I 
doubt the sufficiency of my own powers to bear me through it. 

" The other enquiries referred to me will only serve to shew 
the impotency of the authority which constitutionally rests 
with the President. You empower me to punish, but you give 
me no means to call the offenders to account. But I am going 
into too wide a field for the time allowed me to finish this letter. 
This may be the subject of a longer. 

" We are yet happily at peace, but great pains have been 
taken by the Vizier*^) to draw us into a war, which I shall use 
all my efforts to avoid. In this I hope to be heartily supported 
by my fellow laborers. The Marrattas have retired, as was 
foreseen, from the Rohella country, and arc engaged in a war 
with the Jauts*''' with little success. They will probably return 
after the rains. The Vizier has demanded the presence of our 
forces, which we have promised, with a declaration that they 
shall be employed only in the defence of his dominions, but not 
move an inch beyond them unless the Marattas begin hostilities 

(1) Nizdmat, administration. 

(2) Shu.ja-ud-daula, Nawnl) Vizier of Oudh. 

(3) The Jats occupied territory to the westward of the Rohillas. 

193 [No. 174. 

with us. The King is at Delhi in union, that is, in subjection 
to the Marrattas. 

" I am, with the most sincere regard, dear Sir, your obhged 
and faithful servant, 

" Warren Hastings." 

[Autograph, 6 pp., Uo. Duplicate.] 

[No. 175.] 
W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1772, September 27th, Madras. — I enclose my last letter, 
which missed the ship at Tellicherry. Hence I am not yet in 
correspondence with Mr. Sulivan ; in fact it will be of little use 
to write to him, as we hear he is to be our next Governor. I 
received your letter of the 2nd December from Haldon House, 
and one of the 2nd February*^' from Park Place, delivered 
by Captain Baker. The orders received from home 
commend our proceedings except in regard to Coote. In this 
matter the Directors are inconsistent: — "When Coote comes 
out they declare his commission to be similar to that of General 
Lawrence ; while the General remained here under that commission 
they declared their Governor to be their superior military officer ; 
and now they say they intended that Coote should have had 
the powers he claimed. I am ashamed of them . . . The papers 
and some private letters make mention of a speech made by 
Coote in the House of Commons relative to the discipline of 
our troops. The confidence of some people is astonishing ! 
Could you believe that this man never saw any of the troops 
whilst he was here but those of Madras (allowed on all hands 
to be the worst disciplined in the service), and the recruits at 
Poonamallee, and yet he could take upon himself universally 
to condemn ? . . ." 

I am glad that the plan of sending out Supervisors is 
suspended, though they might have been of some use in Bengal. 
" Hastings is warm on the plan of reformation, and has already 
so curtailed the expences as to render the clear revenues to 
the Company much more considerable than they were . . .1 
have seen more of the charges laid against Lord Clive than has 
possibly fallen to your share or that of most in England, and 
have not a doubt respecting the truth of most of the articles ; 
and yet I do not think the accused will meet with their deserts. 
The truth is that they cannot suffer without others are also 
involved, and I imagine that after some little bustle in the 
House of Commons the affair will drop." 

I told you in my last of the expedition projected against the 
Mara wars. " It did take place accordingly, and with little 
trouble the countries of both Marawars were subdued. The 
treasure taken in Ramanadapuram and Calacoil is said to have 
been immense ; but whatever sums were then obtained, the 

(1) Vide No. 149, p. 169, and No. 153, /). 170. 


No. 175.] 19-i 

acquisition to the Nabob is immense, as the countries, even 
without tyranny and oppression, are well worth 20 lacks of 
rupees per annum . . . The Colleries'^' in those parts are still 
troublesome, and the eldest son'^* with a detachment keepfs] 
the field ; but every thing must be soon totally subdued , . , 
The Marattas, finding it impossible totally to subdue Hyder, 
have compromised matters for 60 lacks and returned to their 
own country. Hyder will not be in a condition to disturb us 
for some time. The Soubah is too weak to create troubles in 
the Circars. The French are by all accounts returned to Europe 
with their ships and troops, and I think matters wear a general 
aspect of peace. We have had no disputes with the Plenipo 
since those I wrote you of, though there have been some little 
bickerings with the Admiral, but not of much moment . . . 

"It is now the 2nd October, eleven years this day since we 
landed at Madras. How many more shall I be obliged to 
slave ? I shall have much to say to you when Du Pre leaves 
us. I think that in him I have made a valuable addition to 
my friends ..." 


[Holograph, 7 pp., 4^o.] 

[No. 176.] 
J[ohn[ M[axwell] Stone to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, September 30th, Fort St. George. — I send this by the 
Hazvke, sloop, which the Admiral is dispatching to the Cape. 

" The Morattas, having made peace with Hyder Ally, are 
returned to their own country. The Maravar and Naalcooty'^' 
Polygars have, at the desire of the Nabob, been reduced. We 
have now two detachments in the field, the. one employed in 
assisting the Nabob to settle that country, and the other is 
going against the Polygars in the Tinnevelly country, whom we 
were obliged to call to account in' 1765, and whom the Nabob 
represents as being refractory and disobedient. Our disputes 
with His Majesty's Minister are for the present subsided. Most 
of the French troops are returned to Europe from the Islands, 
and the Company's affairs on this coast wear as favourable an 
aspect as can be expected considering the state of their present 
connexions with the Nabob . . . 

" You will probably have received advices from other hands 
of the death of Mr. Morse. Mrs. Morse, soon after the event, 
sent for me and requested of me, in case of her death, to be one 
of her executors. My earnest desire of affording all the 
assistance in my power to a family so respectable, and with 
whom you are so nearly connected, induced me to assure Mrs. 

(1) The Colleries (KaUars) of Madura and Tinnevelly, men skilled in forest 
warfare, formed the irregular levies of the local Poligars. 

(2) Umdat-ul-Umara. 

(8) The Nalkottai Poligar was the Little Maravar. He is now styled llaja of 

195 [No. 176. 

Morse of my readiness to accept of the charge." Mrs. Morse 
has smce been seriously ill, but is now better. " On the death 
of Mr. Morse, Mr. Boddam'^' at Tellicherry requested that I 
would, with Mr. De Friez, take charge of his affairs. This I 
have consented to, and so nuich the more readily as Mr. De 
Friez, who had the management of them in Mr. Morse's time, 
is well acquainted with the state of them. 

" After just seventeen years' service I was in June last taken 
into Council and appointed a member of the Select Committee. 
By desire of Mr. Du Pre I still, however, retain my post of 
Secretary to both." I shall be glad to relinquish the secretary- 
ship, which I have held for ten years. " Whenever I resign I 
believe Goodlad will succeed to my department, for which no 
one is better qualified . . . 

" I believe Mr. Du Pre will certainly leave us in January. 
It will not be easy to find a person endowed with equal abilities, 
steadiness and attention to business to succeed him. We have 
no intimation from home who the person is to be. If a successor 
does not arrive before his departure, he will leave the charge 
of the Government in the hands of Mr. Wynch. 

" I hope Mrs. Stone and my little girl are before this time 
safely arrived in England . . ." 

[Holograph, 6| pp., Mo.] " J. M. Stone." 

[No. 177.] 
Reyno[ld] Adams to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, October 2nd, Fort St. George.—" Captain Baker 
brought me your esteemed favor of the 7th February. . . I am 
sorry to say that his watering scheme will entirely overset my 
employ, as, if he pleases, [he] may furnish all the shipping with 
water, which ... is almost the only perquisite belonging to 
my employ, and which, since the arrival of the squadron, has 
been something considerable." I have represented this to Mr. 
Du Pre, who admits the hardship but will not interfere, 

" By the death of Mr, Morse Mr, Goodlad is, I believe, yovir 
sole attorney. I shall regularly pay him the rent of Miss Palk's 
house, which, if ever you should chuse to dispose of, I will be 
glad to purchase at what price you may please to put on it . . " 

The person sent out to succeed me is a Mr. Taswell, who is 
trying to secure the command of a country ship until I leave 
the service. My health has not been good of late, and I shall 
resign if Captain Baker succeeds with his water scheme. The 
latter has not treated me generously, and I hope you will use 
your influence to prevent my being deprived of the right of 
watering the shipping. Failing this, I might share the right 
with Captain Baker, with whose town water supply I should 
not interfere. " Reyno. Adams." 

[Autograph, 2f pp., flscp. Duplicate.] 

(1) Rawson Hart Boddam, afterwards Governor of Bombay. 


[No. 178.] 
W[illiam] M[artin] Goodlad to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, October 3rd, Fort St. George. — lit my letter of the 
30th September " I mentioned the death of Mr. Morse. By 
this accident and the departure of Mr. Hastings, Wj^nch and 
I are left your only attornies here, and he probably will not 
remain long with us, and it is therefore necessary that you 
should join someone with me. It will be necessary also that 
you send particular instructions relative to your affairs in general, 
for the executors of Mr. Morse tell me that your sentiments 
are partly conveyed in private letters to him and partly in 
general letters to your attornies. His affairs are left in so 
perplexed a state that, though he died in May, I could not 
obtain the papers till a few days ago." The amount due to 
you will be about Pags. 6,500, and to the General Pags. 1,500. 
" Permit me to recommend Mr. William Petrie*^) to be joined 
with me in the management of your affairs. I know his worth, 
or I would not mention him." 

"W. M. Goodlad." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., Uo.] 

[No. 179.] 
Chocapah to the Hon'ble Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, October 10th, Fort St. George. — " Govcrnour Du 
Pre's intention is to place Mr. Wynch in the government of 
this place, and to take his passage home in January next. This 
gentleman in every respect made a good Govcrnour, and all the 
inhabitants in these parts enjoyed peace and quietness in his 
government. The Marattys has at last settled with Hyder 
Ally, and received eighty lacks of rupees and gone up to their 
country. I hope they will not [give] trouble to the Carnatick 
for sometime ; and Hyder, after settling with them, is preparing 
his army to go against the King of Travencore to see if he can 
get any thing there." 

The French received three ships from France this year with 
goods and money. At Pondichcrry they have now 700 men 
and 400 sepoys, and works of fortification are being carried on 
by M. Law. " Mr. Charles Smith(-) went to Pondichcry in 
August last and stayed there for about a month, married one of 
the daughters of Mr. Law, who was a military officer when that 
place was taken by the English, and brought her sister with him 
to get her a husband. General Smith resigned the service to 
Colonel Sir Robert Fletcher, and intends taking his passage 
Jiome in January next." 

(1) W'illiaiu Petric, a Madras civil servant of 17(55, bccaino Resident at Nagore 
on the acquisition of that territory in 1778. Ho subsequently erected an astro- 
nomical observatory at Madras, which was taken over by Government in 1789. 
In the fnllowiiif,' year Pctrie entered Sir Charles Oakeley's Council as second member, 
and in 1S(I!I he was apixiinted Governor of Prince of Wales's Island, where he died 
in 1810. 

(-) Charles Smith. Vide No. 118, /). IJti, note 1, 

197 [No. 179. 

Mr. Andrews*^) has resigned the service and goes to England ; 
Mr. Stratton*-' has become Chief at Vizagapatam, and Mr. 
Brooke*'** is to reheve Mr. Wyneh at Masuhpatani. It is reported 
that Mr. SuHvan will come out as Governor. If he does, please 
recommend me to him. " Mr. Morse departed this life the 
28th May last, who was a father and freind to all the people 
in Madrass. Jangama Chitty is in prison ever since your honour 
went home, and he has hardly any thing to maintain himself. 
I don't think he is able to discharge any part of your debts ..." 

" Chocapah." 

[Autograph, 2 pp., flscp.] 

[No. 180.] 
Chocapah to the Hon'ble Charles Bourchier, Esqr. 

[The greater part of this letter is identical with No. 179 to 
Robert Palk.] 

1772, October 10th, Fort St. George.—" I have in my 
former letters advised your honour of the bad situation 
Cheppermall Chitty's'^' affairs were in, and that he was greatly 
reduced . . . for want of business in the Mint . . , and therefore 
requested your honour would be pleased to intercede in his 
behalf to Lord Pigot, and get his Lordship to excuse him of the 
debt he owes to him . . ." " Chocapah." 

[Autograph, 2 pp., flscp.] 

[No. 181.] 
J[ohn] M[axwell] Stone to Robert Palk, Esqr, 

1772, October 15th, Fort St. George.— The subject of this 
letter has long been on my mind, but before discussing^it I 
desire to thank you for your favourable mention of me to some 
of the Directors. My obligations to you are very great. 

" I am well aware how irksome, and I may say odious, a task 
it is to arraign the capacities and abilities of men ; and I am 
thoroughly sensible that such an attempt may be imputed to 
presumption or arrogance or, what is worse, to motives of self- 
interest and advantage. However, as I am conscious that 
my intentions are only to promote the good of the Company ; 
as I am convinced that I am addressing a friend to whom I may 
with safety lay open my sentiments without reserve from an 
assurance that an improper use will not be made of them, I shall 
lay them before you with that freedom which I think the 
subject requires. 

" I remember, when you was in India, to have frequently 
looked over with you the list of Company's servants on this 

(1) John Andrews. Vide No. 52, p. 78, note 1. 

(2) George Stratton. Vide No. 47, p. 72, note 6. 

(3) Henry Brooke. Vide No. 31, p. 51, note 2. 

(4) Cheppermvll Chitty, also called Tapermaul Chitty, succeeded his father 
Linga Chetti in 1757 as native manager of the Mint under the Assay Master. 

No. 181.] 198 

establishment. The remarks made by you at that time with 
respect to some of them have since made a deeper impression 
on my mind ; and I every day see more forcibly the danger 
to which this Government may be exposed by admitting persons 
into Council merely because they stand next in succession, 
without a proper regard to their merit and abilities. It is true 
the repeated orders of the Company on this subject are 
sufficiently clear and express, and give the Board full latitude 
in the choice of their members ; but it is a subject of a very 
tender and delicate nature, and there are few men who are 
willing to declare publickly on their records their opinion of 
any one when such opinion may tend to the prejudice of the 
person in question." 

You are well acquainted with the characteristics of the present 
members of the Board ; and in view of the approaching 
departure of Mr. Du Pre and the difficulties we may have to 
meet in connection with the INIinister and the Nawab, I would 
urge that future selections for the Council should be regulated 
on the basis of ability and strength of character rather than 
seniority. Should such a course be adopted, " I will venture 
to say that the Company cannot fix upon a person more 
deserving in every respect of such a mark of their preference 
than Goodlad. I acknowledge the sincere friendship I have for 
him ; but at the same time I can assure you that is not the 
motiv^e which weighs with me. I am induced to mention him 
from the perfect knowledge I have of his disposition, capacity 
and abilities, and to which you are no stranger ; and I may add 
that the credit and reputation with which he has so long filled 
one of the most laborious and difficult employs in the service 
would, in my opinion, well justify such a mark of the Company's 
favor and attention . . ." " J. M. Stone." 

[Holograph, 9 pp., 4<to.] 

[No. 182.] 
Jos[iAs] Du Pre to [Robert] Palk, Esqr. 

1772, October 15th, Fort St. George. Received 12th April, 
1773. — " I wish a successor had been appointed that I might 
have crossed the surf with all due forms. Yet considering that 
all our affairs arc in tranquility, that my constitution is worn 
out, and that I have 150 other good reasons, I seriously intend 
to seat our friend Wynch in the Chair and embark for Europe 
in January. My enemies will blame me. I have weighed 
the consequences on both sides. The arguments for going 
appear to me irresistable, and I yield to them . . . 

" Our best wishes wait on Mrs. Palk and your family. Pray 
remember me to the worthy General." 

" Jos. Du Pre." 

[P.S.] — " The plate I received from Mr. Bourchier has been 
valued and the amount paid to Mr. Morse, who, you will hear, 

199 [No. 182. 

is numbered with those who have hved. I have shown to Mrs. 
Morse every attention in my power. 

" Don't bcHeve them — those I mean who told you we 
threatened to appeal to a higher tribunal. We said no sueh 
thing, but we made them ashamed of themselves for what 
they said, and they did not know how to get off but by aeeusing 
us of what we never said. Peace be with them. I deliver them 
over to their own conseiences, if they have any." 

[Holograph, 1| p., 4^o.] 

[No. 183.] 
Edward CoTsroRD(i) to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1772, October 15th, Madrass. Received 12th April, 1773.— 
" Dear Sir, After so long a silence it is with difficulty I can 
prevail on myself to address you at all ; not through want of 
inclination, but from a conviction that it requires more rhetoric 
than I am master of to set forth sufficient reasons for having 
so long neglected paying you my respects . . . 

" About two months after yoiu* departure for England I was 
under the necessity of leaving Ganjam through illness, having 
been brought to death's door by a violent fever. During my 
absence Narraindoo'-' (Zemeindar of Khimedy and since dead) 
took possession of all the northern part of the Cicacole Circar, 
so that I escaped being made a prisoner, but lost all the effects 
I had at Ganjam. Some time afterwards, in consequence of 
the war with Hyder Ally, a very considerable reinforcement of 
troops were transported to the Coast from Calcutta, and 
proceeded by the way of Commamett and Worangol tov/ards 
Hyderabad, which l^rought the Soubah of the Decan to a. peace 
with us. The Bengal detachment not being wanted in the 
Carnatic, it was employed in reducing Narraindoo, and in which 
they so far succeeded as to drive him out of the country and 
take all his forts and strongholds. 

" At the time the peace was made with the Soubah I made 
application to Mr. Bourchier to return again to Ganjam, 
thinking it a favourable juncture for getting a detachment of 
seapoys for the service of the Itchapour district, to act under 
my own orders. The Governour at first did not encourage it, 
judging there was but a small probability of any advantage 
accruing to the Company from the measure, and also a great 
risque to myself. For my own part, I was an adventurer, and 
had nothing to lose. So I returned again and carried with 

(1) Captain Edward Cotsford entered the military service in Dec, 1758, as 
Practitioner Engineer and Ensign, but tiis name was also borne on the civil list 
from 1759. He served in the Manila expedition of 1762 and in the two sieges of 
Madura. After a visit to England he was appointed by Palk irx 1766 to bo Resident 
in Ganjam, a post he occupied for several years. He was independent of the Chief 
at Vizagapatam and was responsible directly to Madras. In 1776 he prepared for 
Orme a monograph on the development of the Fort St. George defences from 1743 
to the time of the siege of 1758-59. 

(21 Narayan Deo. Vide No. 42, p. 68, note 2. 

No. 183.] 200 

me a detachment, and was as expeditious as I possibly could 
with the Zemeindars that I might not lose the opportunity of 
the vicinity of the Bengal detachment. At the close of the war 
with Hyder Ally the Europeans of the Bengal detachment 
embarked for Calcutta at Vizagapatam, and the three battalions 
of seapoys proceeded by land, that being an indulgence promised 
them at their embarkation for the Coast. In their passage 
through the Itchapour country I made use of their presence as 
essentially as I could consistent with the time they were to 
stay and reflections on what my situation would be after their 
departure. I have since from time to time been reinforced, 
and we have now stationed in that district fifteen companies 
of seapoys and the Coffery'^> company. 

" I have been extreamly fortunate in every measure I have 
engaged in in that country, and have brought the Zemeindars 
into some kind of order, though not without a considerable 
share of trouble and some loss of men, having had killed and 
wounded in all at different times between 4 and 500 men. 
However, the Company have not lost a grain of military 
reputation, and their revenues there are increased. We have 
not yet began an Investment, the country not being in a state 
to undertake it without the risking the loss of the money, the 
weaving villages lying in the Zemeindaries for the most part. . . 
At present it yields an annual profit of 150,000 rupees, after 
paying the charges civil and military, and expence of fortification 
and buildings. The Fort is nearly finished with a revetement — 
I mean the body of the place — and is sufficiently large to contain 
all the buildings necessary for merchandize and military stores 
suitable to the degree of importance of the place. As you are 
the person to whom I am indebted for this post, I have been 
somewhat more particular than I should otherwise have been. 
It has answered my expectations in every respect, and I feel 
the greatest pleasure in informing you that my conduct has 
always been approved by the Board. 

" The Zemeindaries dependant on Vizagapatam are for the 
most part under the immediate management of Sitteram 
Rauze,<2' which is undoubtedly improper, as it prevents the 
Chief there from ever gaining such a knowledge of the country 
as is absolutely necessary to enable him to ascertain the real 
value of the country, and how far the revenues will bear 
increasing ; and in all other respects it prevents the authority 
of the Company from being felt and understood. When that 
country was first taken possession of, it was, I suppose, absolutely 
necessary to support Sitteram Rauze in all the power he could 
possess himself of; but according to my judgment the reasons 
for such a conduct do not now subsist. It appears to me that 
every Zemeindar should be independant of Sitteram Rauze 
(who himself is no more than a Zemeindar) and of each other, 

(1) Coffery. Vide No. 79, p. 110, note 2. 

(2) Vide No. 19, V- 28, note 5. 

201 [No. 183. 

and transact all their affairs immediately with the Chief . . . 
The only reason which can be offered in favour of it [sic] is that he 
is more capable, throuoh his authority and knowledge of the 
country, of keeping in subjection those Zemeindars whose lands 
lie amongst the hills and in the interior part of the Circar. But 
this is by no means the case, as I know by experience that 100 
of our seapoys will go where a thousand of his people dare not 
shew themselves. 

" Some months since Hussein Ally Khan died, and the 
Company, I believe, allow one lack of rupees per annum to his 
children in lieu of the Jaguire held by the father ; and the 
lands which formed the Jaguire have been returned to two of 
the Zemeindars, whose property they originally were, and their 
tribute in consequence proportionably increased. 

" Since the war with Hyder Ally the Nabob's affairs are, I 
believe, in a very flourishing state, as he has paid off a very 
considerable part of his debts both publick and private, besides 
maintaining a very respectable army. He has been very 
successful against the Rajah of Tanjour and the countries of 
the Great and Little Maravas. In some forts of the last mentioned 
places he found very considerable riches. An expedition is now 
talked of against the King of Travancore. Notwithstanding 
the good state of his affairs, I believe the Nabob was never less 
at ease than he is at present at any period of his life scarce. 
The interposition of the Crown in his affairs and the great 
attention paid to him by Sir John Lindsay caused him to assume 
an appearance of independance on the Governor and Council 
he had never before shewn. He has also by the same means 
acquired a very clear idea of the nature of our Constitution ; 
but I believe he is loaded with doubts and fears, which the 
knowledge he has gained seems only to increase. He has 
discernment enough to perceive that he is in a labyrinth. He 
knows by experience the power of the Company, and fears the 
greater power of the Government, 

" A few days since, Sir Robert Harland, with the squadron 
under his command, left this coast for Bombay. He did not 
take leave of the Governor, as he thought it inconsistent with 
his station to pay that compliment to any one acting under 
the authority of the Company. And the Governor resented it 
by not taking any notice of him at his departure, for he went 
on board without having any publick honours shewn him, and 
was not even saluted with cannon. Various opinions are given 
on Mr. du Pre's conduct, and I dare say this matter will make 
some noise in England. 

" Sir Robert Fletcher, who is now with me, desires his 
compliments to yourself and Mrs. Palk, with wishes for your 
health and happiness. Edward Cotsford." 

[P.S.] — " I am now here on a visit, and shall return again 
to Ganjam in a few days." 

[Holograph, 7f pp., 4ito.] 


[No. 184.] 
Tho[ma]s Palk to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1772, November 10th, Calcutta.—" I left Madras the 
beginning of September to come here ... I have at last paid 
my brother the long intended visit. I arrived here the 24th of 
October, when I found him very well. It is with much concern 
I tell you of the loss he has lately met with (which gave him 
much affliction for a long time) by the death of his wife. I 
cannot help expressing the greatest concern on my side for the 
loss of that amiable woman ... I am sorry to inform you of 
the death of Mr. Morse, my most valuable friend, for so he was 
to the strictest meaning of the word ; and the good old lady has 
been at death's door herself, but she is now perfectly well again. 
She has taken her passage with Captain Elphinston of the 
Triton . . . 

" I am still under Mr. Secretary Goodlad. Had I been 
appointed at the time an opportunity happened at Masulipatam, 
I might in this [have] been money in pocket. I should have 
been near Captain Madge, whose assistance I should not have 
found wanting. I had the pleasure of seeing him in my way 
here at that place, where he commands, who offered me then 
the loan of a sum of money, which I refused for several reasons. 
Mr. Bourchier not only talked of his friendship for me, but might 
have really proved himself a friend, so that I have nothing to 
thank him for, and very little more Mr. J. Call. His intentions 
might be good, but they have proved contrary. 

" I find from my brother [that] he wrote last year requesting 
Grace'^' might be sent out to him, and he as well as myself were 
a little surprized she did not arrive. I should be exceeding glad 
to see her, as I hear she is grown a fine girl. . . My brother, 
notwithstanding his misfortunes, is in a fair \yay of doing well 
for himself, though I don't see how he could otherwise, as he 
has had all the advantages he could wish for . . ." 

"Thos. Palk." 

" P.S. — Mr. H. Vansittart was at Madras some time with his 
grand father. He is now at Patna with his uncle, and no doubt 
will turn out a cliver man, as there is all the appearance at 
present of it." 

[Holograph, 8 pp., 4^o.] 

[No. 185.] 

Warren Hastings to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, November 11th, Fort William. Received 19th April, 

per Lapwing. — " Dear Sir, The last letter I addressed to you, 

if I am not mistaken, was dated September 7th. This is to 

acknowledge your favor of the 26th March, 1772. 

" It affords me no inconsiderable concern to observe the 
people of England, and even our Hon'ble Masters, who should 

(1) Grace P;ilk. Vide No. 162, y. 180, note 2. 

203 [No. 185. 

form their opinions with more candour and exactness, thus 
easily induced to the credit of every cahmniy put forth by each 
paltry scribbler of the day. The productions of Bolts'^) and 
Dowe*-) are mcdiics replete, though not in an equal degree, 
with abominable untruths, base aspersions and absurdities. 
How cruel to judge the reputation of any one by such criterions ! 

" I have exerted my power to the utmost to destroy even 
the shadow of Mahomed Riza Cawn's influence. I have placed 
his enemies in his seat, and have him imder a secure confinement. 
When I shall be able to release him God knows. It is my 
intention to bring him to his trial ; and I flatter myself the issue 
will prove that if I am not his enemy (as in fact I by no means 
am) yet I am incapable of being prepossessed either by partiality 
or bribe to serve him : but I am overwhelmed with present 
business and cannot look back. 

" I am sorry the House of Commons should think of estab- 
lishing laws for this country, ignorant as they are of the laws 
in being, of the manners and customs of the inhabitants, or of 
the form of government. I hope the Act will not take place, 
for should it, every thing we have done will be destroyed, and 
my labour will prove like the toil of Sisyphus. 

" As before, I enclose my letter to Mr, Sulivan to you. You 
will read it and then deliver it to him, as I know not where he 
is and do not admire trusting my correspondence in strange 

" Poor Grifflthsf^) is with me. What shall I do with him ? 
He is a good and a valuable young man, and will do credit to 
your patronage if you will employ it to get him into the service. 

" I am, with an unfeigned and most affectionate regard, dear 
Sir, your most obedient and faithful servant, 

" Warren Hastings." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., Uo.] 

[No. 186.] 
Colonel Gilbert Ironside to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1772, November 11th, Fort William. — " I have been favoured 
by your letter of the 19th March by Mr. Berdmore'*' ... I 
took him in my hand to Mr. Hastings, and shall remember to 
remind the Governour of your desire to have him placed at some 
advantageous station. He appears to be a good young man . . . 

" By the Lapwing, Captain Gardener, I do myself the pleasure 
to send you the Arabian MSS. mentioned in my letter of the 
15th of last April . , Mr. Hastings has began well. Qualis 

(1) William Bolts, a Dutchman, was formerly in the Bengal civil service. He 
was deported in 1768, and subsequently published a work attacking the Bengal 

(2) Alexander Dow, translator of Fcrinhta and author of a History uj Hindustan, 

(3) Henry Griffiths. Vide No. 88, v- 117, note 1. 

(4) Samuel Beardmuro, a cadet. Vide No. 226, p. 280, note 2. 

No. 186.] 204 

ab incepto processerit, et sihi constet. He had three or four mean, 
dirty, factious oppositions to contend with on his outset, but 
by tlie force of abihty, assiduity, temper, steadiness and 
moderation has already almost surmounted them all . . . 

" Mr. Vansittart and Mr. Palk are extremely well. Mrs. 
Van is lately recovered from lying in. Poor Mrs. Palk died in 
June, much regretted for her gentle amiable disposition. Mrs. 
Van, Mr. Palk, with his brother and Lieut. Stonhouse, visitors 
from Madras, live together at the gardens about a mile from 
town. George, it is expected, will be called down to take his 
seat at the Board about February. . . The fortunes of civilians 
are at present created from the rank of Senior Merchants to 
Factors, while the Council as well as the Governour are starvinu." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., Mo.] " Gilbert Ironside. 


[No. 187.] 

Hen[ry] Griffiths(I) to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1772, November 12th, Calcutta. — Accept my grateful thanks 
for your efforts on my behalf. " Mr. Hastings, to whom you 
were so kind [as] to recommend me, has done every thing in his 
power to serve inc. I am at present at his house in expectation 
of being employed. It will be shortly, I hope, as a young man 
cannot live here on a trifle and without the emoluments of 
any employ . . . ." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., 4>to.] " Hen. Griffiths.' 


[No. 188.] 
Tho[ma]s Palk to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1772, December 1st, Calcutta. — " I some time ago was 
requested by your attornies to deliver to them an account of 
the estate of my two deceased cousins, which I should have 
done had I come at the least knowledge of [it], though I have 
not had anything to do regarding it. . . I am sorry to observe 
to you, though I believe I have done it in a former letter, 
of his having left a child unprovided for, which is a cruel 
circumstance. . . . Captain Madge and myself shall be careful 
that it never wants . . . Madge as well as myself are sorry that 
we were so hasty in giving Palk's mother an estimate of the 
estate, as we might have detained some part of it for its 
maintenance without her suffering by it, as the death of her 
two sons ought by no means to lay her under the expectations 
of an independency . . . 

" I request, Sir, that you will deliver the enclosed to my young 
sister Grace, who I as well as my brother are waiting with 
great impatience to see . . . 

"Thos. Palk." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., 4tto.] 

(I) Henry Griffiths. Vide No. 88, p. 117. note 1. 


[No. 189.] 
Stephen Sulivan*^) to [Robert Palk, Esqr.] 

N.D. [?1772] Sunday. Essex Court, Temple.—" For God's 
sake, my dear Sir, let me entreat you by that love and regard 
that I hope you still have for one who will always be proud of 
yoiu" good opinion, let me entreat you to pay that attention 
that I wish to the subject of this letter, for in so doing you will 
confer a favor upon me greater than it is possible for you to 
conceive, unless you could put yourself into my particular 
situation. But, do what you will, I am afraid that you cannot 
relieve my mind from those uneasy reflections with which it 
has been agitated for some time past, though I have had 
fortitude enough to disguise it from the world. It is but too 
certain that I am distressed for monev : if therefore, without 
an inconvenience to yourself, you could give me an order for 
500/., I pledge myself to you, as a young man who never yet 
deceived anybody, that at the expiration of six months I will 
repay you most chearfully ; and this (I speak positively) the 
remittances of my own income from Ireland will enable me 
to do. 

" I ought now. Sir, from a principle of justice to you as well 
as to myself, after having made known my request, to make you 
acquainted likewise with the reasons for this application ; 
otherwise at first sight it may seem to argue a something in my 
own conduct that might expose me to the just reproof of a parent, 
which I therefore mean to avoid, or else a distrust of that 
parent, as if he had refused to supply me in whatever was 
reasonable, and had therefore reduced me to the necessitv of 
solliciting in another quarter. From both these imputations 
I can aflirm with safety that I am free. There is no part of my 
conduct (though perhaps it has never been, nor is at present, 
nor ever will be, such as I wish it), there is no part of ni}- conduct 
that I would not submit tomorrow to my father's examination, 
because I know that as long as he continues to be a father to 
me, so long will he continue to be a friend; And I profess 
further that from my earliest infancy to this hour, from the 
moment that I have been capable of thinking, I have experienced 
such a continual series of kind offices and attentions as few other 
young men beside myself have experienced. What is it then 
that hinders me from taking that liberal and open method, to 
which my inclination leads me, of unbosoming myself to you 
without reserve, as I shall always look upon you, next to my 
own parent, the most worthy of my confidence and esteem ? I 
will answer you fairly. It is a nice sense of honor, a delicacy 
of sentiment and a firm regard to my word— considerations 
from which nothing can move me . . . 

" Adieu ! my dear Sir. Think more for me than I am able 
to express, for if you knew with what reluctance I have brought 

(1' Son of Laurence Sulivan. 

Xo. 189.] 206 

myself to write to you. and the peculiarity of my situation at 
present, you would make considerable allowances. Indeed I 
am not used to such a trade as this. It hurts that commendable 
pride that has been the fruit of a generous education ; and yet 
necessity must overcome even motives stronger than these. I am, 
with perfect regard, your sincere friend and obedient servant, 

[Holograph, 3 pp., 4fo.] " Stephen Sulivan." 

[No. 190.] 
Memorandum of Reforms Effected by Hastings in 1772. 

N.D. [?1772]— " In the beginning of June Mr. Hastings left 
Calcutta with a deputation from the Council consisting of Messrs. 
Middleton, Dacrcs, Lawrell and Graham*^', and they continued 
at the city'^' till the middle of September executing the orders 
of the Court of Directors transmitted by the Lapwing packet. 
Mahomed Ryza Cawn and Shittabroy*-^' were removed from 
their offices. An o[e]conomical arrangement was made of 
the Nawab's household. Munny Begum, wife of Jaffier All 
Cawn, was constituted guardian to the Nawab. Rajah Goordass, 
son of Nund-Comar, was appointed Naib Dewan, and Rajah 
Juggut Chund his Peshkar or steward. A settlement was made 
of the revenue by leases at an increasing rent for five years. 
All the useless pensions were withdrawn, and none continued 
except to the old provincial families — a considerable saving 
and beneficial, as it rids the Nawab's court of a parcel of 
foreigners (chiefly Persians), infamous retainers to it. A 
thorough regulation was established in all the Courts and offices 
of the State, whether civil, criminal or of revenue. These 
Courts with their records were removed to the Presidency, and 
the Council of Durbar in consequence dissolved. Regulations 
were formed for a certain, easy and perspicuous method for 
the receipt of future collections. A reform took place in the 
silk manufactories. Mr. Middleton was continued Chief of 
Cassimbuzar, Resident at the city, and Collector of the districts 
dependant on Mursheedabad. The three youngest members 
of the Committee proceeded to Dacca to make the settlement 
of the Eastern provinces. 

" Since the return of the Governour to the Presidency his 
time has been occupied (exclusive of the current business) in 
adjusting a regular method of conducting the management of 
the revenue at Calcutta. Various plans were presented and 
considered. By some it was proposed that every Counsellor 
should have his distinct department of some Court, or Collector 
General of some province, with an appeal to lie to the Governour 
in the last resort ; but this was rejected on account of the many 

(1) Samuel Middleton, Philip M. Dacrcs, James Lawrell and John Graham. 

(2) Mui-shidabad. 

(") Muhammad Raza Klian and Shatfib Kai were Naibs or Deputies of the 
Nawab for the provinces of Bengal and Bihar respectively, and virtual rulers of 
(;hose territories. 

207 [No. 190. 

difficulties it was fraught with, and abuses it appeared liable to. 
The system actually adopted is : — One of the Counsellors to 
preside, in weekly rotation, over all the revenue business, the 
papers and accounts of wlii(;h are dehvered to him by the 
Counsellor next in rank, who previously audits them after they 
have been examined by the Mutsuddees'^' and Company's 
servants in the several offices, A daily report is made of every 
thing to the Governour by the Royryan'-* and the superiour 
native officers, and a periodical one to the Board by the weekly 
presidents and auditors. The employment of auditor is an 
introduction of the Governour's, and is found to answer so 
well that he designs to fix such an officer in every department." 
[2 1 pp., flscp. Unsigned.] 

[No. 191.] 
Tiio[ma]s Palk to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1773, January 11th, Calcutta. — " I am still here with my 
brother, who contributes every thing in his power to my 
pleasure, as this happens to be the season for all sorts of diver- 
sions, of which we have little or none on the Coast." When 
I hear from Mr. Wynch, who by this time must have succeeded 
Mr. Du Pre, I shall decide about returning to Madras. " My 
beloved friend General Smith" goes home "on the Triton, in 
consequence of which the command of the troops has devolved 
on Sir Robert Fletcher, who is universally despised, the court 
martial business'^) having laid a stain on his principles that will 
never be forgot or washed out. Consequently I have not the 
least intimacy with him." There is a report here, which I do 
not credit, that Mr. Barwell,'*' of the Bengal Council, is to be 
Governor of Madras. Should it prove true, I shall take care 
to ingratiate myself with him. 

" ]Mr. George Vansittart is coming down from his Chief ship 
at Patna to take his seat at the Board. Mrs. V., my brother 
and myself are going up as far as Cossimbazar to meet him in 
a week more, a thiiig not common in this count?\y for a wife to go 
any small distance to meet her husband. 

" The army here is in motion. They are marched up to the 
frontiers of Suja ul Dowlah's country to be a check on the 
Morattoes. They have paid the King of Delhi a visit, and were 
very ruffly received by him. The King and them have had 
an engagement, in which the former was worsted, with great 
loss on both sides .... 

" Mr. Secretary Goodlad, since I have left Madras, has been 
in a very dangerous way. He has had a violent attack in his 
liver, for which he has been cut, and is recovering verv fast . . ." 
"Thos. Palk." 

(1) Muisuddee, mutasaddi, writer, clerk. 

(2) lioyrijan, rairaicni, cliief revenue officer under the Diwan. 

(3) Lieiit-Colonel Sir R()l)ert Fletcher was casiiiered in 1766 for supporting the 
combination of Bengal oflScers. Cf. No. 141, p. 163, note 2. 

(4' Richard Barwell, afterwards a member of the Supreme Council. 

No. 191. J 208 

" P.S. — I beg leave to hint to you that it will be doing me 
in [sic] a great service to prefer me as a tenant to the one'^' in it, 
as the present one rather makes more use of it as godowns*^) 
than a dwelling house. Your attorney must also have your 
directions regarding it. It will be easy to get him out without 
giving offence by your specifying that you chuse to serve me 
preferable to one who has less right to expect it. Be so good, 
Sir, as to take notice of this by the first ship." 

[Holograph, 6 pp., Uo.] 

[No. 192.] 
Ant[hon]y Goodlad to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1773, [cir. January 11th], Calcutta. — I received your letter 
of the 7th February by Mr. Kennaway*^'. to whom I will show 
every attention. For the last two months he has been my 
assistant in the Translator's oflfice, where he is working well. 
From the correspondence of ]\Ir. Hastings with Mr. Sulivan you 
doubtless know of the various changes made by the Governor. 
" I shall be happy if they meet with the approbation of the 
Gentlemen at home, but they are of late so very difficult to 
please that I must confess in many instances I doubt of success. 
Mr. Cartier returns to Europe upon this ship after having 
experienced, I must say, the severest treatment from his 
employers for his 23 years' services. If a disinterested conduct 
in a public capacity is meritorious in these days, they will never 
meet with such another Governor of Bengal. 

" A violent attack of the liver, which my brother INIartin has 
labored under for some time past, and for which he has under- 
gone the operation of having his side opened, gives me too much 
reason to apprehend that a trip to Europe is absolutely necessary 
for the re-establishment of his health. I am very sorry for 
the occasion, as it cannot, I am afraid, prove otherwise than 
highly prejudicial to his interest . . . Pie is the head and support 
of the family, and on his success depends the enjoyment and 
happiness of the whole . . ." 

"A. W. Goodlad." 

[TI olograph, 5|- pp., Uo.] 

[No. 193.] 

Ja[me]s Dantell'*' to Roi?ERT Palk, Esqr. 

1773, Januarv 28th, Cuddalorc. — I venture to write to vou 
on behalf of our conunon friend Sir Robert Fletcher, who " has 
not only felt the effects of Mr. Du Pre's measures since the 
resignation of General Smith, but has some reason to apprehend 

(1* Reynold Adams, tenant of Palk's house in Fort St. Geoi^e. 
(2) Godoun. Vide No. 2, p. 5. note 10. 
(3> Richanl Konnaway. Vide No. 153, p. 171, note 4. 

(•*) James DauioU, a Madias civil servant of 1701, entered Council in 1777, He 
was Chief at Masulipatam in 1782, and retired in 1785. 

209 [No. 193. 

his representation of them at lionio. Sir Robert is of conrse 
obh'fTccI to oxert all his inflncncc to prevent sueh an intention ; 
uiui as you have been often pleased to serve him at the tribunal 
of lieaden liall, he hopes you will not forsake him on the present 
occasion . . . ." 

I chanced to see the papers relating to recent disputes in 
Council, which are now transmitted to Europe. They are 
voluminous, but I can give you an idea of the origin of the trouble 
in a few words. " It began by an application from the Nabob, 
introduced by the Governor, to be addressed from the Board 
under the title of Arzdashf^^ ; and the impropriety of doing 
so will appear to you by reading the different dissents. The 
Governor has, however, succeeded, and though this mode of 
address is only used throughout Indostan from an inferior to 
a superior, the Governor and Council have adopted the practise. 
When a difference of opinion has once appeared between men 
in power, it seldom ceases on a sudden, but serves only as a 
prelude to other discords. So it is in the present instance, and 
as the authority of command is a theme on which Mr. Du Pre 
has often exercised his abilities, it has been again renewed with 
all its force. Sir Robert, in consequence, has been voted from 
the Council and ordered within 2 days to proceed to the 
command of the fort and garrison of Tritchenopoly, Thus is 
he placed beyond the reach of opposition and deprived of his 
seat at the Board, to which the Court of Directors have been 
pleased to appoint him. On a perusal of the papers you will 
be able to form a judgment of the propriety of Sir Robert's 
proceedings, and determine if any part is the effect of private 
pique, or contrary to the intention of his employers. If not, 
I presume that you will not only assist his cause, but exert your 
influence wdth the Directors to assist the rights of justice and 
prevent the attempts of a misrepresentation. 

" Sir Robert would have wrote to you on this subject if his 
time had permitted him to do so. He passed here yesterday 
on his way to Tritchenopoly, and desired me to communicate 
the substance of his cause, and hopes you will admit his apology 
for not addressing you himself. 

" You may much better conceive that [?than] I can express 
my feelings by closing this letter with the account of poor 
Goodlad's death. He had been lately cut for an inflammation 
in his liver, and a relapse carried him off. He is universally 
lamented, and the Company have reason to regret the loss of 
his abilities." 

" Jas.|Daniell." 

[Holograph, 5 pp., Uo.] 

(1) Arzdasht, Pers., a humble (written) petition. It is not a title, aa stated by 
Daniell, but a respectful form of address. 


[No. 194.] 
Chocapaii to the Honble. Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1773, .January 28th, Fort St. George. — " Governour Du Pre 
takes his passage home on the Nassau . . . and leaves the 
Government in the hands of Alexander Wynch, Esqr., who is a 
gentleman that has been a long time in India'^', and well 
acquainted with the affairs of this country ; and besides he is 
civil, good natured, and will undoubtedly make a good 
Governour. I wish he may keep the Chair for some time, but 
it is strongly reported here that Mr. Sullivan is coming out for 
President of this place .... 

" The Morattas will, I hope, give us no trouble this year on 
account of Madavarave, their Chief, departing this life about 
two months ago, and his l^rother Narranrave being appointed 
Chief in his room, and his uncle Rakobah is appointed General 
of the Army ; which will take up some time more to settle 
their family affairs. . . . 

" The^Export^Warehousekeeper carrys on the Company's 
Investment by employing Gomastas'^) in the weaving towns, 
and the goods he provides now is very good and in proper order. 
. . . Mr. Samuel Johnson*^) married Miss Law, a lady that came 
with Mr. Charles Smith from Pondichery lately ..." 

" Chocapah." 

[P.S.] — " Poor Mr. Goodlad departed this life the 24th instant." 

[Autograph, 1 p., de?ny.] 

[No. 195.] 

GooNTOOR Vencata Ramia and Vencata Royloo to the 
Hon'ble Rop.[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1773, January 31st, Madrass. — Your old servant, Braminy 
Goontoor Vencatachelum, is dead, and we his brothers, being 
in poor circumstances, beg you to help us to obtain employment 
under the Company. 

*' Goontoor Vencata Ramia 
Vencata Royloo." 
[1 p., flscp.] 

[No. 196.] 

W[illia]m Petrie to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1773, January 31st, 3 a.m., Fort St. George. Received 5th 
November. — " My much esteemed and invaluable friend Mr. 
Goodlad, after a long and severe illness, which he supported 
with the most manly fortitude, bid adieu to this world the 24th 
instant. So long ago as . . . October last he had adopted a 

(1) First employed in 173d. 

<2) Gnmatita, fi'oin Pers. gotnashta, an agent. Tlie substitution of perambulating 
gomastas i'oi' th(^ Company's Merchants was a reform introduced by Hastings 
in 1771. 

(3) Samuel Johnson, a Madras civil servant of 1754, entered Coimcil twenty years 
later. After serving as Chief at Vizagapatam he retired in 1781. 

211 [No. 196. 

scheme of going to Europe, not so much on the score of health 
as to promote a favourite plan which he had before communi- 
cated to you in his letters. From his masterly abilities and 
the strongest testimony in his favour from the Board, his friends 
had conceived the most flattering hopes of his success. Soon 
after the despatch of the A^ottinghatn he was attacked with 
a vi(jlcnt obstruction and inflammation in his liver, which from 
the beginning foreboded the most fatal consequences. However, 
the disease appeared at one time to take a favourable turn, 
and the operation of opening the side was performed about the 
beginning of last month with such favourable effects upon his 
disorder that the surgeons entertained the most flattering hopes. 
By the advice of Mr. Pasley(^) he determined on a voyage to 
Europe, and took his passage on the Nassau along with Mr. 
Du Pre. The Board gave him the strongest testimony of their 
high opinion of his merit and voted him a minute of publick 
thanks, besides recommending him in the strongest manner to 
the Court of Directors. But, alas, in the midst of our hopes a 
general suppuration took place in his liver, attended with a 
fever and ague, which put a period to his life on the 24th. The 
service, the Settlement, in short the community, mourn his loss 
as a servant to the Company, a valuable citizen and an useful 
member of society . . . 

" Had not our friend been involved in joint concerns his affairs 
would have been distinct and his fortune something considerable, 
but unfortunately for him and unfortunately for his friends, 
his affairs are so blended and involved with Mr. James 
Johnson's'-' that I am much afraid heavy losses may be expected." 
For years past he has been vainly urging Mr. Johnson to settle 
accounts. During our friend's last illness I took every step in 
my power, and even threatened Mr. Johnson with a Bill of 
Discovery in the Mayor's Court, but Goodlad thought that legal 
action would only defeat his object. The executors, Messrs. 
Macpherson,'^' De Souza'^' and myself will not therefore 
proceed to extremities. " Mr. Johnson is in the capacity of 
English accountant with the Nabob, and the world supposes 
him in a fair way of making money, so that there may still be 
a possibility of receiving at least a considerable part of the 
debt . . . You may collect enough from what I have said to 
perceive that a large part of our friend's fortune is in very 
indifferent hands. 

" The will is unfinished. He leaves his fortune, after the 
pavment of his debts and certain legacies, to his sister. Here 
the will breaks off without relating the legacies." The amount 
due from Mr. Johnson is believed to be between Pags. 15,000 
and Pags. 20,000. " To sum up what I have said in a few 

(11 Gilbert Pasley. Vide No. 47, p. 73, note 2. 

(2> Vide Xo. 28. p. 45, note 7. 

(3) John Macpherson, Vide No. 270, p. 2fi:-i, note 2. 

(4) Antonio de Souza, free mercliant. 

No. 196.] 212 

words : — if we recover from Mr. Johnson the money he owes the 
estate of Mr. Goodlad, a considerable balance, I think, will 
remain in favour of the estate ; but on the other hand, if we 
cannot recover this debt, I am afraid his estate will fall 
considerably short." 

Shortly before Goodlad 's death I handed to Mr. Wynch the 
papers relating to your affairs and those of General Lawrence, 
together with Pags. 2,800 in cash. The balance due to you is 
about Pags. 5,800, and to the General about Pags. 3,800. As 
suggested by Goodlad, I shall be pleased to manage your affairs 
in India under a power of attorney. 

" Upon the resignation of our friend, a young gentleman of 
the name of Oakely'^' succeeded to the Civil department. He 
had been in the office of Deputy Secretary for two years, and 
had recommended himself much by his assiduity and promising 
abilities. Mr. Stone, who had held his office of Secretary for 
several months after he had been taken into Council, had 
continued in it during Mr. Goodlad's illness, as Goodlad intended 
removing to the Military department ; upon his resignation 
Mr. Stone quitted his office, and I was appointed Secretary and 
Judge Advocate General. 

" The feuds and animosities which have distracted our 
Council for some months past seemed to collect and unite all 
their force to overwhelm the President on his departure for 
Europe. Minutes, dissents and debates of a more violent nature 
than ever appeared on the records have been entered in the 
course of this month. The majority of the Board removed Sir 
Robert Fletcher from his seat by appointing him to the command 
of Trichinopoly. He pleaded privilege of parliament, and 
demanded a passage on the first ship for Europe. The Board 
insisted on obedience to their order : he complied, and proceeded 
as far as Cuddalore. The Board having inforced their authority, 
they not only admitted his plea, and exonerated him from all 
obligation to serve the Company, but also removed him from the 
command of the Army, and requested General Smith to resume 
the command and his seat in Council, which he accordingly 
did . . . The Board met to take leave of the President and sign 
the dispatches. But it was decreed that Mr. Du Pre should not 
depart in peace. An extraordinary circumstance happened : 
the conclusion was the suspension of Mr. Mackay(-) from the 
service. The President has been thanked by the Board for his 
services to the Company, and embarks to-morrow morning with 
his family on the Nassau, and leaves the Government to Mr. 
Wynch .... 

" These unfortunate animosities have come unseasonably 
on a young secretary. The business in the Political and Military 
department has of late years been so extensive from our 
connections with the country Powers, the frequent wars we have 

(1) Afterwards Sir Charles Oakeloy, Bt., Governor of Madras, 1792-1794. 
'i^' Goorge Mackay. Vide No. I'd, j>. 17, note :<• 

213 [No. 196. 

waged as principals and as auxiliaries, and the violent attacks 
on the Company's rights by the King's Minister, that some 
months entirely devoted to studying the records would not have 
been too much to qualify me for the office of Secretary. But I 
have all at once been hurried into the midst of intricacies and 
difficulties .... 

" The Carnatick is in profound peace with all her neighbours. 
The King of Tan j ore, completely humbled by the late siege, 
makes daily professions of duty and attachment. General 
Smith, before he resigned the command to Sir Robert Fletcher, 
subdued the countries of the Great and Little Marawar. Hyder, 
yet smarting from his recent losses in the war with the Morattoes, 
seems to have adopted a defensive plan, but a mere defensive 
plan is not long to be expected from one of his active genius. 
The Maharattoes since the death of Mahadevarow seem un- 
determined as to any plan of action, and are more engaged in 
the contests of parties at home than in designs against the repose 
of their neighbours. The squadron is still at Bombay, and is 
not expected here till March or April ..." 

"Wm. Petrie." 

[Holograph, 11 pp., 4>to.'\ 

[No. 197.] 
Nawab Walajah to General [Stringer] Lawrence. 

1773, February 1st, Chepauk, [Madras].—" The Nabob 
Waulaujah Bahauder, «Src., presents his salams to his friend 
General Lawrence, and sends him the inclosed with his wishes 
for long life and happiness." 

[Autograph cipher, \ p., 4^o.] 

[No. 198.] 

George Smith to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1773, February 1st, Fort St. George. — " Having declined 
(not refused) the execution of the new and extraordinary 
covenants sent out by the Company for me as a free merchant 
to execute, because I judge it very unsafe to trust my liberty 
and property into other hands than my own, lest of their being 
abused," I am asking my friends in London to apply to the 
Court of Directors for permission for me to remain here long 
enough to settle my affairs, that is, for about eighteen months. 
I beg your influence in support of my request. The Council 
here are friendly, but have resolved " that I am to be laid under 
an interdict of trade, the Company's protection to be with- 
drawn from me, and to be ordered home in twelve months, 
which last is too short a space to wind up my very extensive 
concerns, which when I have done, on their present footing 
will afford me a genteel and comfortalile independency in my 
own country north of the Tweed. 

No. 198.J 214 

" General Smith's resignation of the command of the army, 
and his resumption thereof two days ago will surprise you, as 
will Mr. Mackay's suspension from the service, which took place 
on the same day. Sir Robert Fletcher is left at liberty to attend 
his duty in parliament according to his plea . , . Mr. Du Pre's 
conduct in Sir Robert's affairs does him credit, for he has 
outwited the Chevalier . . . 

" Mrs. Smith, on the first December last, made me the happy 
father of a fine little girl." 

" George Smith." 

[Holograph, 5 j^P-, 4^o.] 

[No. 199.] 
Tho[ma]s Palk to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1773, February 5th, Calcutta. — " We set out to-morrow with 
Mrs. Van (meaning my brother and me) for Cossimbazar to 
meet Mr. Van, who is coming down in order to be sworn into 
Council . . . ." 

"Thos. Palk." 

[P.S.] — " Mr. Goodlad takes his passage on the Nassau for 
England for the recovery of his health . . ." 

[Holograph, 2 J pp., ito.] 

[No. 200.] 
Roger Darvall(i> to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1773, February 10th, Fort Marlborough [Bencoolen]. — In 
consideration of the friendship between you and my late parent, 
I beg for your kind notice, as " I am now. Sir, in a situation 
that requires the greatest assistance . . . ." 

" Roger Darvall." 

[Holograph, 1 p>.. Mo. Wax seal, defaced.] 

[No. 201.] 
Tho[ma]s Palk to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1773, February 30th [sic], Calcutta. — " I have never but 
once ask[cd] for anything in the service, and that was refused 
me by your most then intimate friend ; and if those professed 
friends shew themselves backward in serving me, what am I to 
expect from those who are clear of any such tie ? I am not so 
presuming as to ask any thing : but from Mr. Wynch's readiness 
in endeavouring to get me appointed to his Chiefship, I did, 
three months ago, write him a letter requesting he would do 
something for me, to which I have never yet seen the least reply, 
which not a little astonishes me. That gentleman is now in 
the Government, Mr. Du Pre being gone home on the Nassau.^' 

General Smith resigned the army command to Sir Robert 
Fletcher in August last, but owing to a difference between Mr. 

'1' Roger Darvall entered the Mailras civil service in 1772. He becanne Collector 
of the Northern Di\ isiou of the Jaghirc in 171(1, anil was a member of the Board 
of Trade from 1798. 

215 [No. 201. 

Dii Pre and Sir Robert, he has consented on public grounds to 
resume it. " I learn that General Coote and Mr. Sulivan left 
England in August, which, was it true, I think we might have 
seen them on the Coast by this time. I shall be happy if those 
accounts prove true. I think I may safely depend that he will 
do something for me — I mean Mr. S. 

"It is with much concern I inform you of the death of Mr. 
Goodlad. . . He had been very severely attacked by the liver, 
and had been cut for it and got pretty well, when he had 
resolved on going to England for a season or two of cold weather. 
I have never heard from what cause that he died. I feel for 
his poor mother. The young brother Dick has also been on the 
point of death. I saw him last night, and he is recovering 
fast. I do not imagine Mr. G. died worth much money, as he 
was a great lover of claret and every thing that was good. 

" I am about thinking of returning to the Coast. 1 have, 
'tis true, little to do there, and less here. My brother might, 
if he pleases, assist me greatly, but has not yet shewed any 
inclination. He might however, I think, make a better use 
of his money. I suppose he spends not less than 4 or £5,000 a 
year. He is a lucky fellow." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., 4<to.] 

Thos. Palk." 

[No. 202.] 
Henry Vansittart, jun., to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1773, March 1st, Calcutta. — " I arrived here about a week ago, 
and shall begin to write for the Company in one of their offices, 
for I have as yet spent my time either at Madras or Patna. 
However, I have been idle at neither of them, and my uncle 
took particular care that I should find employment at the last. 

" You may [have] heard of the death of Mr. Goodlad at 
Madras. Indeed his younger brother at Bengal has narrowly 
escaped it, and is now obliged to undertake a journey to Dacca 
for the effectual recoverv of his health. 

" Pray remember me kindly to your family, in which I almost 
include Mr. R. Boehm. 

" Your dutiful nephew, Henry Vansittart." 

[Holograph, 1 p., Mo.] 

[No. 203.] 

A[nthon]y Goodlad to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1773, March 2nd, Fort William. — When I wrote my last letter 
" I little expected that my next to you would have been upon 
so melancholy a subject as the loss of poor Martin, who was 
carried off, poor fellow, on the 24th January by a mortification in 
his side, to the inexpressible uneasiness of all who were intimately 
acquainted with him." 

No. 203.] 216 

As Mr. Petrie has written to you, I feel sure that you have 
done everything possible to alleviate my mother's affliction. 
There was so much family money in my brother's hands that 
I proposed going down to Madras, but Mr. Hastings refused 
permission on the ground that the affairs were already in good 
hands. I believe the estate will realize enough to pay everybody. 
I do not think my mother can be in want of money, but should 
she be temporarily inconvenienced, I hope you will advance 
what may be necessary. 

" Ay. W. Goodlad." 

[Holograph, 5 pp., Mo.] 

[No. 204.] 
Chocapah to the Hon'ble Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1773, March 10th, Fort St. George.— The Government is 
carried on by Mr. Wynch as it was by Mr. Du Pre. There is 
no war ; good rain has fallen ; but trade is dull, especially 
with Manila. "It is reported here that Mr, James Johnson, 
that was under Mr. Bourchier, his affairs is but in a very bad 
situation, and that he spent of the Nabob's money thirty four 
thousand pagodas, which His Highness was so gracious as to 
forgive him so large a sum. Still it is said that he is indebted 
to Mr. Bourchier 10,000, to Mr. Jourdan 13,000, to Mr. Goodlad's 
estate 16,000, to Nellakontawker 3,500, and to some others 
besides ; and that his debt in all will amount to about 60,000 
pagodas. He don't know himself what became of so much 
money, and can produce no proper account for it neither." 

Two years ago Mr. de Souza and sundry others formed an 
association to deal in piece-goods. The capital was Pags. 
300,000 in 30 shares. It now appears that the shareholders 
have not only received no dividends, but will lose one-fourth 
of their capital. 

Mrs. Wynch, Mr. Quintin Crauford'^' and Sir Robert Fletcher 
sail for England in the Triton. Mr. Mackay is suspended, and 
Mr. Monckton becomes Assaymaster in his room. I have no 
employment at present except " the Arrack and Toddy farm." 

" Chocapah." 

[Autograph, 1| p., flscp.] 

[No. 205.] 

George Smith to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1773, March 13th, Fort St. George.—" Since the Nassau 
sailed I have received the orders of the Board to transport 
myself, family and effects to Great Britain in twelve months 
from the 23rd of February last, at the same time laying me 
under an interdiction of trade during that period ; but this 
thev have removed on the remonstrance of Andrew Ross'-' and 

'^' Quintin Cr<anford was a Madras civil servani of 17t)l. 
(2) Andrew Ross. Vide No. 28, p. 46, note 1. 

217 [No. 205. 

myself, so I have no complaint to make. Inclosed I send you 
a copy of my letter to the Board, of which I hope you will 
approve. I have been moderate and honest in my reasons for 
not executing the new covenants, and I hope all honest men 
will approve of my reasons. All I want from the Company 
is time to settle and collect my affairs, which I hope to do by 
June, 1774, when I purpose going by the way of China for the 
conveniency of remitting my money there, and for the better 
accommodation of myself and family ; and I hope. Sir, that you 
will do me the favor to use your influence with your friends in 
the Direction to obtain my request, for I do not chuse to 
embarass my friends here by asking them to do what may be 
contrary to their orders. 

" You will have heard from others, I doubt not, of Sir Robert 
Fletcher's behaviour and of Mr. Mackay's. This last must 
hurt himself, in the opinion of his friends, by his information 
against Mr. Stracey,*^) it having so much the appearance of 
resentment ... I am sorry to see so many discords among us, 
but I steer clear of all of them . . ." 

[Holograjjh, 3 pp., flscp.] " George Smith. 


[Enclosure] — To the Hon'ble Alexander Wynch, Esqr., 
President and Governor, &c. Council of Fort St. George. 
Dated 6th March, 1773. 

I have received your Secretary's letter of the 23rd ultimo, 
requiring me to leave for Great Britain within twelve months 
unless I sign a new covenant. As your order casts a slur upon 
me, permit me to speak in my own vindication, I am already 
under a covenant with the Company, which I have not infringed. 
The new covenant renders me liable to the surrender of my 
personal liberty and property, and of the protection of the laws 
of my country — conditions to which I cannot subscribe. As 
" one of the Judges of his Majesty's Court of Record at this 
place," I cannot relinquish the independence so essential to a 
judge and magistrate. As I am already settling my affairs, 
the execution of a new covenant appears to be unnecessary ; 
but since interdiction of trade will interfere with the winding 
up, I trust you will see fit to remove it. 

" Permit me to add a short account of myself since my 
comming to India. Soon after my arrival at Madrass I went 
to China, where I resided some years ... I left that country 
to my very great detriment in obedience to the Company's 
orders. The Company, sensible of the injury done to me by 
ordering me to leave China, permitted me in the year 1765 to 
return to that country, and gave me three years to settle my 
affairs there, but the engagements I had entered into here 
previous to the receipt of that permission prevented my making 
use of it then ; but it being still in force, I purpose benefiting of 

(1^ Edward Stracey. Vide No. 25, p. 42, note 2. 

No. 205.] 218 

the Company's indulgence to me as soon as my affairs here are 
adjusted, having large concerns in China unsettled, which may 
render my presence in that country necessary ..." 

" (Signed) George Smith." 
[Copy, 8 pp., flscp.] 

[No. 206.] 

MuDoo KiSTNA(i) to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1773, March 14th, Fort St. George. — " Since Mr. Dupre 
embarked . . Mr. Wynch governs in the place, assisted by 
his Counsellors, especially by Messrs. Stone and Stracey. The 
Nabob fixed his residence firmly at Chepauck'^) near the 
Company's Gardenhouse,'^) and does not seem to remove to 
his own city of Arcot and Tirchinojjoly. The country is in 
peace and tranquility at present, excepting the Marava and 
Naulcooty's**' country, which was lately taken by the Nabob, 
and for that reason the Kellery(^) inhabitants of that country 
(who were attached to their old sovereigns) are raising rebellions 
in the said countries ; but Colonel Bonjour,*^' jointly with the 
Nabob's son, is exerting himself there to suppress the same . . ." 


[Autograph, 1| p,, flscp.] 

[No. 207.] 
Tho[ma]s Palk, to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1773, March 22nd, Calcutta. — Since I last wrote, I have been 
appointed by Mr. Wynch to Masulipatam in preference to 
several senior applicants. I am just starting for Madras, so 
cannot seek a passage direct to Masulipatam. 

" It was Captain Madge that wrote me of this appointment. 
He writes to my brother also, proposing a most noble and 
generous scheme ; that they do in conjunction lend me a sum 
of Rs. 15,000 ; that my brother contributes 6 or 8,000 of it, 
and he will do the rest ; that I shall enter into a partnership 
with Mr. Burton, a gentleman you know at Masulipatam, who 
has had a deal of experience in the world . . . What my brother 
intends to do I know not ; but this I know, that he can well 
afford it, and that he makes much worse use of his money than 
he would by setting me out in the world. I shall have the 

(1) Mudoo Kistna (Muttukrislma Mudali). Vide No. 70, p. 97, note 1. 

(2) In 1707 the Navvab acquired a house and land at the fishing village of 
Chepauk, one mile south of Port St. George, and built a palace. The area enclosed 
meas\u"od 1 17 acres. The jialirc is now used as GovorTinient ofTices. 

(•^J The Company's Garden-liuuse near Chepauk, one mile south-west of the Fort, 
replaced an earlier l)uilding in I'cddanaikpetta which was destroyed by the French 
during their occupation of ITKi-dS). The new house was acquired in 1753, and it 
became the suburban residence of the Governor. Enlarged and extended, it is now 
Government FTouse. 

(4) The Nalkottai Poligar. Vide No. 176, /). I'.M, note 3. 

(6) Kellerij (Kallar). Vide No. 175, p. 19-i, note 1. 

(6) Colonel Abraham Bunjour. Vide No. 30, p. 50, note 2. 

219 [No. 207. 

greatest opportunities of making money now, provided this 
scheme of my friend Madge's takes. I cannot conceive that 
he can give any justifiable reasons for his not agreeing in it ; 
but this I shall insist upon, that he gives no reasons to Madge 
that may in any means whatever prevent him from lending 
me any money. The amount of this is yet to be determined, 
and of which I shall not have an opportunity of communicating 
to you till October next . . . Thos. Palk." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., 4to.] 

[No. 208.] 

1773, March 28th [Calcutta.]— Letter of Attorney from 
Robert Palk, of Calcutta, constituting Robert Palk, of 
London, his Attorney. Signed by Robert Palk, of Calcutta, 
in the presence of Henry Vansittart and Richard Kennaway. 

[2 pp., fscp. War seal bearing the words " Robert Palk " in 
Persian characters.] 

[No. 209.] 
Henry Vansittart, jun., to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1773, April 1st, Calcutta. — " I hved in the same family with 
your two nephews and Mr. Kennaway'^' for some time, but Mr. 
Thomas Palk left us last week and proceeded on his voyage to 
Madras. Mr. Thomas Stonhouse'^) (Mrs. Van's brother) went 
away at the same time ... I have not yet entered upon the 
business of the Persian Translator's office, but shall begin 
immediately after the dispatch of the Hector. I shall profit 
more by all accounts in that office than I could possibly in 
any other . . . Henry Vansittart." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., 4io.] 

[No. 210.] 
Warren Hastings to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1773, April 3rd, Fort William. — " Dear Sir, I request the 
favor of your care of the accompanying letters. That to Mr. 
Du Pre I have troubled you with because I am uncertain of his 
address ; the others, one for Mr. Sulivan and one for Mr. 
Bolton, <3) I have sent under flying seals for your perusal. I 
have not time to address you as I could wish, a declaration 
which I am sure your kindness will admit as a full excuse. 

" Harry Vansittart has just sent me a history of the 
Seneassies,'^' which I enclose with this. Perhaps it may amuse 
you, and you may probalily consider it as a curiosity when I 

<l) Richard Kennaway. Vide No. 153, p. 171, note 4. 

(2) Vide No. 72, p. 100, note 2. 

(3) Henry Crabb Boulton. Vide Xo. 88, p. 117, note 2. 

(4) The Sanyasis, figuring as religious devotees, formed themselves intr) roving 
robber bands, each of several thousand men. They gave much trouble during 
Hastings's first year in Bengal, and native regiments were employed to hunt them 

No. 210.] 220 

acquaint you that it was but yesterday morning (noon) I gave 
him the original to be translated. The subject is important to 
us, though to you it may appear trifling, for they are the people 
who have latelv given us so much trouble bv their incursions, 
and have obliged us to employ a considerable force to drive 
them out of these provinces. 

" I beg my compliments may be made to Mrs. Palk, the 
General and all friends. 

" I am, with a most sincere regard, dear Sir, your most 
oV)edient and humble servant, 

"Warren Hastings." 

" P.S.— The letter to Mr. Du Pre and that to Mr. Suhvan, 
together with the history of the Seneassies are by mistake under 
another cover to you." 

[Holograph, 2^ pp., Uo.] 

[No. 211.] 
Mrs. Eleanor Adams to Robert Palk, Esqr., Park Place, 

1773, May 14th, Tavistock. — Sends statement of account, as 
received from Robert Palk of Bengal, of the balance due to the 
estate of Captain Adams,'^) Current Rs. 7,134. 15 as. to be paid 
at 2*. 2|<Z. per rupee. 
[1 p., 4to.] 

[No. 212.] 

Reyno[ld] Adams to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 
1773, July 7th, Fort St. George.— I duly received your letter 
of the 17th November, 1772. Your proposal to invest my 
remittance in the Funds I entirely approve. Mr. Hill and Mr. 
Ley brought me your letters of introduction, and I have tried 
to be of service to them. Both gentlemen will now proceed 
in their respective ships to China. 

" Reyno. Adams." 
[P.S.] — " 22nd July. The Bridgwater is just arrived, all well 
on board, and I am going off this afternoon to bring Miss 
Vansittart'-> ashore, who is to be with Mrs. Hopkins. <^) . . ." 

" Reyno. Adams." 

[No. 213.] 

Extract from a Letter from George Vansittart to his Attorneys 

in England. 

1773, October 9th, Calcutta. — " I have a plan of remittance, 
which it is necessary should be insured. I will give you as 
particular an account of it as I can, and leave you to manage 

(1) John Adams entered the Bengal Engineers in 1761, and became Capt.- 
Lieut. two years later. 

(2) Emelia, siatcr of Henry Vansittart, jun. 

(3) Phyllis n()f)kins, widow of (diaries Ilopkins who was Chief at Devil«>ta in 
1754. A seafaring man from 17.S0 or eariior, ITopkiiis was .Kliuitlcd to the Madras 
civil service in 175(K TTo married Phyllis Britrht in 17;Ul and died at Madras in 
1757. Mrs. Hopkins sailed for England in 1775. 

221 [No. 213. 

the insurance so as to afford no room for quibbles liereafter. 
Mr. Law, Mr. Falk and myself have purehased for 30,000 
rupees a ship formerly ealled the Madras Mcrcluntl, but now 
named the Sarah. She is to sail from Calcutta about tlie 1st 
of December laden with 4 or 500 chests of ophium, of which 
it is intended that part should be sold at the dilTcrent islands 
to the eastward where the Captain may judge it advisable to 
touch, and the rest at China. She is to be commanded by 
Captain Shaw, who has already twice performed the same 
voyage with safety." 

Remittances will be made to you from Bencoolen or Batavia 
and from China as the cargo is disposed of. The value of ship 
and cargo is estimated at £24,000 from Calcutta to China and 
£10,000 from China to Calcutta, and these are the sums to be 
insured. The Captain expects to reach China by August, 1774, 
and to be back in Calcutta by August, 1775. The insurance 
should extend to every place within the Company's limits. 
" Here, where insuring is in general much dearer than in England, 
we could procure an insurance for 12 per cent, to China, but 
this would not answer our purpose of securing, at all events, a 
remittance to England . . . The proportions of the concern 
are : — on my account, one half ; on Mr. Robert Palk's, one 
fourth ; on Mr. Ewan Law's, one fourth. Do you be kind 
enough to insure the whole ..." 

[4 pp., 4/0.] 

[No. 214.] 
Ja[me]s Daniell to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1773, October 13th, Fort St. George. — In my letter of the 
ISth January'^) I mentioned Sir Robert Fletcher's contest with 
the Board. " Little did I then imagine I should so soon have 
occasion to tell you that I likewise have most materially suffered 
from the exertion of my duty. Mr. Turing'-* and myself have 
been called from our stations at Cuddalore from a desire of 
forwarding the Company's Investment at that Factory. From 
a perusal of the accompanying minutes you will find the truth 
of my assertion, and though the Governor and Council have 
been pleased to adopt another pretence for removing us, it 
cannot alter facts so demonstratively pointed that there remains 
not a single doubt to oppose them." 

We are sending copies of the papers to our friends, so that 
the Court of Directors may not be prejudiced in their opinion, 
and I hope for your support against any injurious orders from 
the Court. 

" Jas. Daniell." 

[Holograph, 5 pp., ito.] 

<1) An error for 28th January. Vide No. 193, p. 208. 

<2) John Turing, a civnl servant of 1762. He married in 1773 Mary, daughter of 
Dr. Rohert Turing. 


[No. 215.] 
A[nthon]y Goodlad to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1773, October 20th, Purnea in Bengal. — Your letters of the 
9th and 1 Ith April addressed to poor Martin have been delivered 
to me. I realize your friendship for my family, and trust that 
yon will extend the same favour to his survi\'ino- brothers which 
you always showed to Martin. 

The disputes between the Government and the Company 
in England cause disquietude in India. Some definite plan of 
reform is urgently needed. " Mr. Hastings has been 
indefatigable in his assiduity and attention to the dutys of 
his station, but he must have friends to support his measures 
at home to make them meet with the approbation of the 
publick ; and the unfortunate event of Mr. Sulli^•an and his 
friends being thrown out of the Direction gives me too 
much reason to apprehend that his plans may meet with 
disapprobation. I, however, hope for the best, for as I have 
enjoyed the honor of his confidence, and experienced instances 
of his friendship, I cannot be otherwise than interested in his 
success, and ardent in my wishes for his benefit. He has lately 
been up the country, and settled a new treaty with Soujah 
Dowlah, but as I cannot acquaint you with the particulars of it 
so fully and explicitly as Mr. Van*^', who was on the spot, I 
shall leave him to relate the matter to you . . ." 

After six years of arduous work in the Persian Translator's 
office I was transferred last year at my own request to the 
comparative retirement of the Purnea collectorship, where my 
brother Dick is my assistant. My prospects, however, are not 
too favourable. " I thank God I am honoured with the friend- 
ship and good opinion of the Governor and Mr. Van, and am 
sensible that they will assist me whilst they continue in the 
country ; but, as I look upon Mr. Hastings's situation as 
precarious, and that there is little dependance to be placed in 
these times upon a man's holding a station which is so much 
the envy of half the world, I shall be obliged to you by 
confirming mv connection with Mr. Van (which is alreadv on a 
proper footing) by urging every thing on your part which you 
may deem me worthy of . . . " 

Mr. Petrie at Madras has succeeded beyond my expectations 
in the settlement of my brother's affairs. I think there will 
be enough to pay everybody, though I have little hope that 
Johnson will meet his debt. 

[Holoi^mph, 4| pp., flscp.] " Ay. W. Goodlad." 

[No. 216.] 
Reyno[ld] Adams to Robert Palk, Esqr. 
1773, October 25th, Fort St. George.—" My last went by 
Mr. Ley by the way of China, since which nothing material has 

(1) George Vansittarfc. 

223 [No. 216. 

happened here but the takitijOf of Tanjoiir, which lately fell into 
our hands and is ffarrisoncd by the Xaboli. Tlie captive King 
is sent to Trichenopoly. 

" It is with great concern I acquaint you that this last 
expedition will, I fear, prove fataFto poor Major Madge. He has 
long been much out of order while he stayed to the northward, 
and not recovered when lie Avcnt to the siege of Tanjour, where, 
contrary to the advice of his friends, he ventured in the trenches 
before his health was established. This brought on a relapse 
and a dangerous illness, so that he was advised to go to 
Cuddalore. About ten days ago he arrived at my house'^*, 
where he stayed three or four days, as he allways lives with 
me when at Madras. But as a cooler apartment was recom- 
mended for him, the Governor has given him a room at the 
Admiralt}^'-'. Mr. Paissley*-^' attends him, but he seems loth 
as yet to give his opinion about him. It's said, however, that 
he is not worse than when he first arrived. He is very low- 
spirited, and thinks himself that he cannot live many days . . ." 

" Reyno. Adams." 

[Holograph, 4 pj)., 4/o.] 

[No. 217.] 
Edward Cotsford'*' to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1773, October 29th, Madrass. — About a year ago I gave you 
some account of my work, in which I believe you are interested, 
as it was you who conferred on me the management of the 
Ganjam territory. " In all probability it w^ill become a Settle- 
ment of importance, it being an establishment in the heart of a 
country which, from the quantity of grain exported from thence 
to the Presidency, may be considered as its granary ; and 
indeed the amazing opulence of Madrass within these three 
years makes such an one almost absolutely necessary. The 
money received from Ganjam annually amounts to upwards 
of 150,000 rupees over and above maintaining near two battalions 
of seapoys for the protection of the country (now ind[e]ed 
quiet), and also, if necessary, to keep peace in the southern 
provinces of the Cicacole Circar. 

" You doubtless will learn from other hands of the success 
of his Highness the Nabob against Tanjore. The reduction of 
that province may, I suppose, in general be considered in a 
considerable degree as advantageous to our nation. The Nabob 
is so connected with the English that, if the Government here 
be prudently administered, it will be very difficult for him to 
effect any considerable change ; but nevertheless the extra- 

(1) Adams rented a house in the Port from Palk. 

(2) Admiralty House in Charles Street, Port St. George, was so called as early as 
17o8. It liad been acquired l)y the Company a few years before, and it ultimately 
became the town residence of the Governor. The house, which is now the office 
of the Accountant-General, was rented by CUvc in 1752-53. 

(3) Surgeon Gilbert Pasley. Vide No. 47, p. 73, note 2. 
<4> Vide No. 183, p. 199, note 1. 

No. 217.] 224 

ordinary strides he has lately made towards a formidable 
independency cnight to be considered by ns as most certainly 
tending in the end to that degree of subordination we were 
necessarily obliged to submit to under the government of the 
Mohammedans in former times. The last siege of Tan jour has 
been attended with a circumstance which may by and bye be 
attended with serious consequences. The deposed Rajah, 
finding himself in a desperate situation, made over to the Dutch 
a grant of Nagore (a seaport) and some other districts on the sea 
coast for a valuable consideration in money. The lands are in 
value, I think, about four lacks of pagodas. The Nabob 
considered this act in the King of Tanjore (according [to] the 
feudal system of the government) as unwarrantable, and 
accordingly demanded the assistance of the Company to assist 
his troops in the recovery of the alienated lands. The Governor 
and Council .... determined on assisting him against the 
Dutch, in which opinion they were strengthened by the 
concurrence of Sir Robert Harland, the King's Minister. The 
Dutch are accordingly driven out of their new acquisition, and 
have made a protest in form to General Smith, which is signed 
by their whole Council. The recovery of the lands for the 
Nabob is but a trifle I think, as the Dutch have not withdrawn 
their claim, and are strengthening their fortress, which, if 
perfect, would doubtless be held as a strong fortification even 
in Europe ; and they are collecting all the troops they can draw 
from Ceylon, and doubtless will have a reinforcement from 
Rata via as early as the season will permit. I think it is probable 
the Dutch government at Ratavia have taken into consideration 
the practicability of such measures as might lead to their 
procuring some territorial possessions on the coast of Chormandell 
ever since the first siege of Tanjore. If so, there is no saying at 
present what revolutions may be brought about by their 
interfering with the Marattas or any other Powers. I think 
it is remarked of the Dutch that they are wise in their delibera- 
tions and persevering in their conduct." 

As the attack of Tanjore may have serious consequences, I 
am surprised that the Governor and Council do not garrison 
the place with Company's troops. The interference of the 
King's Minister ought not to force the Roard to any policy 
detrimental to the Company. 

" There is still another measure which I shall take leave to 
say may in the end be of great detriment to the Company — I 
mean the bargaining with individuals beforehand (a committee 
of officers) for the services to be rendered by them to take the 
Fort for a certain sum of money to be payed them in lieu of 
plunder : 2,000 pagodas to each captain, and so in proportion 
to the rest of the army. Officers and men doing their duty 
under such a condition never consider themselves any other 
way than as conferring a favour on the Nabob who employs 
them ; and indeed the impropriety has already appeared, it 

225 [No. 217 

having been reported here that the officers might probably- 
refuse to act against the Dutch, as that did not appear to come 
within their agreement with the Nabob. It opens a road for 
the Nabob to have great influence over our troops, and has many 
other disadvantages . . . 

" I arrived here from Ganjam in the beginning of this month 
in order to proceed to England, but by the loss of the Lord 
Mansfield I have been disappointed. However, I hope to make 
my acknowledgments to you in person about the middle of the 
next summer . . ." 

" Edward Cotsford." 

[P.S.] — " As I have not time to make a copy, I hope you will 
excuse all errors and blots." 
[Holograph, 4 pp., demy.] 

[No. 218.] 
John d'Fries to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1773, October 29th, Fort St. George.— The Nawab has given 
an order on the Tinnevelly Renter for Pags. 36,960|, payable 
by instalments between November and April next, on account 
of the estate of the late Mr. Vansittart. The order has been 
sent to Captain Cooke'^' at Palamcotta so that he rnay receive 
the sums as they fall due. I have settled your own account 
with Mr. Morse in the Nawab's bond, and handed a statement 
to Mr. Stone. 

[Holograph, 1| pp., Uo.] " John d'Fries." 

[No. 219.] 
Chocapah to the Honble Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1773, October 29th, Fort St. George. — The French received 
this year three King's ships and eight merchantmen, bringing 
goods, specie and 100 soldiers. M. Law is governor general 
and commander-in-chief, and a M. Fochon'-' has been sent out 
as superintendent to settle affairs. The latter has discharged 
all the Company's civil servants, including those in council. 
M. Law and he rule Pondicherry for the King, and it is said 
that there will be no Company in future. 

" Our army under the command of General Smith, together 
with the Nabob's forces under command of the Nabob's second 
son Maddor Ulmoolk,'^' laid siege to Tan j ore in August last. 
After seven weeks they conquired that place on the 17th 
September. The King was taken prisoner, and remains there 
to this day. It is said the Nabob promised to treat him with 
all the respect imaginable and maintain his cxpences." 

[Autograph, 1^ p., deimj.] " Chocapah." 

'1) Apparently Captain William Cooke, -who had cerred in the first Mysore wnr. 
(2' Or Foucault. Cf. No. 230, p. 2:?o. 
(8) Aniir-ul-Umara. 



[No. 220.] 
Robert Palk, jun., to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1773, November 3rd,' Calcutta. — Thanks to yoiir influence, 
the order which removed me from Patna last year has been 
revoked by the Company, and I am now about to return thither. 
" Mr. Hastings has been very kind to me on all occasions, and 
on the present has shown himself particularly so by his readiness 
to send me back to Patna. Mr. Aldersey has given me many 
proofs lately of his inclination to promote my interest." 

There has been lack of rain, and the price of rice has advanced 
from 40 to 25 seers'^) per rupee. The export of grain is con- 
sequently prohibited. The Renters have lost heavily on their 
farms. Politically the country is quiet. 

" You will hear of Miss Van from George and others . . The 
early introduction she had into company in England has nearly 
disqualified her for India. At present we Indians in her eyes 
are but contemptible beings. However, she is upon the whole 
a very worthy good young woman, and I hope will be much 
esteemed and very happy in this country. Harry Van and the 
Kennaways are well." 

I enclose two interest bonds from Dr. James Ellis, payable 
in 1775 ; one on your account for £2,880, being the balance 
of your money in my hands ; the other for £3,896 on my own 
account, which sum is to be invested at j^our discretion. George 
considers interest bonds a safer mode of remittance than bills. 

" Robert Palk, jun." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., 4/o.] 

j Enclosure] 

(1) Company's order of revocation, 7th April, 1773. 

(2) Robert Palk's letter to the Governor and Comicil of 

Bengal, 21st Oct., 1773. 

(3) Governor and Council's order of restoration, 21st 

October, 1773. 
[Copies, 1 p., 4/0.] 

[No. 221.] 
Hen[ry] Griffiths to [Robert Palk, Esqr.J. 

1773, November 10th, Calcutta. — In my last letter I 
mentioned the kind proposal of Mr. Hastings that I should 
accompany him to Bengal. By Mr. Stone's advice I did not 
inniiediately accept ; but Mr. Hastings has used his interest 
in England and now leads me to expect that I shall shortly 
obtain a nomination to the Bengal establishment. My brother 
William has arrived with Captain Mcars, and is about to join 
his corps. He and I are both grateful to you for your kind 
exertions on his behalf. 

[Holograph, 2^ pp., Uo.] " Hen. Griffiths. 

(1' Seer, aliout 'i H'. wriLclit. 



[No. 222.] 
Henry Vansittart, jun., to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1773, November 11th, Calcutta. — " I have received your 
letter of the 10th February, and have heard the news from 
Emelia, Uncle George and Mr. Palk. I think Emelia much 
taller than when I left England, and I may add improved, if 
I do not offend against delicacy by speaking in praise of her. 
She was much disappointed at the news she heard at Madras, 
but I hope she is now very well reconciled to her situation at 

" My uncle's interest has procured me the post of Persian 
Translator to the Calcutta Revenue Committee, which is the 
beginning of my rise, and will give me practise in Persian. 

" Your nephew set off for Patna 3 or 4 days ago, very happy 
at his appointment ... I shall be obliged to you if you will 
direct the inclosed letter to Mr. Tripe,<^' as I value my school 
acquaintance. I beg you will give my duty to Mrs. Palk, and 
my love to Nancy, Lawrence and Kitty. I have heard the 
history of them from my sister." 

" Henry Vansittart." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., Mo.] 

[No. 223.] 
Warren Hastings to R[ober.t] Palk, Esqr. 

1773, November 14th, Fort William.—" Dear Sir, Our friend 
George has kindly taken out of my hands every subject which 
I could write to you upon, and as I consider our correspondence 
as resting on a principle superior to the forms of compliment, 
I hope you will allow his letters to pass as mine. You will find 
nothing, I believe, in his sentiments differing from my own. 
I have a pleasure in acknowledging to you the benefits and 
satisfaction which I derive from his friendship. 

" I beg leave to repeat my request that Mr. Sulivan and Mr. 
Du Pre may see the papers which you will receive from George 
containing the particulars of the late treaty*-' at Benaris. The 
General*^' has had the last word, but I still think his arguments 
stand as they did, and (if I may be the judge) plainly refuted. 

" The first payment of the treaty money has been some time 
paid to Mr. Lambert'*', whom I left with the Vizier to receive 
it, and is by this time on the way down. I beg your attention 
to a remark which you will find somewhere in the papers which 
are now going to you, that the addition of so much ready money 
to the exhausted currency of the country is a profit scarce less 

(1) Nicholas Tripe, son of Dr. Tripe of Ashburton. Cf. No. 162., p. ISO, noto 3. 

(2) The Treaty negotiated at Benares in 1773 between Hastings and Shuja-ud- 
daiila, by wJiich the districts of Kora and Allahabad were ceded to the NawaV> 
Vizier for 50 lakhs, the British engaging to aid him in the conquest of Kohilkhand 
on pajTnent of expenses. 

i:^' Sir Knt.ort Barker. 

(•*) William Lambert, a member of the Bengal Council, 

No. 223] 228 

than the addition of so much to the weak Treasury of the 

" I have referred General Caillaud to you for the particulars 
of Bengal intelligence, and beg that he too may see these papers. 
There are indeed some anti-military passages which may not 
suit his ideas, but in truth our connection with the Vizier till 
now rested wholly with the mihtary commander. In all other 
points I have endeavoured to conduct myself with such equality 
between the civil and military corps that I believe I can safely 
say that I have not even a biass to either ; and in my conferences 
with the Vizier I took pains to give a consequence to the General, 
although I took care to let the Vizier know that his dependence 
was on the Governor alone. In this I surely acted with 
propriety. The Governor only is charged with a separate 
responsibility, and ought to guide the measures for which he 
is responsible. 

" Enclosed I send you a paper, which has been drawn up 
by a young gentleman of my family, containing an abstract of 
the arrangements which have taken place in the Revenue 
department. It may give a competent idea of what has been 
done, but over rates, perhaps, the advantages which are likely 
to be derived from it. 

" I beg to be kindly remembered to Mrs. Palk, the General, 
and all friends. 

" I am, with the sincerest regard and esteem, dear Sir, your 
obedient and faithful servant, 

" Warren Hastings." 

[Holograph, 4i pp., Mo.] 

[No. 224.] 
[Robert Palk to Thomas Palk]. 

N.D. [cir. 1773.] — " Dear Tom, I have this year received 
from you many letters, and none of them have given me pleasure. 
I have provided, or endeavoured to provide, for many young 
men, and you are among those who seem to me least of all 
to deserve it ; for if I can guess from your correspondence, 
inconsiderate and vacant as it is, you have not only neglected 
your own improvement and the duty, attention, industry and 
diligence you owe the Company and your own character, but 
have given yourself most entirely to idleness, extravagance 
and folly very unbecoming your situation and circumstances, 
who have nothing to depend on but your own merit and the 
qualifying yourself for those offices wliich hereafter may fall to 
your share if your unworthiness docs not prevent it. I pass over 
your hesitating between military and civil, though a young man 
who, having had some pains taken with his education, might 
at least have learnt patiently and chearfully to submit to what 
his parents so much wished and had thought best for him. 

" Jn short, 1 cannot observe in your letters or your conduct 
one generous sentiment which can give me a prospect of your 

229 [No. 224 

future success and well doing. Character and a virtuous 
ciiiulatiou after reputation and a good name seem to make 
no part of your pursuit, and provided you can support your 
illjudged extravagance, no matter from whence it comes. You 
are descended, if not from very opulent, at least very honest 
and worthy ancestors. Your father,'^' though distressed 
beyond measure in his younger years, preferred an honest and 
\irtuous reputation. Your grandfather*^) lives in the friendship 
and esteem of all that knew him, and the same have I heard of his 
father*^) ; and yet they had not those advantages in their 
youth which (happily we hoped) have fallen to your share. 
But the dawn of your reason seems not to have been exercised 
in preserving yourself from ignorance, or accustoming yourself 
to good habits, or reconciling to yourself the good will and 
kindness of those with whom you must have an intercourse. 
You unfortunately have judged that attention and provision 
is due to you, merit out of the question. It is painful to me 
to write such a letter, and it ought to be more so [to] you for 
having made it necessary. I shall mention no particulars of 
your idle and unthinking conduct : your own memory will 
serve sufficiently to recollect them. Only imagine to yourself 
that I am well acquainted with what you would most wish to 
conceal, and try to retrieve all this by adopting a little more 
morality into your conduct. Forget not your Creator in the 
days of your youth, and learn to live on your own allowances 
without pitifully running in debt with every man you meet 
or have the least connection with. The allowance I gave you 
was amply sufficient had you lived in the Fort as you ought to 
ha^e done, and looked on yourself only as a servant to the 
Company, from whom only you were to expect the encourage- 
ment that was due to diligence and merit." 

[Unsigned draft.] 
[Holograph, 2 pp., Mo.] 

[No. 225.] 

George Vansittart to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1774, January 1st, Calcutta. — " Dear Palk, This will be 
delivered to you by Captain Duff,<^' who, I believe, was formerly 
recommended by you to my brother. The state of his health 
obliges him to go home, but he means to return to Bengal, and 
hopes to recover the rank of which he was deprived in '66 in 
consequence of false representations made against him. He 
will himself acquaint you with the particulars, and I am sure 

<1) Walter Palk, elder brother of Governor Palk, b. 1714, d. 1801. 

(2) Walter Palk, father of Governor Palk, b. 1686. 

(3) Walter Palk, grandfather of Governor Palk, b. 1659, d. 1706. 

^*' Captain Patrick Duff, Bengal Engineers, had been involved in the combination 
of oflScers of 1766, but his supersession by two other captains was unconnected with 
his action at that time. It was the result of promotions which had lieen made 
locally without regard to the seniority determined by the Company's original 
appointments. (Bengal Pub. Proceedirujs, 14th Jime, 1773.) 

No. 225.] 280 

he will do so without the smallest partiality. We have recom- 
mended him very strongly to the Court of Directors in our 
general letter, and I shall be really obliged to you if you will 
give him all the support in your power. He has every right 
to the Company's favour which can be derived from long and 
distinguished services, from being wounded in their service, 
and from an universal good character both in his military and 
private capacity. Yours affectionately, 

[Holograph, 1| p., Mo.] " George Vansittart." 

[No. 226.] 
Colonel Gilbert Ironside to Rob[er]t Palk, Esq. 

1774, January 15th, The Grove, near Fort William. — " Some 
time in October last, soon after her arrival, Mrs. Ironside did 
herself the pleasure to acquaint Mrs. H. Vansittart of the health 
and safety of her daughter*^' after a short and not altogether 
an unpleasant passage. Mrs. Ironside brought with her a 
greater share of health than she possessed for some years before, 
and bids fair, thank heaven ! to preserve it. 

" About two months ago Mr. Palk was restored to his seat 
at the Board of Revenue at Patna, which is looked upon to be 
a certain and considerable fortune in the space of a few years . . . 

" From Mr. Hastings I never entertained any very ardent 
expectations of assistance, and it is probable I shall see his 
entrance and exit with little benefit either to my fortune or 

" Dulcis inexpertifi (says our friend Horace) cultura potentis 
" Expertus metuit ; 
and as I am of this veteran class, I am not likely to succeed at 
Court. The unlucky line I am in is a material obstacle besides 
to my independance, exclusive of the mean talents I have 
in repetundis, and in the dexterities of political commerce." 

For a sketch of our transactions here, please refer to General 
Caillaud, to whom I have described them. I have paid to Mr. 
Samuel Beardmore*-' the £100 for which you gave him an order 
on me in 1772, as he is likely to be long a cadet, and is in need 
of money. In return he has handed me a bill on you, which 
will be presented by my attorney, Major Grant. 

[Holography 3 j)p., Uo.] " Gilbert Ironside. 

» J 

[No. 227.] 

Robert Palk, jun., to [Robert Palk, Esqr.j. 

1774, January IGth, Patna. " I left Calcutta the 9th 
November, and arrived at this Factory the 20th ; distance 
about 400 miles . . , P^nclosed I send you a draft on Mr. 

<1) Emelia Vansittart, jun. 

'2) Samuel Beardiuore, a Bengal cadet of 1772, did not obtain his eniigncy 
until 177H. lie died three years later. 

231 [No. 227. 

Keiinaway'^- for a further sum advanced his sons . . . Captain 
Skottowe undertook the care of a box for you, which I expect 
you will say contains a monument of my folly. If it should 
not pro\'e acceptable at Haldon House, I daresay it will be very 
much so at Yolland Hill.*'-' Mrs. Van*'^' undertook to forward 
two or three small parcels for me, directed to you, but 
containing pieces of muslin, shawls, &c., for my friends at 
Ashburton ; but by whom she has sent them I know not . . . 
In additit)n to the silk stockings I requested you would cause 
to be sent out annually, I shall be obliged to you if you will add 
the following : — 2 black and 1 white hat, 6| in. diameter, 1 pair 
boots and 6 pairs shoes ... I shall also be glad of a large 
alarm watch or small clock of that kind, and a small light royal 
hunting saddle, red leather and quilted seat, with light furniture 
for the hind part only . . . 

" We have no appearance of any disturbance in the country. 
Shuja Dowla has paid twenty lacks of the sum he was to give 
the Company for Corah and Illiabad<'*> by the Governor's treaty. 
J\[r. Hastings goes on with great spirit reducing the Company's 
expences, civil and military, but I do not think it possible for 
the re\'enues to be increased. The attempt of it has been the 
error of our Government ever since Lord Clive obtained the 
Dewanny for the Company. . . The whole of the provinces 
ha\'e suffered greatly this last season by a heavy fall of water 
in the month of September, which overflowed the whole country, 
destroyed not even [?only] the grain, but carried away many 
villages and destroyed the cattle . . . Since that time we have 
had a remarkable drought, so much so as to alarm the natives 
with the fear of another famine. A stop was put to the 
exportation of grain . . ." 

The Collectors are recalled throughout the provinces, and 
Revenue or Provincial Councils take their place. I enclose the 
regulations on the subject, from which you will see that the 
Company's servants generally are much restricted as to trade. 
" This Factory is most materially hurt, for in order to grant an 
allowance of 3,000 Rs. per month to the Member of adminis- 
tration without taking it immediately from the Company, they 
have claimed in the Company's name all the opium produced 
in this province, hitherto the particular advantage of the 
gentlemen at this Factory, which will be about equal to the 
above allowance. This is a severe loss to all us Patna folks, 
for there is no one article of trade left us but salt and Europe 
articles, which barely bring us the full interest of our money. 
This misfortune make[s] me feel the ill luck I was in by my 

(1) William Kennaway, of Exeter. 

(2) Yolland HiU, by Ashburton, the lionio of Walter I'alk. 

(3) Mrs. George Vansittart. 

(4' The pro\-inces of Kora and Allahabad, which had been assigned to the titular 
Emperor Shah Alam for his maintenance, were taken from liim when he placed hiiii- 
Belf in the hands of the Marathas. By the Treaty of Benares they were ceded to 
the Nawab Vizier. 

No. 227] 232 

removal in 1772, for had I staid here to this time, I should in all 
probability have it in my power to take leave of India, and 
avoided some misfortunes I have experienced. However, as 
I am not ambitious, a small matter will satisfy me. I therefore 
hope it will not be long before I see old England — some time 
between this and 1780. We hear Lord Pigot is coming out on 
the Eagle with his new plan of government. Also that Lord 
Clive has been killed by a young nobleman whose name is not 
mentioned, nor the cause of their disagreement. 

" I am concerned to mention the loss of my worthy friend 
Madge. He died at Madras the 8th November last. He estimated 
his fortune in his will to be about seven thousand pounds, Mr. 
Baker writes me, which for the most part he has left to his family. 

" My brother is at Masulipatam, and much pains T have taken 
to correct his errors and advise him to the best of my judgement ; 
but wdiether it will be of service to him or not I can't determine. 
I have said and done all in my power, and added 4,000 Rs. 
within these few days to 12,000 which he has alread}^ had and, 
I fear, spent. I have little expectation of seeing my money 
again. It will, however, be some satisfaction to me if it saves 
him from ruin. I do not wish you to say any thing to him on 
this subject. I have already said so much as to make him 
express himself very unguardedly in his replies to my letters 
of advice. He is yet young enough to reform. 

" Mr. Petre(^) has been tried for the murder of Mr. Rochford*-) 
and acquitted, and is already by his countrymen's influence 
promoted to a good employ, whilst his seniors in the service 
are out of employ and in want. He renewed his application 
to George for permission to marry Emelia. George declared 
he never would agree to it. He then proposed that George 
should admit of their waiting till such time as he (Petrc) could 
write to Mrs. H. Van on the subject. To this George did not 
object, and Petre accordingly addressed Emelia on the subject. 
She mustered up a little resolution, seeing how disagreeable 
it was to her uncle, and gave her lover a positive refusal ; so 
I hope that connexion will never be renewed. 

" The young Kennaways are very well. Dick is with George, 
and makes himself usefull. Jack was left behind at this place 
when the brigade marched down to the Presidency, very sick ; 
for some time dangerously so. I have made a stout man of him 
again by good nursing, and have just sent him down to join 
his brigade . . . 

" General Sir Robert Barker is gone home, and the command 
of the army has in consequence devolved on Colonel Chapman,*^' 
who is grown old and very unequal to the task. The old 
gentleman has been remarkably attached to gaming till within 

(1) Pr(>l>;il)ly John Pctrie of the civil service, who was a Writer in 1773. 

>2) Gcorfje liochford, appf)inted Writer in April, 1773, was buried at Calcutta 
on the 7th Septcnihcf of the same year. 

(■^) Colonel Charles Chapman hold tlie command from December, 1773, to 
January, 1771. 

233 [No. 227 

these two years, and thereby sunk his estate considerably. 
His'only wish of kite has been to accomphsh the amount of his 
loss. It is said a compromise has lately taken place, that the 
sum of near 80,000 Rs. has been made up to him, that he is to 
return to Europe with Captain Meers of the Egmont, and Colonel 
Champion to command the army, a very active officer, and in 
every respect equal to the station ..." 

" Robert Palk." 

" P.S. — I have received your letter of the 15th March, 1773, 
by Mr. Ives, and will give him every assistance in my power. 
I've not yet seen him. 

[Holograph, 8 pp., Uo,] " R.P." 

[Enclosure. Revenue Regulations of] 23rd November, 1773 
A Duan*'' will be appointed to each of the provincial councils, 
and the Roy Royan<-) will serve as Duan to the committee at 
Calcutta. The provincial councils and the Calcutta committee 
will take orders from the revenue council, as the Collectors do 
at present. The parwanas'-^) of the revenue council to the 
Duans, and all sanads*^' granted by the council, will be signed 
by the Governor. Collections in districts which are not the 
seat of provincial councils are to be managed by Naibs.<^) The 
Naibs under each provincial council are to hold courts of 
Diwani Adalat,'^) appeals being allowed to the provincial 
Sadr Adalat.'") They are to decide all cases not exceeding 
Rs. 1,000 revenue for Malguzari*^' lands, and Rs. 100 for 
alienated or free lands. For larger sums appeal lies to the Sadr 
Diwani Adalat.'^^ Complaints against head farmers, district 
naibs, zemindars, &c., are to be decided by the provincial 
councils, appeals being carried to the revenue council at 

Military officers are forbidden to detach parties of sepoys 
save on military service, or to confine any person not under 
their orders, or to lend or borrow money, or to have any concern 
in farms, taluks<^°' or securities, or to sell any article, or to have 
dealings with any landholder or revenue officer. 

Officers of the Faujdari Adalats'^^' are forbidden to hold 
farms or other offices in the mofussil.*^^) Any complaints 
against them will be made to the Governor, to be referred by 
him to the Sadr Nizamat Adalat'^^) for decision. 

(1) Dtian {dlwdn), chief revenue officer. 

(2) Boy Royan (rairaiyan), deputy chief revenue officer. 
(3^ Paricana {parwdna), written order, permit. 

(4) Sanad, deed of grant. 

<5) Naib, deputy. 

<8J Diwani Addlat, civil coui't. 

(7) Sadr Addlat, chief court. 

(8) Malyuzari, assessed for revenue. 

(^' Sadr Diwani Addlat, chief civil court. 
(10) Taluk, from Ar. alaka, signifies (in Bengal) a tract of proprietary land. 
(H) Faujdari Addlat, police or criminal court. 

(12) Mofussil (mufassal) , outlying districts. 

(13) Sadr Nizamat Addlat, chief criminal court. 

No. 227.] 234 

Members of the superior councils either in Calcutta or the 
divisions are prohibited from every kind of trade, except in 
diamonds for remittances, or goods bought in Calcutta for 
export to foreign markets, or goods brought from foreign 
markets. In compensation for their lost privileges an allowance 
of Rs. 3,000 per month will be granted. The export warehouse- 
keepers at Calcutta and in the divisions are forbidden to trade 
in articles of the Company's Investment. 

No covenanted servant shall make advances for the purchase 
of grain or other article of prime necessity for natives, such as 
ghee, fish, oil, jute, straw, betel or tobacco, all which must be 
purchased for ready money at market prices. 

[8 pp., 4/0.] 

[No. 228.] 
Frederick Griffiths'^) to [Robert Palk, Esqr.] 

1774, January 20th, Calcutta. — My brother has informed 
you of my arrival here after a not unpleasant passage, thanks 
to the gentlemen to whom you kindly recommended me. 

" I am happily situated in the family of Mr. Hastings, whom 
I am already under obligations to. When my brother'-' 
presented me to him, he generously desired me to consider 
myself in his family while I remained in Calcutta. Shortly 
after, I was ordered to join the corps of cadets, a great distance 
up the country. My brother, with the advice of some military 
gentlemen, his acquaintance, mentioned to Mr. Hastings his 
wish that I should have leave to remain some time longer at 
Calcutta . . . He agreed, and would employ me to assist him, 
ashehadseensomeof my writing. This he has since done . . ." 

" Frederick Griffiths." 

[Holograph, \\ p., flscp.] 

[No. 229.] 

Reyno[ld] Adams to Robert Palk, Esqr., Park Place, St. 


1774, February 2nd, Fort St. George— I am sending you a 
pipe of old madeira, which I ask you to accept. " As I have 
no thoughts at present of leaving this country, and as my 
employ will be ruined if Mr. Baker should have the watering 
of tiic ships, I have thought of a thing which is very advan- 
tag[cJous if it can be obtained, and which I think may be 
done if you will be pleased to favor me with your assistance. 
It is to make a tender to the Court of Directors for the Bettle 
and Tobacco farm and Bang''^> leaves (as they always go together) 

(1) Frederick Griffiths, one of the two sons (No, 60, p. 76) of the Rev. Charles 
Grifliths, ai)pcars to be identical with William Griffilhs (No. 163, p. 184, and 
No. 221, />. 226). His name was probably Fredorick William. 

(2) Henry Griffiths. 

*■'' Bang, bluing, from Sansk. bhangu, hoiiip : the leaves of Cannabis indica, from 
which a narcotic is derived. 

235 [No. 229. 

as soon as the present cowl expires, which will be about two 
years hence. It was granted to the present renter fur Pags. 
28,000 per annum, and I mean that my tender for the next term 
shall be Pags. 30,000, and to give Soncar or other security to 
the Governor and Council . . and I will supply the publick 
in such beatle, tobacco and bang leaves as other renters has done 
before me . . " 

It has not been customary, it is true, to let the farm to a 
European, but this is probably because no European has 
hitherto tendered. I look to you for your kind assistance, and 
I have written to Mr. Boehm for his. 

" Reyno. Adams." 

[Holograph, -If pp., Uo.] 

[Duplicate, 2 pp., flscp. Wax seal with arms and initials 

[No. 230.] 
Chocapah to the Honble Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1774, February 4th, Fort St. George. — Since December last 
the French at Pondichcrry have been employing 2,000 coolies 
on the fortifications on the west side of the town, under the 
direction of their engineer, M. Beausset. Since M. Foucault's 
arrival in October the Council has not met, but in December a 
council of justice was formed, consisting of M. Law, M. Foucault 
and four others. The military force now comprises about 1,000 
Europeans, 600 sepoys, lascars and coffrees, and about 150 

It is reported from Muscat that the Company's charter is 
renewed to 1787, and that Bengal is to become a King's settle- 
ment, but nothing is said about the Coast. We shall soon receive 
definite advices. Mr. Cotsford'^' and Mr. Hay*^) are leaving for 

" Rackobah, the Chief of the Morattas, with about 70 or 
eighty thousand horses, came near Hydrabad and settled 
matters with Nizam Ally Cawn, and is arrived at Seerpoor'^' 
with the said force to concert measures with Hyder Ally : and 
as soon as this is done 'tis reported that he intends marching 
with his whole force towards the Carnatick. It is reported 
that his demand of the Nabob is chiefly to put the King of 
Tanjore in possession of his territorys, and the delivering up 
of the Marawars' country back to them, Arrany*'** countr}-, 
and the tribute for several years past due to them ; and 
threatens otherwise to remain a long time in these parts and 
to destroy and ruin the country. The Nabob, we are appre- 

(1) Edward Cotsford. Vide No. 183, p. 199, note 1. 

(2) James Hay, Paymaster at Tricliinopoly. a civil servant of 175<5. 

(3) Seerpoor. Chokappa prohalilv means Sirpi, otherwise called Sira, in Mysore. 
Cf. No. 232, p. 237. 

W Arrany (Ami). The Marathas had ruled this territory for about thirty years 
in the seventeenth century, and still laid claim to it. 

No. 280] 236 

hensive, will not incline to deliver up any of those comitrys, 
but endeavors to make up matters with money . . . 

" Mr. Benfield'^' is banker and soukar to his Highness the 
Nabob : all drafts and bills for the payment of the kists*-' to 
the Company are sent to him, and he discharges it , . ." 

" Chocapah." 

[Autograph, 2 pj)., demy.'] 

[No. 231.] 

John d'Fries to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

177J., February 6th, Fort St. George. (Duplicate). " The 
Tenively business don't go on well. The Renter at first said 
he had no Star pagodas. When we agreed to take Porto Novos 
he would not pay, he said, on Captain Cooke's receipt, but must 
have mine, as the Tanaka''^' run[s] in my name. I sent Captain 
Cooke my receipts for the first three payments. When he 
presented them to the Renter, he said he had no pagodas, but 
offered to pay in chacram*^' or fanams. These fanams anywhere 
out of that country is not worth three quarters of the monc}'^, 
and to exchange them there in Porto Novo pagodas or Bombay 
rupees would take up a very long time. I applied to Buckunjee's 
House, '^) and offered them to discount five per cent, if they 
would give me bills. They said they had thirty thousand of 
those fanams lying there to be exchanged. I considered, 
however, if I refused taking the fanams it might furnish the 
Nabob with a pretext to say that I refused, for the sake of a 
trifle, taking the money when offered ; and the Nabob sending 
to tell me he would make good the difference, I wrote away to 
Captain Cooke to receive even the fanams ... I assure you. 
Sir, I do every thing in my power, but you are too sensible that 
it is an affair that requires influence, and I am but a private 
person . . ." 

" John d'Fries." 

[Autograph, 2 pp., Uo.] 

[No. 232.] 

MuDOO KiSTNA to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1774, February 12th, Fort St. George. — " The Nabob resides 
at Chepauck as usual ; and as he had long design upon Ton j ore, 
marched his troops jointly with the English forces against it 
in the beginning of August, and took that Fort and the country 
on the 19th of September last. The Rajah and his ministers 
were made prisoners and their effects seized, and they still 

(1) Paul Benfield. Vide No. 78, v- 109, note 1. 

(2) Kif<t, instalment of land rcvonuo. 

<3) Tanaka. Vide No. 2.52, p. 248, note 2. 

'*' Charram, from Tam. chakram, a wheel ; silver coin formerly widely current in 
Southern India. The gold pagod.a was equivalent to 22 J Tanjore silver chakram. 
At the present day 28 J Travancorc chakram go to the rupee. 

(5) A noted firm of native bankers. 

237 [No. 232 

remain confined in the Fort. The Nabob has placed his own 
garrison in the said Fort : none of the Company's troops are 
there. The Company's garrison only remains in the Velhun 
Fort as usnal. The Dnteh raised some disputes about certain 
districts of the Ton j ore country, which at length were settled 
between them and the Nabob, who has an entire possession and 
sole management of the Tonjore country and the Fort at present. 

" Narrain Raw,*^' General of the Maratters, being murdered, 
his uncle Ragonada Raw succeeded in his room, and took the 
field with his army, and after having made up the difference 
which subsisted between him and Nizam Ally Cawn, crossed 
the river Kishna and [is] now steering, as it is said, towards Serah 
in the Balagat*-^ ; and it is talked that after he settles with 
Hyder he will think of marching to the Pain Gaut Carnatick 
to receive his Chout and to get the Tonjore country restored to 
the Rajah if possible. But our Nabob is not unmindful of his 
own affairs, for he has employed people to negotiate with the 
said Ragonada Raw, but what success he will meet with none 
but God can tell. At present the country is very much alarmed 
of the Marattas ..." 

[Autograph, 2i pp.^ Mo.] "^Mudoo Kistna. 


[No. 233.] 
Robert Palk, jun., to Robert Palk, Esqr., London. 

1774, February 23rd, Patna. — I have unfavourable accounts 
of our remittance by way of China. Mr. Price could not sell 
the opium at a profit owing to its poor quality. I shall be 
lucky if I recover the principal from him. The cost of insurance 
will fall on me, you and the Adams sisters, unless you think 
I ought to bear it all. Price ought to pay the insurance, but 
his affairs are much involved. At the outset I was unwilling 
to engage with him, but I was overruled by George Vansittart. 
He and I stand to lose Rs. 36,000. We began a lawsuit, but 
George has relinquished his claim on Price owing to the latter's 
misfortunes, and wants me to do likewise. I do not now know 
of any good method of remitting to England. Unless you can 
procure money by bills on me, I must send home gold mohurs. 

" It is reported that the Marrattas have settled all their own 
disputes, and are now about to take the field ; that a body is 
to march for Delly and another for Arcot. We are under no 
apprehension of them this way. Shuja Dowla is fighting with 
the Jauts,<^> and is now before the fort of Agra, and so is 
Nudjuff Cawn'*' with the King's troops, but they cannot take 
it. Shuja has applied for one of our brigades to assist him, 

(1) Narayan Rao, fifth Peshwa, was murdered in 1773 at the instigation of his 
uncle Ragliunath Rao, commonly known as Raghoha. 

(2) The Bfilaghat. Vide No. 163, p. 183, note 1. 

(3) The Jats, who occupied territory to the westward of the Rohillas, had taken 
Agra in 1773. 

(■*' Najaf Khan, the Emperor's general. 

No. 233.] 238 

and it is now near Banaras marching up. Whether the Governor 
and Council will permit our troops to march beyond Shuja 
Dowla's dominions I can't say, but I fancy it's his wish that they 
shall be employed to reduce all that country. 

" I believe 1 have not mentioned some views of Patna and 
Dinapore cantonments taken by a black man, which I left in 
Calcutta to be sent you. They are pretty well done. Miss Van 
was to send them to you by Captain Skottowe ..." 

" Robert Palk." 

" P.S. — I've just heard that Agra was to be given up to 
Nudjuff Cawn for the King about the 28th of this month. R.P." 

[Holograph, 5^ pp., 4to. Wax seal inscribed " Robert Palk " 
in Persian characters.^ 

[No. 234.] 
Robert Palk, jun., to R[obert] Palk, Esqr. 

1774, March 11th, Patna. — I enclose for your information 
copies of correspondence between George Vansittart and myself 
about the scheme of remittance by way of China. I consider 
that Mr. Price has not behaved well in the matter. 

" George writes me the Council are going to pay off all the 
Company's bonds granted before 1769, and that in future no 
more than 5 per cent, interest will be allowed on borrowed 
money. Every charge in the Civil department is decreased 
to the utmost : they are now beginning with the Military. A 
saving of some lacks is talked of only in the article of lascars 
stationed with the artillery and at subordinate Factories. A 
post is to be established all over the country the first of next 
month, that is to say, from that time all persons are to pay at 
the rate of 2 annas per himdrcd miles for a single letter.'^' 
Hitherto the Dawks'-' have been an annual charge of above 

2 lacks of rupees to the Company. It is now expected that the 
Company will gain by them. At this rate I imagine in 2 or 

3 years the whole of the Company's debt in Bengal may be 
cleared from the savings made during Mr. Hastings's govern- 

" I hear the Marattas have given some alarm at Madras, 
although they have not entered the Carnatic, nor perhaps 
intend to. Notliiiig has been done above since the taking of 
Agra. Our troops are marching on towards Shuja's frontiers, 
and it's imagined will be quartered there till the rains. The 
settlement Mr. H. has made with Shuja Doula for paying the 
Company's troops when in his country doth not meet with the 
approl)ation of })e()ple in general. It is called hiring the troo])s 
to the country J\)wers." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., Uo.] " Robert Palk." 

(1' a ' single ' letter wus one nut oxceedinfj; 2i tulas in weight. 
(2) Duirk (ddk), post, transport by relays of ineu or hoiiiios. 

239 [No. 234. 

[Enclosures. Copies of five letters which had passed between 
Robert Palk, jun., and George Vansittart relative to their China 
scheme of remittance.] 

[No. 235.] 
MuDoo KisTNA to [Robert Palk, Esqr.]. 

1774, March 15th, Fort St. George.—" It pleased God to put 
an end to the alarm ol" the Maratas, for Narainraw's relations 
at Poona, having joined together, raised an army by concurrence 
of Narainraw's mother and widow, and are upon a scheme to 
attack Ragonadaraw and to put an end to his authority. Which 
news coming to Ragonadaraw while he was upon his march 
to the Balagat country, he thought it dangerous to stay there 
any longer, and so he returned on a sudden to his own country, 
by which means the country in these parts is cleared from the 
apprehensions of the Marata troubles at present. 

" As to the Nabob, he keeps his Court at Chepauck, and every 
thing goes very well with him according to his satisfaction. 
He seems to be firmly settled in his new acquired province of 
Tonjore. The Raja of the said place, with his family, is still 
kept prisoner in the Fort of Tonjore, and whose hopes are 
entirely vanquished at present by reason of the return of the 
Marata army as aforesaid . . ." 


[Autograph, 1 p., flscp.] 

[No. 236.] 

J. Price to Messrs. Fitz Owen Jones and James Potter, 
Jerusalem Coffee House, *^' London. 

1774, March 18th, Calcutta.— In my letter of the 6th instant 
I stated that I had settled with Mr. Vansittart and Mr. John 
Call as I did with Dacre & Harris, except that the insurance 
premium paid by Mr. Call on his ventiu'c of Arcot Rs. 25,000 
on the Albion to China is to be repaid by you on my account. 

I have since arranged with Mr. Palk as with Mr. ^^ansittart. 
Of the Arcot Rs. 50,000 lent by the former. Current Rs. 27,000 
belonged to his uncle Goxernor Palk, and Current Rs. 7,135 to 
the estate of Captain Adams the Engineer.'-' I have engaged 
to meet the insurance premium on both these sums, and I 
request you to pay it to the agent of either Mr. Palk or Mr. 

"J. Price." 

[Autograph, 2 pp., flscp.] 

[Endorsed in the hand of Governor Palk] " Captain Price 
to- Fitz Owen Jones and James Potter, Esqrs. to repay the 
insurance made by R. Palk on the Albion to Canton on his 

(1) The Jerusalem Coffee House is mentioned in An Essay on Friendship published 
in 1725. 

(2) Vide No. 211, p. 220, notejl. 

No. 236] 240 

account and Capt. Adams', vizt. Robert Palk, Esqr,, Current 
Rs. 27,000 ; Adams, C. Rs. 7134 15a. Insured April, 1773, at 
5 guineas per lOOZ." 

[No. 237.] 
[Robert] Palk to H.H. the Nawab of the Carnatic. 

N.D. [1774, cir. March.] " To his Highness the Nabob of 
the Carnateck Mr. Palk always most fervently wishes an increase 
of glory and happiness. 

" The gentlemen who are to join Mr. Hastings at Bengal and 
compose the new Government there now proceed on their 
voyage, and propose to pay their compliments to your Hig[h]ness 
on their way. They come with the best intentions to give their 
best assistance for preserving peace and prosperity over all 
India, and from them you will learn the state of affairs in Europe 
and who is most likely to receive the Government from Mr. 
Wynch. I hope and believe it will be an appointment to your 
satisfaction. Colonel Charles CampbelF^^ is endeavouring to 
return to the command of the troops, and as I find he will be 
very agreeable to you, he shall have all the assistance in my 
power. General Lawrence in joins me to make you his most 
grateful acknowlegments and, though his memory in other 
matters begins to fail him, he shall never forget your singular 
kindness to him. I still endeavor to keep up his spirits and 
make his life comfortable as formerly, and we often recount 
the many happy days we have passed with your Highness in 
the field, in garrison and at the Mount." 

[Holograph draft, unsigned, 1| p., Mo.'] 

[No. 238.] 

Stephen Sulivan to Robert Palk, Esqr., Park Place, St. 


1774, April 3rd, 11, Paper Buildings, Temple. — " Dear Sir, 
Ever since I last troubled you for money my father's circum- 
stances (no secret I dare say to you) barely enable him to supply 
me with what is necessary. I am sure that I as a son cannot 
feel more than you as a friend. You have uniformly contiiuied 
your regard to him, and as for me, you have laid me under the 
greatest of all obligations. I protest to you, Mr. Palk, that I 
have no other resource but in your generosity, and therefore 
I venture to request two or three himdred pounds if you can 
possibly spare it. The tide is against my poor father in every 
thing. I see not even a glimmering of chance at the election, 
and my own prospects here are so gloomy that the East must 
be my lot, let me go ovit how I will. I only wish for an oppor- 
tunity to convince you of my honor and gratitude ; but till that 
opportunity offers, accept, I entreat, the sincerest sentiments 

(1) Vide No, 41. p. 63, note 4. 

241 [No. 238. 

of affection and esteem from, dear Sir, your most faithful and 
obliged servant, 

" Stephen Sulivan." 

[P.S.] " I earnestly beg an answer from you to-morrow 

[Holograph, 1 p., 4-to.] 

[No. 239.] 
Stephen Sulivan to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr., Park Place. 

N.D. [1774, April.]—" My dear Sir, After my last letter it 
looks importunate to write any more ; but as I have only one 
guinea, if you could possibly procure me the money and send 
it me some time this day, you will essentially oblige your ever 

" Stephen Sulivan." 

[P.S.] " If my servant should happen to be out, your servant 
can drop the letter, and it will be very safe." 

[Holograph, | p., Uo. Wax seal, device a deer.] 

[No. 240.] 
Stephen Sulivan to Robert Palk, Esqr., Park Place. 

N.D. [1774, April.] Wednesday evening. Paper Buildings, 
Temple. — " Dear Sir, I am infinitely obliged to you for your 
kind letter, and though I can with truth say I would not have 
troubled you if a real necessity had not constrained me, I must 
and ought to wait till it perfectly suits you. When it does, I 
have not a doubt but you will obligingly keep me in your 
remembrance. I am happy always to wait on you, and I think 
myself fortunate in your friendship, which I shall endeavour 
through life to retain : but to-morroAV I am forced to be out 
very early to do all that is in my power by solliciting at the door 
of every Proprietor. The very first leisure moment I can find 
I will dedicate to you, to thank you for those constant and 
steady proofs of regard with which you have always dis- 
tinguished, dear Sir, your most affectionate friend and servant, 

" Stephen Sulivan." 

[Holograph, Ip., 410. Wax seal, device a deer.] 

[No. 241.] 

1774, August 1st, Fort St. George. — Statement of Account of 
Robert Palk with the Estate of Henry Vansittart. Signed 
by J. M. Stone, George Purnell, Moses de Castro, and Pelling 
&: de Fries. 

[2 pp.. Mo.] 

[No. 242.] 

Lau[rence] Sulivan to [Robert Palk]. 

1774, August 23rd, Queen Square. — " My dear Sir, As I 
wished to communicate your letter to my son, who returned but 

No. 242.] 242 

yesterday from the country, it has not been in my power to 
give an earlier answer. 

" The people of Ashburton are undoubtedly bound to you 
by the powerfull tyes of gratitude and affection as well as of 
interest, and therefore their disposition to so generous a 
benefactor could hardly be called in question. And the inference 
I must draw is that in pressing Mr. Palk to be their INIember 
they make an absolute rejection of Mr. Sulivan, because it 
seems to be an agreed point that they can carry but one Member. 
The preference is natural. At the same time I have the pleasure 
to believe that, with two exceptions only (yourself and Mr. 
Dunning)'!' the freeholders of Ashburton would continue 
heartily attached to me. 

" When I ventured to encourage Stee'-' with hopes of 
succeeding me, it was from a riveted (but mistaken) opinion I 
had imbibed that Ashburton was the last borough that you or 
Mr. Dunning would meddle with ; but the moment I found that 
you inclined to stand for this place, I did then, as I do now, 
resign the whole to your determination, desiring that you will 
direct me in the steps most proper to be taken to do you honour 
with the freeholders on my resignation. 

" From public motives alone I sought Parliament, but so 
little satisfaction have I experienced within those walls that, 
had I noiv my then independance, no temptation upon earth 
should have carried me thither again. But the melancholly 
change makes it (if possible) necessary to the future prospects 
of my familly that either I or my son should be in the Senate. 
If he happily succeeds any where, and I should in some degree 
recover my India line, every wished for purpose will be answered ; 
but if the whole ends (not unusual to me) in building castles, 
I shall still trust ' that whatever is, is best.' 

" It was more my misfortune than fault that I did not meet 
IMr. Dunning. I went out to Putney with a full intention to 
lay open to him every circumstance, and determined to adopt 
such advice as such an inestimable friend should give ; but wlien 
I found those were to dine with us whose smiles had always 
attended mv better davs, I wanted that fortitude whicli has 
seldom failed me, and therefore only said to our friend at 
parting that I should call upon him in Town to mention some 
material matters. I did so three times. My son also called, 
but we could not meet. 

" I have the pleasure to tell you that Mr. Maclean*^' goes on 
well, and will certainly wind up honourably. He has already 
made a begiiming, and sends me by the Resolution money to 
buy in Mr. Dunning's India Stock, which will so far take off 
a load from \'an's estate and me. If I can return to the Direction 
and keep him upon his legs, a very large debt will be secured. 

(1) .Tolin DiiTinint;. Vide No. 105, q). 135, note 4. 

(2) Ktc|ih('ii Sulivan. 

(3' Coli.iicl [,an<lilan Mfulranc Vide^o. 109, /). 189, note 2. 

243 [No. 242. 

" I am unalterably, my dear Sir, your most affectionate and 
obliged servant, 

" Lau. Sulivan." 
[Holograph, 2 pp., 4<to.] 

[No. 243.] 

Lau[rence] Sulivan to Robert Palk, Esqr., Haldon House, 

near Exeter. 

1774, September 15th, Queen Square. — " My dear Sir, 
Except my kindest acknowledgements, I shall wave for the 
present the subject of your last letter. 

" Mr. Boyd'^' being vmeasy at the security given by Sir George 
Colebrooke,*-' and, if good, by no means clear when the money 
will be paid, he has been offered, and I understand will accept 
in lieu of this security a mortgage on Sir George's Granada 
Estate, the nett value 50,000/. at six per cent, per annum for 
six years certain, and two reputable merchants enter into bonds 
to pay the interest annually in England. Sir George proposes 
to borrow 25,000/. on this estate, or he will exchange the Allum 
(our) securitys to that amount. Purling, '-^^ I hear, means to 
take the mortgage for his, which with Boyd's will be about 
20,000/. If you should likewise think this more eligible, give 
me a line and this shall be reserved, as I have desired Sir George 
to wait untill I have an answer. 

" I am ever, my dear friend, yours most affectionately, 

"Lau. Sulivan." 

[Holograph, 1 p., 4/o. Wax seal with arms, defaced.] 

[No. 244.] 

Rob[er]t Palk to Laurence Sulivan, Esqr,, M.P., Queen 
Square, Ormond Street. 

1774, September 21st, Haldon House. — " My dear Sir, I 
have your favor of the 15th. Sir George is very good in making 
me the kind offer of a Grenada security, but as I cannot wait 
six years for the money, it will not suit me. He has used me 
very unhandsomely. The Stock which I lent to him and Mr. 
Motteux,'4) 4,000/., was bought for the purpose at 223|-, and 
was to have been returned in May 1772. But when Mr. Boehm*^' 
demanded it, you desired it might remain sometime longer ; 
so that on the latter I lost 75 per cent., and on Sir George's I 
find I am in danger of losing the whole. At his desire it was 
transferred the 8th October, 1771, to 4 names, and I was charged 
with the transfers. It was to have been delivered back the 
May following ; but antecedent to that, on the 11th April, 1772, 

(1) John Boyd. Vide No. 97, p. 127, note 3. 

(2) Sir George Colehrooke. Vide No. 16f), V- 186, note 1. 
<3) John Purling. Vide No. 98, v- 129, note 1. 

«) John Mottciix. Vide No. 97, p. 127, nnfe 1. 
(S) Edmund Buchni. Vide No. 97. /*. 127, note "J. 

No. 244>.] 2U 

it was transferred into one name and sold off, he, who was in the 
secret, knowing when to sell for his own advantage what did 
not belong to him ; and to make amends he gives me an Allum 
security of £3,000 for what he disposed of for his ozvn advantage 
at about 4,400. This is the true state of the case. I never 
asked Sir George but one favor, my nephew's reinstatement, 
and you know how mvich I was hurt upon that occasion. 

" I hope, however, the Allum security is ample and sufficient. 
Mr. Smith'i' told me it was worth doulDle the sum it stood for, 
and if Mr. Purling's and Boyd's assignments are discharged from 
it, I suppose it is still better. Sir George indeed wrote me at that 
time that this security was given us out of kindness, because our 
demands would certainly be liquidated in a 12 month ; and I still 
hope that we shall have a good prospect of receiving our ballances. 

" I am ever, my dear Sir, yours most affectionatelv, 


[Holograph, If ^., Mo. Wax seal ivith the Palk artns.] 

[No. 245.] 
Nawab Walajah to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1774; September 24th, Chepauck House, near Madras. — " His 
Highness Nawab Waulaujah, Ummeer ul Hind, Omdaht ul 
Mulk, Ausuph ud Dowla, Anwar ul dee[n] Cawn Bahauder, 
Munsoor Jung, Sepoy Salaar, Subadar of Arcot and the 
Carnatick, to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

" I have already written to you many friendly letters, and 
have been much rejoiced to hear you are happy, as you are my 
old friend. I have heretofore made some representations to 
the Gentlemen in England, but as I have not hitherto learnt 
that anything has been done to give me satisfaction, I have sent 
Colonel Macleane'-' and Mr. James Johnson'^' to England. 
From them all matters may be fully understood. Your friend- 
ship for me is of long standing, and I am always thankful for 
it. I hope the favor of your assistance will not be wanting to 
settle my affairs, and my obligations will be encreased. 

" What can I say more ? " 

[Autograph cipher, 1| p., Uo.] 

[No. 246.] 

Lau[rence] Sulivan to Robert Palk, Esqr., Haldon House. 

1774, September 30th, Queen Square. — " My dear Friend, 
By the time this reaches you we arc no longer INIembers of 
Parliament, for I am this moment assured, indeed I know it, 
that a proclamation for its dissolution comes out to morrow, 
and orders are issued to the Post Ollicc to stop franking on 

(1) Probably Nathaniel Smith. Cf. No. L>18. p. 245. note 6. 
'-' Vidr No. Kii), /». 18!t, note 2. 
'3) Vide No, :i8, ^, 45, note 7. 

245 [No. 246. 

" H()wc\'cr com ("iiicnt it iiia>- be lo nic to lia\c a scat in the 
next Parliaiiient, I cannot bear the thought of keeping you 
from Ashburton, and therefore beg that you will instantly 
secure yourself there. And pray assure our friends the 
freeholders that I shall e\ er retain a grateful remembrance 
of their generous attachment, and that if ever I have power 
again to oblige individuals, I shall consider my self as much 
belonging to them as if [I] was still their JMendjcr, and I request 
Mr. Dunning, scnr.,<i' the Winsors, Mr. Abraham'^' and Mr. 
Tripe*-'* may in particular know these my sentiments. 

" I am ever, my dear Sir, your most affectionate and obedient 

" Lau. Sulivan." 

[Holograph, 1 />., -Uo. Wax seal with arms.] 

[No. 247.] 
Tho[ma]s Short to R[obert] Palk, Esqr. 

1774, November 24th, Calcutta. — Having arrived here, I beg 
to thank you for your kind recommendations to Mr. Vansittart 
and Mr. Palk. The former has rendered me nmch assistance ; 
the latter is away at Dacca. 

"T. Short." 
[P.S.] " I was sorry to hear of the death of Major Madge at 
Madras, to whom you had favored me with a letter." 
[Holograph, 1 p., Uo.] 

[No. 248.] 
L[aurence] Sulivan to Robert Palk, Esqr., Park Place. 

1775, February 12th, Queen Square. — " My dear Sir, 1 hope 
you have seen Mrs. Morse and Mrs. Van, and have pressed them 
to obtain Mr. Boddam's**' solemn promise that he will vote for 
me to be upon the House list, as no time is to be lost. Yesterday 
a friend informed me that the Boehms have great influence with 
Boddam. Pray speak to them. You have supported Captain 
Halh^' and Nath. Smith. '^^ I wish you would ask them the 
same favour. They have been applied to by several, and they 
will not chuse to disoblige many Proprietors. 

(!• John Dunning, sen., whose son of the same name was created Lord Aslilnirton. 
Tlie family homestead was a small farm about a mile south f)f Ashbuvton on the road 
to Pridhamsleigh. 

<^' Robert Abraham, of Gui-rington, Ashbmton, a fii'st cousin of Kol)ert Talk. 

(•J) Dr. Tripe, of Ashburton, whose son Nicholas married Grace Palk, niece of 
Robert Palk, sen. 

(4) Charles Boddam, then a Director and formerly a Madras civil servant, married 
in 1754 Frances Morse, sister of Mrs. Henry Vansittart. 

(•^) Richard Hall, who commanded the Indiaman Worcffter for ten yearn from 
1761, was a Du-ector from 1773 to 1789. 

'*" Nathaniel Smith was a Director fron; 1774 to 1795. He formerly com- 
manded the Lord Camden. Cf. No. 10, p. 14. 

No. 248.] 246 

"I have spoke to Mr. Manship^" and others, and still hold 
the same clear opinion that our friend will be foiled. 
" I am, my dear Sir, ever yours, 


[Holograph, Ip., Uo.] 

[No. 249.] 

Frederick Griffiths to Robert Palk, Esqr., Park Place, 

St. James's. 

1775, February 24th. Camp, Mydagaut.— I set out on the 
21st October last to join my Cadet corps, and reached camp on 
the 8th February. " My pay and batta, with a little oeconomy, 
will allow me to keep a small table and to save fifty rupees a 
month." My brother Harry has doubtless written to you ere 


" Frederick Griffiths." 

[Holograph, lip., 4<to. Wax seal, device a head.] 

[No. 250.] 
Chocapah to the Honble Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1775, July 2nd, Fort St. George. — I informed you in my 
letter of the lOtli February that " his Highness the Nabob 
endeavoured to put his second son Madar ul Mulk'-' head of 
Tanjore Fort, and of his intention to give up that country to 
him in time ; for which the Governor, Mr. Dawson, <'^' Mr. 
Brooke, ''^' Mr. Palmer,'^' Mr. Jourdan*^) and Mr. Mackay''' 
would not give their consent, thinking that Madar ul Mulk 
being not such a person as his Highness's elder son,***' and very 
probably he may in time breed a dispute with his brothers : 
if it happen so, and his having so large countrys in his hands, 
he may afterwards not regard the English, and may join with 
other European forces and may create troubles. General Smith, 
Mr. Stone'^* and Mr. Johnson*^"' are inclined to consent to it, 
and that he may go to Tanjore. For which reason the 
Governour and Council at present are in two party s. We hear 
that this matter are referred to the Supreme Council at Bengali. 

" We hear that there are great disputes at Bengali between 
Mr. Hastings and General Clavering, which you will come to 
understand better by the publick advices from Bengali. 

(1) John Manship. Vide No. 97, p. 127, note 5. 

(2) Amir-ul-Umara. 

(3) George Dawson, who joined the civil service in 1751, was, like Pybus, one of 
Olive's little band of volunteer officers defending ^Vrcot in the same year. He was 
in Council in 1768, and retired in 1776. 

(4) Henry Brooke. Vide No. 31, p. 51, note 2. 

(5> Archdale Palmer joined as a Writer in 1755. He entered Council twenty 
years later, and sided with the Majority against Lord Pigot. 

(6) Francis Jonrdan. Vide No. 33, /). 54, note 1. 

(7) Geoi-ge Mackay. Vide No. 13, p. 17, note 3. 

(8) Umdat-ud-Umara. 

W John Maxwell Stone. Vide No. 29, p. 46, note 4. 
(1(J) Saiuuvl .lolinson. Vide No. 194, p. 210, note 3. 

247 [No. 250. 

" We have had two Coast and China ships and two Coast and 
Bay ships arrived from England the 22nd of last month : on one 
of these ships Sir Robert Fletcher and his wife arrived here, 
and no news of the appointment of any gentleman at home 
for the Government of Madras, but the people imagine that 
Lord Pigot will, however, come out to this place . . . 

" The Morattas are very troublesome at Bombay, and lately 
I hear that our Government there met with great loss of a 
detachment of 170 Europeans and 700 seapoys being cut off ; 
and also by a hard gale of wind at Surat nine large ships and 
about 40 boats were destroyed with goods and merchandizes . . 

" Mr. Mackay has sold his great house in the P'ort to his 
Highness the Nabob for 25,000 pagodas, and Messrs. Felling'^' 
& de Fries sold Mr. Vansittart's house, that Mr. Morse lived in, 
to his Highness also for thirty thousand pagodas . . . 

" The Governour and Council affixed an advertizement at 
the gates that the Parliament's direction to all the gentlemen 
either civil or military in this place and at the Subordinates [is], 
from the 1st August, 1774, not to receive any presents, money 
or any thing else, either by themselves or by their servants or 
people for their benefit, from the Indian princes, powers, 
ministers, agents, or from the renters and farmers ; and if 
any gentleman receive any such thing and the same be dis- 
covered, that they will be obliged to pay double the same they 
received, one half of which to be for the Company's benefit, 
and the other half to the informer ; and that those gentlemen 
shall be sent home immediately unless they give a sufficient 
security to embark within twelve months. And if this is the 
case, the Madrass gentlemen in the Company's service will find 
great difficulty in getting a fortune after they disburse their 
own pri\^ate expences, unless the Company makes them a 
handsome gratuity . . . 

" The Morattas' Admiral ship was blown up on the Malabar 
coast in an engagement with some of our fighting ships, and 
since which their fleet did not appear on that coast ; but we 
don't know what trouble they may give us hereafter, since the 
loss of so many of our ships in the storm at Surat ..." 

" Chocapah." 

[Autograph, 3f ^9., demy. Duplicate.] 

(1) Thomas Pelling was born in India in 1723, and is believed to liave boon the 
son of Thomas Pellinj^, sen., Coiirt Sergeant at Madras, who died in 1735. The 
younger Tliomas was in correspondence witli Orme from 1761 to 17U.3, but his name 
does not appear in the list of free merchants until 1775, when ho is described as 
' native,' i.e., country-bom. He joined John d'Fries in the firm of Pelling &, de 
Fries, afterwards De Castro, Polling & de Fries. Pelling had several daughters, 
of whom Elizabeth married in 1766 Captain Thomas Gibson ; Ann married 1st 
Captain Thomas Oat« and 2nd Colonel Ross Lang ; Mary inarried in 1772 Cotton 
Bowerbank Dent, M.C.S. , Catharine married in 1777 Thomas Palk, M.CS., and 
Sophia married in 1783 Dr. Job Bulman. 


[No. 251.] 

James Hodges'^' to Robert Palk, Esqr., St. James's 

Place, London. 

1775, July 4th, Fort St. George.— Since I last wrote to you 
in 1772, I have been obliged through illness to make a second 
voyage to China. I returned cured, and my health for the 
last eighteen months has been better than at any time during 
the past five years. The interest of my bond shall be duly 
discharged, but I am not yet able to refund the principal. I 
have lately been nominated to a seat in the Council at 
Masulipatam, where I hope to be able to repay to your nephew 
some of the many kindnesses I have received from you. 

" James Hodges." 

[Holograph, 1^ p., Uo. Wax seal, defaced.] 

[No. 252.] 
John d'Fries to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1775, July 4th, Madras. — " We have now only the amount of 
the ruby ring and the house to receive from the Nabob, which 
I make no doubt, if the country continues peaceable, we shall 
be able to do in the limited time, having obtained Tuncaws^-' 
for the whole of the amount on the Wongole'-^' country, which 
from its nearness is a convenient assignment "... We shall 
remit through Mr. George Vansittart. The amount due by 
Mr. George Smith to the estate of Mr. Vansittart is about £400. 
" Mrs. Vansittart's character is vastly raised by her sufferings. 
Her misfortune has rendered her mind great. I hope she 
will hereafter enjoy the satisfaction of seeing her children 
imitating their virtuous parents. Harry is very promising. 
Mrs. Parry''^' is happy in her marriage . . . 

" Bengal is over run with informers' accusations against 
each other. Joe Fowke'^' stands foremost in this honorable 
list. Nuncomar was to be tried for perjury and forgery. The 
sessions at Calcutta begun the 3rd of last month. Our last 
advices from there is of the 12th. They continued setting 
still and were upon Nuncomar's cause. A treaty was concluded 

(1) James Hodges, a civil servant of 1764, was Mayor of Madras in 1775. Most 

of his subsequent terna o. service was spent at Masulipatam. 

(2) Tuncaw, from Pers. lunkhicdh, a draft for money : an as!-ignnicnt of future 

(•^) Ongole, a town and taluq in the Guntur District. 

(4) Emelia, daughter of Henry Vansittart, married on the 21st March, 1774, 
I'^dwiird I'arry, a Bengal civil of 171)7. He became a Director of the 
Company in 1800. 

(5) Joseph Fowke, son of Randall Fowke of the Madras civil service, was himself 
a Writer at Fort St. George as early as 17;}6. He was present at the capture of 
Madras in 174(5, and in common with otlier civil servants was allowed to go to Fort 
St. David. There he remained unemployed luitil 17u(t, when he was appointed a 
member oi Sauiidefs' Council. It is uncertain wlieii he left tlie service, but in 1775 
he was a free mei'ciinnt in Bengal witli his son Francis. He associated with Nand- 
kumar, and was bitterly hostile to Hastings. The latter and Harwell prosecuted 
both father jnd son for conspiring with Xandkmnar to prociu-e false accusations 
«i?ainsl them. In 1778 Joseph Fowke was entertained as a Senior Merchant in 
consideratiou of his " long and faithful services." 

249 [No. 252. 

^vith Siijah Dowlat's son, who has ceded to the Company 
Buhvansing's''* country, reckoned worth 35 lacks of rupees 
per annum. 

" The Gentlemen of Bombay entered in a war with the 
Morattas for the concjuest of Salsett. They are joined by 
Ragopah, and ha\c to contend with the ^linisterial Party, who, 
by having the treasure and the army for them, have all the 
power, and our army has met with a considerable loss in an 
engagement with the enemy in Cambay. 

" Here, a sreat division in Council. The majoritv in l)ad 
terms with the Nabob. It was a great oversight the sulTcring 
the Nabob to garrison Tanjore, and may be productive of 
disagreeable altercations. Already, I am told, there have 
been many warm and many illiberal minutes entered on 
record. The minority is General Smith, Messrs. Johnson and 
Stone . . " 

[Autograph, 4- pj)., Uo.] " John d'Fries." 

[No. 253.] 
George Baker to Thomas Palk. 

1775, July 8th, Fort St. George. — I learn from your uncle, 
Robert Palk, Esqr., that Major Madge's children have arrived 
in England. Your uncle writes that the deceased Major had 
in his hands the effects of Lieut. Thomas Palk and Ensign John 
Palk. The Ensign's estate is Arcot Rs. 449 la. Ip., while the 
balance due on that of the Lieutenant is Pags. 1,718 14/. 72c., 
and Mr. Palk asks me to recover the latter amount. I replied 
that I would refer the matter to you as surviving administrator. 
The case appears to me to stand thus : — To the two estates there 
is due from Major Madge's estate Pags. 1,361 26/. 72c., and 
from you Pags. 356 24/. Oc, total. Star pagodas 1,718 14/ 72c. 
According to a letter from the Major to your uncle this sum is 
due to Lieut. Thomas Palk's estate alone, while A.Rs. 449 
la. Ip. in addition belongs to that of Ensign John Palk. But 
in his statement of account Major Madge represents the former 
sum as the total due to both estates, and he makes no mention 
of the smaller figure. I shall be glad if you can explain the 
discrepancy. Please send me the money you hold belonging 
to your kinsmen's estates, so that I may remit it to your uncle. 

" George Baker." 

[Autograph, 5 pp., flscp. Endorsed in Robert Palk's hand.] 
" Cornish Palks, 8th July, 1775, Capt. Baker to Tom Palk." 
[This certified copy probably formed an enclosure of No. 257.] 

[No. 254.] 
Thomas Palk to George Baker. 
1775, August 12th, Maz[ulipata]m. — Although only nominally 
one of Lieut. Thomas Palk's executors, I feel bound to give you 

(1) Tributary Raja of Benares. 

No. 254.] 250 

all the information I can. My own debt to the estate, S. Pags. 
315 16/". Oc, arose in this way : — In 1772, at ]\Iajor Madge's 
request, I visited JMasulipatam on my way to Bengal and 
discussed with him the affairs of my deceased cousin. Lieut. 
Palk left no will, but it was his expressed intention to give 
everything to his child. On Palk's death in March, 1771, the 
Major wrote home to my cousin's friends, but, receiving no reply, 
decided after two years that some provision must be made for 
the infant, and arranged with me that the sum of Pags. 315, then 
in my hands, should be set apart for that purpose. I accordingly 
gave a bond for the amount. " It is not fit that I should here 
expatiate on the astonishing conduct of Lieut. Palk's friends ; 
but how an orphan infant, so nearly in affinity of blood to the 
mother of the child's father, could have escaped notice is 

As to the estate of Ensign John Palk I know nothing, but 
surmise that it consisted only of clothing and equipment. I 
suppose that Major Madge brought both estates under one head 
in order to save trouble. The item A. Rs. 449 la. Ip. must be 
part of the total sum of Pags. 1718 14/. 2c. 

"Thos. Palk." 

[Holograph, 5 pj}., Uo. This letter formed an enclosure of 
No. 257.] 

[No. 255.] 
Colonel Robert Gordon'^) to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1775, September 10th, Bombay. — It gave me much pleasure 
to receive a letter, dated 7th March, from so valued a friend as 
yourself. " Mr. Edmund Veale Lane,'-* whom you mention, 
is a young gentleman that I greatly esteem. He served lately 
with me as Judge Advocat at the siege and reduction of Tannah 
in Salsett, on which event that island, contiguous to Bombay, 
was annexed to the Company's revenues, and may be supposed 
in peaceable times to produce about five lacks of rupees. Mr. 
Lane is now of the Council at Tannah. By [his] being in the 
civil department it does not lie in my way to be of much 
service to him, as you well know ; but if ever it should, I shall be 
happy . . to do him every good office in my power. 

" I am happy to hear my old friends Charles Brett and Mac 
are alive and well. Pray remember me to them and to Colonel 
John Campbell, whose acquaintance I seem to have entirely 
lossed, though I do not know how or from what cause, as I do 
believe our mutual regard and friendship was for many years 
sincere, and on my side ever has continued the same. Mr. 
Facey,'^* now a Lieutennant, is at present on duty at Tellicherry, 

(1) Colonel Robert Gordon commiinded au expedition to Surat and Broach in 
1771, and in 1775 one against the Island of Salsettc, which he seized and occupied. 

(2) Vide No. 150, y. 169, note 2. 

(3) George Facey. Vide No. 150, p. 169, note 3. 

251 [No. 255. 

which Settlement, it's said, will soon be reduced from a Chier.sliip 
to that ol' a Residency . . ." 


[P.S.] — " Our Board have lately, and 1 think contrar[y] to 
every rule of military service, employed Lieut. Colonel Keating, 
Chief Engineer and Commanding Officer of Artillery, to 
command an army as auxiliaries to the side they have taken, 
vizt. that of Kagaboy, who murdered his nephew,'^' in the 
present internal disputes among the Maharrattas. This 
Ragaboy was in possession of the government for sometime 
after the murder, but it so happened that his nephew's widow 
was brought to bed of a posthumous son, whose interest the 
ministry support, and are possessed of all the country and the 
revenues. After being four months in the field and nothing 
done of the smallest importance to the general cause, the 
ministry very artfully applyed to the Supreme Council and 
obtained their express orders for a cessation of arms ; and they 
have sent Lieut. Colonel Upton from Bengali to Poonah as 
their Ambassador with full powers to accommodat[e] all 

" From a difference with our Board regarding the meaning 
of the last instructions of 29th March, 1774, and alluding to a 
Lieut. Colonel left in the command of Tannah Fort, his not 
receiving the parole from a Resident, and a very extraordinary 
letter I received from the Board in consequence, I had then 
resigned the service when a convenient oppertunity offered for 
England or by the way of China. Soon after which time the 
Board took a part in the Maharratta war, and therefor 
nominat[ed] Lieut. Colonel Keating, which I repeatedly 
opposed, and afterwards offered my service ; but they chose 
to adhere to their nomination, which I do believe they have 
since repented, our President and Council having signified 
their wishes that I should continue in the command till the 
cause of our differences should be determined by the Court of 
Directors, to whom they are referred ; which proposal, as an 
approbation of my passed services, I reddily accepted of." 

[Holograph, 8 pp., 4to.] 

[No. 256.] 

John d'Fries to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1775, October 7th, Madras. — I shall be ready to take charge 
of your affairs from Mr. Stone when desired. I recommend 
the sale of the house. Although out of repair, it will fetch a 
good price owing to its situation. " I look upon houses to 
be now at their meridian in Madras." General Smith sails in 
the Colebrooke on the 16th. Mr. Wynch remains till Lord 
Pigot arrives. " The disagreement between the majority in 

(1' Narayan Rao, the Peshwa. 

No. 256.] 252 

Council and the Nabob continues still. Mr. Stratton has quitted 
Vizagapatam. Sam Johnson is appointed to succeed him. 

" The Governor General and Supreme Council having wrote 
to Basala Jung'^' to dismiss all the Europeans in his service, 
(it is reported he has five hundred men, French and others, in 
his pay) a considerable party is set out to be the bearers of 
the letter. I hope it will have no serious consequence. 

" The animosities in the Supreme Council at Bengal rage 
very high. Nothing is done but from the spirit of party, and 
the majority seem determined to carry their point in everything 
and spare none of those that they think to be of a different 
interest. Joe Fowke is rewarded with the Residency of 
Banares'-' ; his son Collector of that province ; Mr. Stewart'^' 
put out of the Secretaryship ; Playdwell'"^* dismissed from 
Master of the Police — a post of profRt. He joined in an address 
to the Judges. In short, it is a melancholy prospect. 

" The Supreme [Council] having disapproved of the measures 
pursued by the Bombayers in the war with the Morattas, a 
cessation of arms has taken place. After the risques we had 
run in a rupture with those powerful people it will be to be 
lamented if we give up the advantages we have gained in the 
acquisition of the island of Salsett, which is the grainery of 
Bombay. The conjuncture is favorable for dividing and thereby 
lessening the Moratta power ; although it must be allowed the 
Government of Bombay did not concert their measures properly, 
which exposed us to real danger." 

Hyder Ali preserved neutrality in the Maratha disputes. He 
has reorganized his army, and is expected to take possession 
of the districts east of Goa which Ragoba made over to him. 
Some suspect that he is aiming at Travancore. 

" The exportation of the specie continues with us to a greater 
degree than ever. It is reckoned that in the course of this 
present year six lacks of pagodas have been exported to China 
and Europe — a melancholy and very alarming circumstance, 
for it must drain the country, and that very soon if continued . ." 

" John d'Fries." 
[Holograph, 3f pp., Uo.} 

W Basalat Jang. Vide No. 19, p. 23, note 6. 

(-' This was a false rumour : Joseph Fowke was peuinitteil to reside at Benares, 
but he was not appointed Resident. 

(•5) John Stewart, apixnnted l)y the Directors Secretary to the Bengal Govern- 
iiictit, arrived at Madras in 1772 ami accompanied llastinss tlience to Calcutta. 
Dismissed liy the majority of Council in 1775 against tiie wish of the Governor 
General, he returned to England. His restoration was demanded as one of the 
conditions of the delivery of Hastings's provisional resignation. 

(■») Cliarles Stafford Playdell (or IMeydell) arrived in India in 1714. He resigned 
tlie civil service about 1705 and returned to Kngland, liut went out again in 1771. 
Jn 1771 Hastings appointed him Superintendent of Police, a post from which he 
was dismissed by the Clavering faction in the following year. Ue was subsequently 
reinstated by order of tlie Directoi-s. He mai'ricd l"-li/abeth, daughter of Governor 
Holwell in 1759. and died at Calcutta in 1779. 


[No. 257.] 
George Baker to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1775, October lOth, Fort St. George. — I regret that the 
pagodas sent home on account of Major Madge's estate reahzcd 
an indifferent price, but I cannot follow your recommendation 
to send gold in ingots because I have nothing left to remit. 
The balance of the estate comes in bonds at Is. (kl. per pagoda, 
payable one year after sight. 

The statements of account which you send of the estates of 
your kinsmen Thomas and John Palk agree with those found 
among Major Madge's papers ; but I can trace nothing regarding 
the item Rs. 449 la. Ip., and I assume that both estates were 
included in the statement sent to you in October, 1772. I wrote 
to your nephew Thomas Palk on the subject, and I now enclose 
his reply to my letter. I also send a final statement of the 
account at the time of the Major's death. The balance due, 
Pags. 1,361 26/. 72c., I have paid to your attorneys here. 

" George Baker." 

[Autograph, 3 pp., fiscjj.] 

[Enclosure. — Statement of Account of the Estates of Thomas 
and John Palk. Other enclosures were Nos. 253 and 254.] 

[No. 258.] 
Chocapah to the Honble Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1775, October 10th, Fort St. George. — Since I addressed you 
by the Swallozv, man-of-war, on the 2nd July, I have learned 
with satisfaction " that Lord Pigot is coming out on the 
Greeynmlle for the Government of Madrass, which gives all the 
inhabitants, merchants and people in these parts much pleasure 
and joy, as they lived very happy in his Lordship's Government 
formerly by his defending Madrass and distressing the French 
at Pondichery. 

" We hear that our Government at Bombay and the Marattys 
are in cessation of arms, and the Gentlemen of [the] Supreme 
Council at Bengali sent an English gentleman'^* as Ambasidor 
to Ponnah to settle the matters with the Marattys, and to settle 
the difference of their family disputes ; and if that affair is 
once settled by our Ambasidor, the Marattys will always be our 
friends, and we shall have none of their troubles in these parts 
any more." 

Four merchant ships have arrived at Pondicherry from France, 
bringing goods consigned to MM. Law and Moragin and some 
warlike stores. AVork on the fortifications there goes on. " Mr. 
Dowsett*-' was obliged to go away from this place to Pondichery 
about two years ago on account of his creditors, and from thence 

(1) Colonel John Upton, Bengal Infantry. Vide Xo. 260, /). 255, note 6. 

(2) Robert Dowsett. Vide No. 34, p. 56, note 1. 

No. 258.] 254 

went to France. Now he came back upon one of these ships 
arrived lately at Pondichery . . ." 

Mr. Monckton's ship has returned from Manila with dollars 
for the owners and "for the Arminion and Black ^Merchants 
of this place," but the goods did not sell well. 

" Mr. Hastings and the Gentlemen of [the] Supreme Council, 
they say, do not agree with one another, and they say both of 
them are waiting for answers from England about their 

General Smith and Governor Wynch are preparing for their 
homeward passage. " Mr. Wynch has been very kind and civil 
to every one in the place. [He] made a good Governour to all 
the inhabitants and people of these parts . . 


[Autograjjh, 2 pp., demy.] 

[No. 25©.] 

Richard Welland'^^ to Robert Palk, Esqr., M.P., Halldon 

House, near Exeter. 

1775, October 12th, Madrass Road. — " Honoured Uncle . . 
We are just come from Masulipatam, where I was on shore and 
saw Mr. Thomas Palk, and he behaved very kind to me and gave 
me some books. Mr. Baker asks me on shore very often, 
likewise Mr. Adams . . We sail for Bombay on Sunday next. 
We expect Lord Pigot here every day, and Governor Winch 
goes home this year. I think hats is very dear in India . . . 

" Believe me to remain, with the sincerest love for you and 
my aunt and cousins, &c., &c., dear Uncle, affectionately your 
ever dutiful nephew, 

" Richard Welland." 

\Holnffraph, \ p. fJscp. Wax seal with profile head.] 

[No. 2C0.] 
George Baker to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1775, October 13th, Fort St. George. — In a separate letter I 
have dealt with the affairs of your deceased kinsmen Thomas 
and John Palk. Those of Major Madge, I learn, j'^ou have 
committed to his father and family. I congratulate you on 
the increase to your own family. 

" I should be glad to give 3'ou some account of publick affairs 
here, but my knowledge in this respect is very confined, though 
on the whole I think I may say that the Board do not draw well 
together. The late disputes about the Nabob's sending his 
second son as Fousdar*'-' to Tan j ore gave birth to party and 
resentnuMit, perhaps to rancour, which has not yet subsided, 
nor is it like to in the present reign. The expectation of Lord 

<!' Riflmrd WoUand, a naval cadet in Sir E. Hui^hes's flagship, was a son of 
Ricliard WCllaiid, son., who iiiai'riod Oi-aco, Gt)Vi'rnor Palk's only sister. 
(2) Fousdar (faujdar). Vide No. 12, p. 66, note 2. 

255 [No. 260. 

Pigot's speedy arrival has by no means increased the respect 
that was paid to the present (Governor. lie has in general a 
party of Brooke, Dawson, Palmer and Jourdan, but not always 
a majority. Mr. Stratton*" is very lately arrived here from 
his Chicfship of Vizagapatam, and a few days since resigned it. 
Dawson and Johnson were the best supported candidates, but 
the latter carried it for the Chiefship. Brooke sollicited, but 
had no support. He was told by some that he had had his 
chance at Masulipatam. 

" The ramparts of the \Vest front of the town and the faceing 
thereof are up to the cordong,'-' and bombproof casements'-''' 
all round compleated. The dry dyt[c]h and cunette'^' are also 
in a good degree of forwardness, but the covered way and 
glacis not far advanced. The ramparts are indeed very subs- 
tantial, but some cracks in the faceing have already made their 
appearance, and have very lately been mended without any 
publick notice taken of it, and plaistered over. The East lire 
is contracted for by Mr. Binfield,'''* and the foundation to the 
S.E. was just begvm on, but left off again till after the monsoon. 
" Mr. Stratton has tryed by every means he could to prevail 
on Mr. Wynch to go on the Nottingham and leave him in 
possession of the Chair untill Lord Pigot's arrival, but to no 
purpose. Mr. Wynche's friends prevailed on him to continue, 
as not knowing what may happen to prevent Lord Pigot's 
speedy arrival." 

Affairs in Bengal you will hear of from your friends there. 
Our latest news from Bombay was " that the Mahrattas and 
our Gentlemen there had agreed on a cessation of arms ; and 
the Supreme Council at Bengali haveing sent a Colonel Lupton*^* 
from there over land to Poonah with full powers to treat on 
a peace, it is supposed that good work will be effected. 

" The General'"' and Colonel Bonjour'^' come home on the 
Colebrooke, which with the Nottingham, it is said, will certainly 
sail on the 15th instant. And on that day also Sir Edward 
Hughes in the Salishury, together with the Coventry and Sea 
Horse, sail for the Mallabar coast. Sir John Clark'^' in the 
Dolphin sailed in iNIarch last from Bengali with a quantity of 
the Company's opium for Balambungan,*i*" since which it has 
been reported, but without any certain foundation, that 
settlement is cut off. 

(1) George Stratton, Vide No. 47, 2'- 72, note 6. 

(2) Cordon, the string-course at the base of the parapet. 

(3) Casemates, chaniLers in the ramparts. 

(•1) Cunette, a longitudinal trench dug in the ditch. 
(5) Paul Benfield. Vide No. 78, p. 109, note 1. 

'6) John Upton entered the Bengal Infantry as Captain in 1704, and became 
Lieut. Colonel in 1769. 

(7) General Joseph Smith. 

(8) Colonel Abraliam Bonjour. Vide No. 30, /j. 50, note 2. 

(9) Sir John Clarke, who carried off Eliza Draper from Bombay in 1773 (C/. No. 
281, p. 271, note 4) commanded the man-of-war Prudent in the preceding year, 
when he was knighted. 

UO) Balambangan, an island off the north coast of Borneo, where a settlement 
was established by Alexander Dalrymnlc in 1704, 

No. 260.] 256 

" Your nephew Mr. Palk at Bengali has been ill of a fever, 
but is well recovered again. Mr. Thomas Palk at Masulipatam 
was well a few days since. The Salisbury, man-of-war, was very 
lately there for some of the Company's bales, which gave your 
two nephews, Messrs. T. Palk and R. Welland, an opportunity 
to see each other. Master Welland is very well, but as he has 
not been on shore since they came from Masulipatam, I have 
not seen him lately. For the Commadore pays close attention 
to the manner in which all his young gentlemen spend their 
time, and lets them come on shore when he thinks proper, and 
then only . . . 

"As to myself and my affairs, they remain as they were ; 
and I confess that I am glad we are to have Lord Pigot or any 
other new Governor, since, be who it will, he may he less partial — 
more so than the present he cannot heJ" I have in fact been much 
hampered in my work, and unless matters are placed on a 
better footing I may have to seek redress in England. " The 
grand point I have had in view throughout life has been peace 
and quiet at the eve of it. I will still keep to my own maxim, 
and procure it if I can at any rate. This I hope you and yours 
now do, and may long, very long injoy in the most ample 
degree . . ." 

" George Baker." 

[Holograph, \2 pp., UoJ] 

[No. 261.] 
Reyno[ld] Adams to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1775, October 14th, Fort St. George. — " Mr. Stone tells me 
he has wrote to you to recommend your selling the house I 
live in. If you should resolve upon this, I beg leave to repeat 
my request of being the purchaser, as I have dwelt in it so 
long . . . 

" I have now to request your acceptance of a hogshead of 
old Goa arrack, said to be the best ever brought to Madras, on 
which account the small quantity brought here lately is much 
esteemed. It was got of the dispersed Fathers of the Inquisi- 
tion ..." 

" Reyno. Adams." 

[Autograph, 2 pp., Uo. Duplicate.] 

[No. 262.] 

MuDOO KiSTNA to [Robert Palk, Esqr.] 

1775, October 14th, Fort St. George. — " The Carnatick at 
present enjoys perfect peace and tranquility. Our Nabob and 
Ilydcr Ally Cawn in outward appearance seem to be upon good 
terms. Tlie Moratta state is involved in a civil war ; our 
Gentlemen upon the Malabar Coast are in alliance with Ragonaud 
Raw, who contends for the Government of Poona ; a battle 
or two was fought between him and the ministerial army of the 

257 [No. 262. 

said place, but it was not decissive. These domistic troubles 
have proved very lucky to Nizam Ally Cawn, who by the offers 
of his assistance not only draws money from the Ministers of 
Poona, but seizes all such districts and forts of his own territories 
which have been lately taken by the IMorattas and added to 
their dominions. These troubles have also proved lucky to 
the other country Powers both on this and the other side of 
the river Kistnah, so as to free them from their incursions and 
demands of Choutt. 

" By the account we received by his Majesty's frigate the 
Coventry, Lord Pigot may be daily expected ; but some people 
are of opinion that he, being embarked upon the Bombay ship, 
may probably arrive at that place, and proceed hither in the 
begining of the next year ; but what may be the will of Divine 
Providence no body can tell." 

[Autograph, 2\ pp., Uo.] " Mudoo Kistna." 

[No. 263.] 

George Baker to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1775, December 14th, Fort St. George. — " This acknowledges 
the receipt of your favor of the 12th of April last per Granvil. 
That ship anchored here about sunset on the 9th instant. 
Lord Pigot, Messrs. Russel,'^' Dalrymple,*-* Crawfurd,'^' &c., all 
well. His Lordship, &c., landed the next morning between 
eight and nine o'clock in the midst of a vast croud of people. 
Governor Wynch and Council, the Nabob and his family all 
met him at the seaside and accompanyed him to the Council 
Room, which was filled with a croud of people. After about a 
quarter of an hour's stay there, Lord Pigot and the Nabob 
withdrew to the Admiralty, where they had about half an hour's 
conversation, when the Nabob retired to Chaupauk and his 
Lordship returned to the Council Room in the Fort Square. 
Here his commission was read and the usual compliments paid 
him. This done, the troops were drawn up on the parade and 
his commission read again, when he was saluted with three 
volleys of small arms and nineteen guns from the saluting 

(1) Claud Russell. Vide No. 12, p. 15, note 3. 

(2) Alexander Dalrymple, a Madras civil servant of 1753, was in 1755 appointed 
Assistant to the Assaymaster at Fort St. George " to be instructed in the art of 
assaying." During the siege of Madras he was Sub-Secretary. In 1759 he was sent 
on a commercial mission to the Eastern Islands, where he spent two and a half years, 
and concluded a treaty with the Sultan of Sulu, In 1762 he was given the command 
of the ship/-o>if/oH, in which he passed a further period of two years among the islands, 
estal)lighing a settlement at Balanil)angan, off the coast of Borneo, and constructing 
a series of charts. In 1765 he returned to England and pul)lished works on geo- 
graphy and hydrography. In 1775 Dalrymple sailed for Madras with Lord Pigot, as 
a memlier of Council. He sided witli the Governor during the revolution, and was 
suspended by the Majority. Recalled to England in 1777, he was appointed 
Hydrographer to tlie Company in 177!t and to the Admiralty in 1795. 

"(•^' Quintin Crauford. FWe No. 20^, p. 216, note 1. 

No. 263.] ' 258 

" The late and present Governor, together with the Council, 
&c., now retired to the Admiralty, where the keys were delivered 
to Lord Pigot and all the formallityes of his introduction to the 
Go^'ernment compleated, and the late and present Go^-ernor and 
Council all dined together both that [day] and the next, which 
was a Military Council day and the first of the present Govern- 
ment, But Mr. Wynch never assisted on any publick service 
after Lord Pigot's landing, though orders have been given to 
show him the usual publick marks of respect. He lives at the 
(iardens, where Lord Pigot has hitherto generally breakfasted, 
though he sleeps in the Fort Square and the young ladyes*^' and 
the rest of the family live at the Admiralty, The day after 
his Lordship landed he returned the Nabob's visit and passed 
about an hour and [a] half with him. No extraordinary news 
of what may be intended to do with respect to the Tanjore 
business has yet transpired here, though people seem inclined 
to think that something new may happen. 

" I have paid my respects to Lord Pigot and Messrs. Russel 
and Dalrymple. They received me very civilly, but I have not 
yet had an opportunity to speak to either of them about my 
business ..." 

I will make further enquiries about poor Goodlad's affairs, 
but full accounts were sent to England last June. This letter 
goes by the Salisbury, Indiaman, Captain Bromfield, which 
called here yesterday on her way from Bengal. We hear Sir 
Edward Hughes arrived at Anjengo on the 18th November. 

" By letters of the 1st November from Bombay Colonel 
Lupton,<2) the Envoy from Bengali, was arrived in the neigh- 
bourhood of Poonah. Our army was, it is said, advancing 
from the north nearer to the Maharatah capital, and the 
Government of Bombay had directed the Chief of Anjengo to 
advise the trade from Bengali, China, &c,. to proceed so high 
as Tellicherry without fear, but not to run the risk of proceeding 
further till they sent them convoy. This looks as though all 
apprehensions of danger from the Maratahs was not yet o\'cr . . . 

" Oiu* Nabob haveing desired and obtained the permission 
of the General Council at Bengali to send Mr. Chambers'^' 
(a gentleman who has made a great progress in the Persian and 
other languages) to Poonah as his Eml^assador, he is to set 
out on that service in a few days, 

" Bazzallyzung'^' haveing got together a number of French 
and other Europeans, induced our Cientlemen to send Ca})tain 
Edmonds with about a hundred Europeans to Ongole to be 
ready to joyn the troops at Ellore if occation should require it, 
but they have hitherto remained (juiet. This chief haveing 
lately laid siege to the capital of some neighbouring little 

(1' Sopliia and (/(^onnra Pigot, 

(2) Oolnn.-l TTpton. 

<"^' AVilliaiu ( 'liainlicis, of I lie Xawali'a service, 

'*> Ma.salal .i;iiig, \i(li' .\o. lit, i>. 2:<, note (J. 


250 [No. 203. 

state, the besieged applyed to Hydcrally for assistance. He 
immediately, and as privately as possible, sent his son Tippa 
Saib witli a large party of horse to the relief of the place, and 
came upon the besiegers so very unexpectedly and attacked 
them so vigorously as to cut off a great number of them, and 
among the rest a great part of Bazzallyzung's Europeans, 
which has for the present abated our apprehentions of his 
designs . . . 

" About ten days since we received certain (though neither 
publick nor particular) accounts that Ballambangan had been 
taken by the people of Solo. It was a private letter from a Mr. 
Coles'^' of Council there. He exclaims much against the 
conduct of Mr, Herbert,*-' both as to his management before 
and at the attack of the place, for I cannot call it defence. It 
seems they neither made or endeavored to make any. Loose- 
ing gamesters always complain, and Mr. Herbert in his turn 
may perhaps have as much to say against his colleague in 
Council. But be this as it may, the Company, it seems, loose 
two himdred thousand pounds sterling in goods, &c., &c., by 
it. As they took to their vessels as soon as they could, I don't 
find that many, or perhaps any, lives were lost on the occation. 
They are now at a place on the N.W. part of the Island of 
Borneo which they call Borneo proper, and from whence we 
expect publick advices from them every day." 

Messrs. Stratton, Dawson and Brooke all talk of leaving 
for England shortly. Mr. Thomas Palk at Masulipatam was 
well when I last heard from him. 

" The good old General''^' ! My heart warms as the idea of 
him comes to my recollection, but I cannot say I lament him. 
He lived to a fulness of days and glory, and what could vanity 
itself wish more ? . . ." 

" George Baker." 

" P.S. — Lord Pigot is just returned from a visit to the Nabob 
in a rich palankin, which he has presented to him." 
[Holograph, 11 pp., flscp.] 

[No. 264.] 

Chocapah to the Honble. Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1775, December 14th, Fort St. George. — " Ship Grenvelle 
arrived here the 9th of this month, with Lord Pigot, Mr. Russell, 
Mr. Dalrymple and Mr. Crawford, who landed themselves the 
next morning, and his Lordship's commission was read, and 
the Chair was delivered up to him immediately, and all the 
inhabitants, merchants and people paid our visit to his Lordship, 
and are all in these parts extremely glad to see his Lordship 
again in ]\ladras . . . Moodu Kistna is acting at present all 

(1* Edward Coles, second of Council at Balambangan. 

'-' John Hprl>ert, Chief at Balambangan. 

(3) General Stringer Lawrence, who died 10th January, 1775. 

No. 264.] 260 

his Lordship's affairs . . . Mr. Wynch has resigned up the 
Government, and Hves at the Admiralty House ..." 

" Chocapah." 
[Autograph, 1 p., demy.] 

[No. 265.] 
John dTries to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1775, December 14th, Madras.— You will learn from iNIr. 
Petrie,'^* when he reaches England, of the state of Goodlad's 
affairs. " We have received the amount of the ruby ring from 
the Nabob, which shall be remitted by Company's bills in 
January, and make no doubt of as easily receiving payment for 
the house at the end of the term : by which means the concerns 
of Mr. Vansittart in Madras will, I hope, turn out much beyond 
expectation ... I am happy to find Mrs. Morse Ijctter 
reconciled to England than at her first going. I think if Mrs. 
Morse and Mrs. Van could hve together, it might greatly add 
to the satisfaction and contentment of both. I hope their 
pecuniary circumstances will turn out better than either of 
the ladys apprehended . . . 

" Lord Pigot arrived the 9th, and I hope will pass the 
remainder of his days with us. A person of his reputation and 
intimate knowledge of the Company's and India affairs must 
l)e of great service to us in case of need. There was much alarm 
at Chepauk House, which is not over yet, but I wish and hope 
every thing will be settled and adjusted in a reasonable and 
friendly way. The machine certainly wanted winding up, and 
a tight hand is very necessary on such occasions. 

" The dissentions at Bengal continue as violent as ever. 
Nothing will put an end to it but the removal of one party or 
the other. The war with the Morattas on the other coas[t] 
continues in suspense. The miserable settlement of Balam- 
bangan, I am told, will cost the Company four himdred thousand 
£, and the lives of many people ..." 

" John d'Fries." 

[Holograph, 2 J pp., Uo.] 

[No. 266.] 

Major J[ames] Rennell'-> to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr., at 

Halden House. 

1776, .January 2nd, Bengali.- — ^Forgive my failure to reply 
earlier to your letter of March last. " I am aware of the 
iiiconveniencies and folly of returning to England without a 
c()nipet(;ncy. I thank (iod Mrs. RenncU*-" and mysoU" look no 
I'arthcr than for the mere conveniencics of life ; so that what 

(1) William Petrie. Vide Nd. 178, p. 196, note 1. 

(2) Vide No. 145, p. 167, note 1. In the course of 1776 Rennoll was attacked 
by a l>a(ul of Hanvitisis and danKcroiisly wounded. 

(3) HeniicU luai'iied al OalcuUa in 1772 .Jane Thackeray, great-aunt of the 

261 [No. 266. 

would be a trifling pittance to many will be adlucnec to us. 
Mrs. Rennell joins me in best Avishes to yourself and Mrs. Palk. 
We have had the misfortune to lose our little girl, our only 
child ; but I hope God Almighty will in good time give us 

" J. Rennell." 
[Ilolograjjh, 1 p., Ito. Wax seal with arms.] 

[No. 267.] 
Lieut. J. Snelling to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr., Halldown House. 

1776, January 4th, Sick Quarters, Vizagapatam. — " My ever 
honoured and esteemed Patron, Sick as I am at present, 
gratitude for the numberles[s] favors I have received obhges 
me to let you hear how 1 go on and where I am stationed." I 
wrote last from Aska, whence I was transferred to Captain 
INIathews's battalion at Chicacole. This was for me a fortunate 
event, for " Captain Mathews,'-' whome I have the pleasure 
of informing you is my very generous and sincere friend, is 
esteemed by every body to be the most warlike genius in India, 
and the most enterprizing man that ever drew sword in this 
part of the country." Since he took command of the Chicacole 
battalion " he has not only conquered countries before un- 
conquerable, but even with one battalion executed greater 
undertakings than his predecessors durst attempt even w^ith 
thrice his number of men and some companies of Europeans 
besides . . . What a pleasure and satisfaction it is for a young 
fellow like myself to be under a man so renowned for every 
particular of the military art ! . . . Not long ago I was on 
detachment amongst those hills so famous for their fatality 
to European constitutions. I got a most severe fever and ague, 
which had very near ended my life ; and though I have been 
for six weeks under the doctor's hands, am not as yet perfectly 
recovered. My friends perswade me to leave northern climes 
and try those more healthy ones to the southward, but what 
signifies my going to a place where, with the strictest o[e]conomy 
I should find it difficult to live on my pay, and probably, from 
the number of pleasures to be met with there, such as plays, 
horseracing, cockfighting, in short almost all those expensive 
amusements you have in England, might be drawn on to live 
at greater expence than my income can afford ? I can live 
here very genteelly on my means, and as I shall probabl}^ never 
more visit England, will make every thing as agreable to myself 
as possible. Nothing but an extraordinary gust of fortime can 
ever procure a soldier one in these iron days, and to be dependant 
at home will not agree with my constitution ; consequently I 
shall never leave India . ." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., Uo.] ' " J. Snelling." 

*1) Two sons and a daughter were born later. 

'-) Captain Richard Mathews, commanding in the Circars, took Jeypur in 
1775. Vide also No. 19, p. 27, note 1. 


[No. 268.] 
Colonel Gilbert Ironside to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1776, January 14th, Calcutta. — I enclose some papers for 
your perusal, and venture to offer the following observations 
on them : — " What could induce the man to so envenomed an 
attack without any provocation on my part, and to the branding 
himself with the obloquy of an informer, except it were to 
ingratiate himself, as many have lately attempted, with a 
prevailing party, no one can devise ; for the trifling difference 
we had about a command was merely a pretence, and could 
never be the cause of so virulent a proceeding. Thus however 
was it represented to the General,'^' and by him to the Board. 
To every member of the Council the charges appeared, as they 
really are, frivolous and insignificant ; and the Gentlemen 
individually declared to me how willingly disposed they all were 
to take a favourable part in it on my account. Unfortunately 
at that juncture the contentions at the Board on the dismission 
of their late Secretary Mr. Stuart*^' had produced great personal 
animosities, and a debate ensued on the manner and form in 
which my business was to be taken up. The Governour insisted, 
as the matter was introduced by the General, on his making 
the proposition ; and the General asserted that it ought to 
proceed oflicially from the Governour. 

" During the controversy Mr. Hastings sent me frequently 
to assure the General of his acquiescence in any terms tending 
to my justification, and General Clavering returned me as 
often with the like assurances to Mr. Hastings : both of them 
at the same time affirmed that they could repose no confidence 
in each other, and that their only repugnance to make the first 
advances proceeded from the diffidence each entertained that 
some advantage might be taken to the prejudice of the 
proposer ; — ^on one part because I had formerly acted as 
Secretary to the Governour, and on the other because the 
General since his arrival had particularly distinguished me, and 
had taken Mr. Roberts, Mrs. Ironside's brother, as his Persian 
Translator. The other Gentlemen, well inclined to serve me, 
attended their deternunation. But with every suffrage in my 
behalf, their nuitual jealousies and disagreements absolutely 
prevented the effect of those favourable resolutions all of them 
wished might be adopted, and produced tiie general orders 
which arc annexed to my letters. The ultimate decision of 
the matter itself is referred to the Court of Directors with a 
favourable representation of it from the Council in their public 
capacity, and, if I can believe themselves, a recommendation 
of it in their private characters. Yet I confess I cannot but 
deem myself, by the publication of these orders, very hardly 
dealt with, not only from their exposing me to the reflexions 

U) General Sii* John Clavoi'lnp. 

(2) John Stewart, Secretary to the Govcrmueut of Bengal. 

203 [No. 268. 

of the world, but as it must of course contribute to impair my 
authority in the army. 

" Sliould you regard it's consequence in the same point of 
view, you will grant mc, I hope, your Icind assistance, whenever 
the matter comes in agitation before the Court of Directors, 
to obtain an alleviation, if not a reversal, of those orders and 
of the censure they convey . . ." 

" Gilbert Ironside," 

[Holograph, 3| pp., Uo.] 

[No. 269.] 
Sir Edw[ar]d Hughes to Robert Palk, Esqr., at his house 

in St. James's Place. 
1776, January 15th, Bombay. — " I came here to dock and 
rclitt, [as] well as assist, if I can, in the treaty making at Poonali. 
This onh' serves to acknowledge the receipt of your favour per 
Grenville, arrived the 10th of last month at Madras, and to 
assure you of the welfare of your nephew, 'i' who grows a very 
smart young man. He is perfectly well, and shall want no 
one thing in my power. I will do myself the pleasure to write 
you by the Dolphin more fully. You will have received many 
letters from me in the course of last year, and which you shall 
continue to do while [I am] abroad." 

"Edwd Hughes." 
[P.S.] — " My best respects wait on Mrs. Palk." 
[Holograph, 1| j}-, 'ito. Wax seal with arms, defaced.] 

[No. 270.] 
Chocapah to the Honble, Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1776, February 2nd, Fort St. George.—" I hear that the 
Government of England and the East India Company has gi\en 
positive orders to Lord Pigot to take Tonjore and the countrys 
belonging thereunto from the Nabob, and to put the same in 
the King of Tonjore's possession, where the Company's troops 
are to be placed, and the King to disburse the charges of the 
troops. The Nabob at first seemed unwilling, and told the 
Governour and Council to do herein as they think proper ; but 
at last his Lordship and the Gentlemen in Council, I hear, are 
determined . . . , and orders is sent to Trichinopolly for the 
regiment there to be in readiness to march . . . 

" Mr. Macpherson,*^' who came here as purser to Captain 

<!' Richard Welland. Vide No. 259, p. 254, note 1. 

(-' John Macpherson came to Madras at the age of 22 as purser of a ship which 
was commanded by his uncle Alexander ^lacleod. He ingratiated himself with 
Walajah, and was engaged to represent him in England. Macpherson approached 
the Duke of Grafton on the Nawab's behalf, and obtained from the Du'ectors a 
writership for himself. He entered the Madras civil service in 1770, but in 1776 he 
was dismissed by Lord Pigot's Government for conduct prejudicial to the Company. 
Returning to England, he entered Parliament, and in 1781 was appointed by Lord 
North to be a member of the Supreme Council. On Hastings's resignation in 1785 
Macpherson became provisional Governor-General, and he was created a baronet 
in the following year. 

No. 270.] 


Macl[e]od in 1767 . . made great interest with the Nabob, 
promising to get some great men in his Majesty's Court in 
England to his interest, as also that he will come out to India 
as a covenanted servant to the Company. The said Mr. 
Macpherson, I hear, when he came out as a Company's Writer 
. . . contracted great friendship with the Nabob, and gives him 
all the intelligence he possibly can of what passes amongst 
the Gentlemen here . . . And since the present circumstances 
commenced between his Lordship, &c., and the Nabob, he was 
found frequent[ly] going [to] the Nabob in an unseasonable 
hour, that is, at eleven or twelve at night . . . ; and |a] few 
days ago he, together with Mr. Stuart*" that came from Bengali 
to go from hence, went to the Nabob at about 12 at night. 
This behavior of Mr. Macpherson coming to the knowledge of 
the Governour and Council, they thought proper to suspend 
him the Company's service . . . 

" I hear that Mr. Sadleir,<-' Resident at Bandermulunka, 
behaved very ill to the inhabitants and merchants there, 
taking their vessels at freight against their will to load them with 
his goods and merchandize, beating and ill treating several 
people, taking bribes and extorting money from several people. 
Some of them, I hear, complained of it to the Governour and 
Council, upon which the Board was pleased to appoint Mr. 
Holland, Mr. Perring and Mr. Davidson'-" as [a] conmiittce to 
examine into this matter . . . They are now examining this 
affair *at Masulipatam . . . 

" Several gentlemen in the place, for want of a way of 
remitting their fortune to England by bills, sends it in gold and 
Star pagodas on every ship that goes from hence, which 
impoverish[es] the place very much. 

" I hear that the Malays has taken Ballumbungam, and our 
Gentlemen who were there quitted the place and went to another 
Malay island. The Company on this occasion, I hear, will 
sustain a loss of about four hundred thousand pounds on that 
island. I hear this is all owing to the bad proceeding of our 
Gentlemen there . . . 

" Chocapaii." 

" P.S. — Since I wrote the above the Nabob has given written 
orders in the hands of his Lordship, and directed to Najceb 
Cawn, who is Killador**' of Tonjorc, to deli\cr up the place to 
the English ; and orders has been sent to Colonel Harper*^' at 
Trichinopolly to march with his regiment there and take 
possession of Ton j ore the 9th of this month . . . And it is 
further reported that Sir Robert Fletcher and another gentleman 

(1* John Stowarl, Into Socrclary, BoiiKnl. Vide No. 256, p. 252, note 8. 

(2) Antliony Sadlcir. Vide No. Oi». /'. S»6, note 2. 

(■'> Poioi' Porring, Alexander Davidson and John IIolloiul wim'c Madras civil 
sci'vanls of 175!), 1700 and 1701 respectively. 

(*) KiJadflr, (he commander of a fortress ; from Pers. Icila, a fort, 

(5) Triimpln-ey Harix-r, as Captain, comtnanded a sepoy battalion in 1770. He 
was a Li'iil. Cnldncl in 1775, and in 1779 led a force into Uuntur in aid of Basalat 
Jang against Uaidar Ali. 

265 [No. 270. 

■will soon set out from hence for Tonjorc, and restore to tlic 
King- tlie eoinitrys belonginfr to liim in the name of the Enghsh 
Company. Tlie restoration of the eountrys to tlie King of 
Tonjore will be a lasting monument to the Enghsli nation, to 
the Company and to his Lordship all over these parts, and the 
^larattys will rejoice greatly in the English nation's generosity, 
and [it will] he a lasting fame to the nation. 

■• The 10th February, 1776." 

[^lutugraph, 2\ pp., denitj.] 

[No. 271.] , 
Tiio[maJs Palk to Rob[er]t Palk, Es(|r. 

1776, February 8th, Maz[ulipata]m. — Not ha\ing received 
a single letter from you during the past two years, I fear that 
you must be displeased with me. Were j'our silence due to the 
reports of malicious persons, you would doubtless have given 
me an opportunity of replying to their charges ; so that I know 
not to what cause to attribute your displeasure. I owe nnicli 
to vou, and I assure \'ou that mv conduct has alwavs been such 
as you would approve. 

I ha^•e been at this station nearly three years, but my position 
does not yet enable me to dispense with the allowance you are 
pleased to make me. I refer you to Mr. Whitehill'^', who has 
resigned the Chiefship and is now going home, for information 
regarding me. From him I have received many civilities. 

" The Naboli is dispossessed of his newly acquired territory, 
and our troops are marching to take possession — a severe stroke 
on the Nabob, and he seems to be sensibly affected. India at 
present is '\\\ a state of tranquility, and likely to continue so if 
the French do not take it into their heads to disturb us . . ." 

"Thos. Palk." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., flscp.] 

[No. 272.] 

George Baker to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1776, BVbruary 10th, Fort St. George. — " The new Governor 
seems to have been particularly attentive in showing his 
predecessor every civility in his power during the two months 
he has continued here since his supercession. Lord Pigot has 
indeed taken the Fort House to himself, but the .Vdmiralty and 
Garden House are occupyed in conmion by him and Mr. Wynch 
together with both their l"amil\'s. The late Governor continues 
to recei\ e all the honours usually paid to him in that capacity 
equally with the present. He has the head of the table, does 
and receives all the honours of it, and each ask their own friends 
as they please. In fine, it appears to me that Lord Pigot is 
willing to send home Mr. Wynch in as good humour as his 

(1) John Whitehill. Vide No. lii, p. 2'J, note 2. 

No. 272.] 266 

adopting contrary measures in respect of publick affairs will 
admit of, well knowing, I should suppose, that a man of two 
plumbs in England will be a more desireable friend or formidable 
enemy in proportion as that sum exceeds a mere competency. 

" The negotiation of the surrender of Tanjore to the 
Company's troops has been carryed on between the Nabob and 
Lord Pigot (on the part of the Board) with such secrecy that 
I am utterly unable to say on what conditions or under what 
restrictions, either in respect of the Rajah, the Nabob or the 
Company, the new arrangements are to take place. Report 
has it that the Nabob's garrison was to march out, and a 
garrison of the Company's to march in, as yesterday the 9th 
February . . " 

The Ankenvyke, which is now ready to sail, carries Mr. Wynch 
'and also Mr. Stuart'^', late Secretary, Bengal. Mr. and Mrs. 
Vansittart arrived here yesterday in the Hillsborough on their 
way to England. Mr. Thomas Palk has asked me to repay to 
Mr. Wynch what the latter advanced to him in respect of your 
allowance since receipt of your instructions to withhold the 
allowance. I was obliged to reply that your orders must be 
obeyed. This attitude was painful to me owing to my friendship 
for Mr. Palk. When I met him in Madras in 1772 he seemed to 
be financially embarrassed, and on the occasion of his visit to 
Bengal I ad^"ised him to confide in his brother. Whether he 
did so or not I cannot say, but I venture to suggest that one 
more effort of benevolence on your part might set him on his 
feet again. 

After the death of Mr. Goodlad it was found that his bond 
debts were about Pags. 25,000 and book debts Pags. 15,000. 
Of the former, half has been paid, and the assets suffice to meet 
the remaining half. James Johnson, now insolvent in Elngland, 
owes Pags. 8,000, but the Nawab gave such engagement for that 
sum as permitted Johnson to leave Madras. On the recovery 
of the amount the book creditors will receive about half their 

" liy the last accounts from Bombay we are gi^•en to under- 
stand that Colonel Lupton'-' was arrived there, and that there 
was then a prospect of a peace being concluded between the 
English and the Maratahs on faAorable terms for the former. 
Sir Edward Hughes with his Squadron is there, and will not 
return hither till May next ..." 

" George Baker." 

" P.S. — That you might nt)t be too much puzled in making 
out my scrawl I have made my amamiensis (who does not 
imderstand a word of what is said) transcribe it." 

[Autograph, Of pp., flscjJ.] 

(1) John Stewart. Vide No. 266, p. 252, uoto 3. 
f2) Colonel Upton. 


[No. 273.] 
Mrs. Mary Turing'^' to Robert Palk, K.s(|[r. 

1776, February 10th, Fort St. George. Received 17th 
Feb., 1777. — I have askctl my son to wait on you with this letter. 
Tliouph I ha\c' not received anv direct conmuuiieation from 
Mrs. Palk. I ha\ e had news of her and your family from my 
IViend Mrs. Casamaijor'-'. " My tw^o daughters' '* arrived here 
in June. 1773, and in August following were both hap})ily 
married, the eldest to Mr. John Turing, and the youngest to 
Mr. Saunders. They both made nie a grandmother . . . My 
eldest son, Taylor, is an officer in the Company's service, so 
Bob'*' is now my only care. My wish is to get him appointed 
a Writer in the ser\iec at Madras, for which I nuist solicit and 
rely upon the interest of my friends. You have upon all 
occasions shewn a regard for me and my family, which emboldens 
me to re(jucst your assistance towards my son . . ." 

" Mary Turing." 

[Holograph, 2|- pj:>., Mo.] 

[No. 274.] 
J[oiin] M[axwell] Stone to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1776, February 12th, Fort St. George. — " You have already 
been advised that Mr. De Fries had taken upon him the joint 
management of vour affairs . . . 

" The orders received by the GrenviUc regarding the Nabob 
are exceedingly mortifying to him. They direct that the 
country of Tanjore shall be restored to the Rajah, and have 
severely censured this Government for having dispossessed 
him. It might easily be shew'n where the blame ought to lie ; 
but as a refutation of the arguments used by the Directors can 
answer no good end either to [the] service or myself, I shall not 
attempt it. I have frequently, my dear Sir, in my letters to 
you shewed the dangers to be expected from the support the 
Nabob received from home in opposition to this Government. 
The eyes of people seem to be now open ; but they now proceed 
from one extreme to the other, and have, I think, unhappily 
missed that proper medium which alone could unite the 
Company's and the Nabob's interest on a solid and permanent 

" The Court of Directors have appointed a Connnittee of 
Circuit, who are to make the tour of the Circars and Jaguecr'"'', 
and report their present state and capacity for improvement. 
The members of the Connnittee were appointed by the Directors, 

(1) This lady, daughter of Captain John Dc Morgan, married first Tlioiuas 
Taylor and secondly Surgeon Robert Turing. 

(-) Rebecca Casamaijor. Vide No. 18, p. 22, note 1. 

(3) Mary and Helen Turing married, respectively, John Turing and Edward 
Saunders, both civil servants of 17()2. 

(*> Robert Turing, jun., entered the Madras Army in 177S, rose to the rank of 
Major, and died in 1801. 

t5) The Company's Jaghire. Vide No. 118, p. 140, note 3. 

No. 274.] 268 

and consist of Messrs. Dawson, Russell, Dalryniplc, Johnson 
and Mackay. I am, I can assure you, exceedingly happy at 
being left out of this disagreeable conniiission, for sueh 1 am 
convinced it must prove if it be executed in the manner 
intended ..." 

" J. M. Stone." 
[Holograph, 3 pp., 4^o.] 

[No. 275.] 
H.H. the Nawab Walajah to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1776, February 12th, Chepauk. — " The Gentlemen of the 
Company have been induced by groundless reports, which 
have never had any foundation from me or my family, and the 
representation of people who attend only to their own interest, 
to send orders by Lord Pigot in regard to the Tanjore affairs, 
as you may have publickly heard. His Lordship has, since his 
arrival, been an eye witness of the state of affairs, and is con- 
vinced that the reports which prevailed in England were false. 
He has therefore solemnly promised that he will make a just 
representation to England. I have, however, agreed to take a 
Company's garrison into Tanjore on the same terms as in 
Trichinopoly and other forts to convince the Company of my 
invariable friendship and dcpendance on them, which have 
imiformly subsisted from the beginning. I am always obliged 
to them. You'll be thoroughly informed of all matters by the 
copies of my letters to the Gentlemen of the Company and to the 
Governor and Council of Madrass, which I have sent to Colonel 
Macleane. I expect candor and justice from the Gentlemen 
of the Company in regard to the Tanjore country, which is 
entirely my right. You are my old friend ; therefore I hope 
you'll give me your assistance in protecting my rights that I may 
always remain under obligations to you. 

" What can I say more ? " 

\1\ p.,/Z*q9. Wax seal on outer cover with Persian inscri}jtio}i.] 

[No. 276.] 

John D'Fries to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1776, February 12th, Madras.—" Mr. (Jeorge Yansittart is 
here in his way to Old England on the Hillsborough. To him 
I shall beg leave to refer you for all partieidars of India news, 
con lining myself entirely to the subject of our Nabob, who, 
poor man, has been greatly affected with the Company's orders 
regarding Tanjore. Lord Pigot has belui\ed with a great deal 
of management and indulgence towards the Nabob in the 
execution of the orders, and he is himself perswaded of his 
Lordship's favorable disposition towards him. The English 
troops were to enter Tanjore the 9th instant : it is said a part 
of the Nabob's people are to continue in the Fort. The Nabob 
agrees to everything — an English garrison, the release of the 

269 [No. 27G. 

Rajah, a proper maintenance to him, a handsome Jaghire for 
the Company ; I daresay he will give up all the seaports, 
Nagore, Trimelivashel ; — in short, he will do every thing to save 
appearances, that the countrey be not wrested out of his hands, 
which undoubtedly nuist make him look \'ery little in the eyes 
of his own people as well as the other countrey powers. His 
best friends have advised him to submit chearfully to the 
Company's orders, and then remonstrate to Europe. It has 
cost him a great deal to bring himself to this way of thinking, 
which his good sense has at last determined him to. It has 
certainly been a bitter cup to him, and he has found it out when 
late that his new friends have been the principal cause of the 
mortification which he now suffers. He has great confidence 
in your friendship and of Mr. Vansittart's family, and tells me 
he has wrote to you and sent copys of some papers which will 
inform you of what past in this business. His request is so 
reasonable now that I dare say you and his other friends will 
afford him assistance in having him redressed. As it is not 
sound policy that he should be lifted up too much, I don't 
think it prudent neither that he should be too much lowered, 
as it certainly is the case in this business. The Nabol) declares 
that this business of the conquest of Tan j ore has cost him in 
the two expeditions three millions of sterling, near three crores 
of rupees ; and although he has had the revenues of the country 
for two years, he has been obliged to maintain so considerable 
a military force that it has, I think, taken off above one third 
of it ; so that if the country is taken away from him entirely, 
he must be a great looser by his bargain. 

" The unlucky turn that the American business lias taken 
has filled us with much serious reflection. We anxiously wait 
to hear from England. God send that matters may have been 
made up." 

" John d'Fries." 

[Holograph, 3 pjj., -ito.] 

[Xo. 277.] 
Geo[rge] Baker to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1776, February loth, Fort St. George. — " My last address to 
you was under date the 10th instant per Anlienvike, on which 
ship Governor Wynch imbarkcd this morning about eight 
o'clocke. News having been received from Colonel Harper 
that he with his detachment took possession of Tanjore the 
9th instant, that ship carryes advices thereof. She lyes with 
her topsails atrip ready to get under way the moment the wind 
admits of it . . . 

" The Committee of Circuit will soon set out on their business. 
Mr. Whitehill,*^^ who was chief of Masulipatam, resigned soon 

(1) John'Whitehill. Vide No, 19, p. 29, note 2, 

No. 277. J 270 

after Lord Pisjot's arrival. The busy world sav he chose not 
to stay till the new Committee eame their rounds." He and 
Mr. John Sulivan'^' sail in a French ship, the ^Ija.r. from 
Pondieherry. Crauford.'-' as senior, takes eharge temporarily 
at Masulipatani. Stratton. Broi)ke, Dawson and Russell are 
all said to be candidates for that Chiefship, but the last named 
will probably be appointed. 

" In Lin\l Pilot's intercourse with the Nabob he has somehow 
procured IVom him a memorial from a Mr. Macjiherson'^' (wlio 
is about six years' standing in the Company's civil service) to 
the Nabob, representing his essential services and claiming a 
consideration for them. This gentleman has been in great 
conhdenee with his Highness, and report has it that his council 
[sic] to him has been to disregard the Company and cultivate 
a good understanding with [the] Ministry, which he 
(Macpherson) made the N'abob believe he could greatly promote 
by his connections in England. But the affair of Tanjore seems 
to have opened his eyes. Macpherson's memorial was produced 
to the Board by Lord Pigot, and he in consequence was 
immediately dismissed the service and ordered to Europe. It 
is said he has made twenty thousand pounds ..." 

" Geo. Baker." 

[Holograph, 4 pp„ flscp.] 

[No. 27S.] 
MuDoo KisTXA to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

177G, February lOth, Fort St. George. — " After long expecta- 
tion Lord Pigot arrived on the 9th December last, came ashore 
on the 10th. and succeeded to the Government ; which being 
attended with the seasonable rains in the country this year, 
proved very agreeable to the people. At present the Carnatick 
enjoys a perfect peace and traiupiility. Ilyder Ally Cawn in 
the Balagaut waged a war against Basalut Jung and other 
country powers, and after he obliged them to pay him certain 
sums of money, marched against Moraryraw and beseiged his 
capital (iutty.^' It is thought that the matters will be 
accDinodatcil between them. 

" His Lonlsliip got our garrison placed in the Tanjore Fort, 
and it is said that the King is set at lil)erty, and that the country 
will be soon restored to him . . ." 


[Autograph. 2 /)/)., Uo.] 

n> Jolin Sulivan. Vide Xo. 10, />. i!i). noto 3. 
(2> Quintin Craufoitl. Vide No. 204. ;>. 2U5, note 1. 
l3) .Tohn Maophofson. Vide Xo. "JTO, u. 2l)3, note 2. 
t*> Gooty (Guti), a to\vn iu the Anautapiu* District. 


[No. 279.] 
A. Venkata to Roh[er]t Pat,k, Esqr. 

177C, February 17th, Madrass.— The grant ol' ^' tlie villaoe 
of Aniurampadoo de{)eii(laiit on |the) '' Seven Magauniinis," "> 
Avliieli yon were jileased to make to nic, has been recognized 
by yoiu' sneeessors, and the Charity eonneeted with the t(Mnj)le 
is maintained. Mr. Stone has helped nie to overeome a dillienlty 
witii the Durbar by set thug the rents ol" the village, and I hope 
you will ask him and Mr. Strattoii to support me in the event 
ol' any interference by th(T servants of the Nawab. 

" Amerambadoo Venkaty," 

" Dubash to Mrs. Palk." 

[Holograph, 2 pp., 4to.] 

[No. 280.] 
J[onN] M[axwell] Stone to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

177C, February 21st, Fort St. George. — I advise the despatch 
of a First of exchange by Mr. Arthur Owen,*-' who sails from 
Pondicherry in the Aquilon. The Second will be conveyed by 
Mr. John Sulivan'^' in the Ajax. 

"J. M. Stone." 

[Autograph, 1 p., Uo.] 

[No. 281.] 
George Baker to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

177G, February 23rd, Fort St. George.—" The Hillshoroug[h], 
with Mr. and Mrs. Vansittart on board, was dispatched hence 
for Europe the IGth instant, but on account of light or un- 
favorable winds she did not get out of sight till the 20th . . . 
This letter comes by Captain Pegou, late of the Huniingdon. 
He with Mr. Whitehill and John Sulivan go passengers in the 
old Ajax, now a French Indiaman. A Mrs. Draper'^' of Bombay 
(who is a niece of Mr. Whitehill's) accompanyes them. They all 
set out for Pondicherry to-morrow . . . 

" We have now a garrison in Tanjour. The King is said to 

(1) The " Seven Magans " <if Tiipassore, from Tain, magdnant, a small revt-nue 
area of aliout six villages. 

(2) In 1778 " Mr. Arthur Owon," Aide-de-camp to Sir Eyre Coote, was granted 
liy the Directors a brevet lieut.-culonelcy on the Bengal estallii^s^lllH■nf . He came 
(o India with Coote at the end of that year, accompanied liirn (o Madias in 1780, 
and commanded a brigade at the second battle of Polilur. Owen was with Coote 
at the time of the General's death in 178.'3. 

(3) Vide No. 19, p. 29, note 3. 

(4) Ehza Draper, born at Anjengo in 1744, was the daughler of May Sclater, 
who had married a sister of John Whitehill. Eliza became the wife of Daniel 
Draper of the Boml)ay civil service. When on a visit to England in 17()0, she met 
Laurence Sterne, with whom she corresponded. She returned to India in 1767, 
and about 1773 eloped from Bombay in a ship conmuinded by Sir John Clarke. 
Mrs. Draper went first to her uncle Thomas Whitehill, of the Bombay service, and 
afterwards to hia l»rother John at Masulipatam. She accompanied tlie latter in 
X77b to England, where she died two yeais later, 

No. 281.] 272 

be at large ; but what the terms are on which the Nabob made 
the surrender, or on which the King has been restored, I am 
utterly ignorant. The transactions of the Board are kept 
abimdantly more secret than they were in the former reign. 
The Board has struck off all the half batta from the garrisons 
which had that emolument heretofore, save only that of the 
commanding officer. You will readyly suppose this will not 
be considered as a popular act by the army." 

Crauford is now in charge at Masulipatam, but the appoint- 
ment of Chief will probably go ultimately to Russell, though tl.e 
latter is at present one of the Committee of Circuit. 

[Holograph, 4 pp., flscp.] " George Baker." 

[No. 282.] 
Rich[ar]d Goodlad'i' to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1776, March 16th, Dinagepoor. — Both my brothers have had 
the privilege of corresponding with you. I now follow their 
example, and hope you will forgive me for not having done so 
earlier. I am Persian Translator to the Revenue Council at 
this place, where I have been for two years. My brother 
Anthony is well. 

[Holograph, 3 pp., 4to.] " R. Goodlad." 

[No. 283.] 
Robert Palk, jun., to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1776, March 21st, Calcutta. Received 28th October.—" I 
received your favor of the 9th April. It had been so well 
ducked in the salt water that it was with great difficulty I could 
make it out. The packet was dispatched from Madras on a 
country vessel which was lost near Annoar'-' together with the 
greatest part of her cargo . . . 

" Tom, I believe, can give the best account of himself. He 
has lately taken me in to pay a debt of 2,000 Rs. for him to 
Mr. Whynch, money it seems he borrowed of Mr. W. on the 
footing of an allowance from you, which he was called on to 
repay ; and rather than plead inability, he chose to draw the 
money from me by representing that he had incurred several 
small debts to that amoimt at Madras for necessarys which he 
could not do without, &c. I paid the money, but T must confess, 
had I known the real state of the case, I should ha\"e told him 
that Mr. Whynch was better able to wait his time of payment 
than myself. I am informed that Mr. Russell is appointed to 
Masulipatam. In that case I will request he will take Mr. 
Thomas under his protection and employ his time well. I 
beliexe Whitehill and Sulivan were as well please[d] to let him 
live in idleness. 

(1) Richard Goixllad, hrotlKf of William Martin Goodlad and Anthony Goodlad. 

(2) Ennure, 12 miles north of Madias, 

273 [No. 283. 

" I am writing witli aching bones. Harry and I got overset 
in a ditch last night returning from town in the midst of a 
violent storm . . ." 

" Robert Palk." 

[Holograph, 3 pp., 4to.] 

[No. 284.] 
Sir Edw[ar]d Hughes to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

177G, March 22nd, Bombay. — I received your letter of the 
11th April by the ship Grenville, which brought Lord Pigot to 
Madras, and am surprised you had had no letters from me. 
'• Though I sailed from Madras four days before the arrival of the 
Supreme Council and Judges, I waited in the mouth of the river 
and never sett my foot on shore till I did so with them at 
Calcutta. They were well pleased with us, and have continued 
so ; I wish I could say as much among themselves. Indeed I 
have had that good fortune at all the Company's Settlements, 
making their welfare my great object. 

" The climate agrees perfectly with me. I go early to bed, 
rise the same, and very seldom chevaux [sic\. I am told Lord 
Pigot brings regulations respecting Tan jour, but am afraid not 
very pleasing to the poor Nabob, who certainly merits every 
attention from the English, being in my opinion their most 
sincere friend in this country. Nor has Colonel Upton been 
able to procure one article for him in his late negociation with 
the Mharattas. You will hear much said of this Treaty ; that 
Ragobah has been able to get little security and no share in 
the government : in short,, the Presidency of Bombay made a 
treaty with him to support his attempt, which that of Fort 
William disapproved and sent a deputy to make peace, which 
was concluded and signed at Poonah the 1st of this instant. 
What they look upon [as] the view and intention of the Court 
of Directors [is] that, if Salsette and Bassein could not be acquired 
by treaty, it should not be by force. Yet the presence of the 
squadron has had its use at this juncture. Docked and refitted, 
I shall return next month to Madras. 

" Here I must tell you your nephew'^) is perfectly well, a fine 
lad and will make a very clever man in our profession. He 
wants for nothing ; has just paid me a week's visit on shore. 
The demands of so very few ships are so trifling I cannot serve 
you as you desire, or be assured I would do it. I hear Mr. 
Vansittart and family are gone home : he was very busy when 

I was in Bengal ..." 

" Edwd. Hughes." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., Uo.] 

(1) Richard Welland. Vide No, 259, p. 254, note 1. 


[No. 285.] 

H[enry] Vansittart, jun., to Robert Palk, Esqr., Park Place, 


1776, March 30th, Calcutta.— I have received your letter of 
the 4th April, and beg to assure you that, notwithstanding my 
former ill-chosen words, I am very sensible of your goodness 
to me. I now renew my request that you will be so kind 
as to undertake the management of my affairs in England. 
" I shall be obliged if you will present my duty to Mrs. Palk, 
and love to Nancy, Lawrence, Kitty and the unknown.*^' 
Your dutiful nephew, 

" H. Vansittart." 

[Holograph, If p.. Mo. Wax seal with arms.] 

[No. 286.] 
Dan[ie]l Corneille^2) to Rob[er]t Palk, Esqr. 

1776, June 11th, St. Helena.— Your letter of the 27th 
February has reached me, and its enclosures for Messrs. Wynch 
and Vansittart have been delivered. " I have been made happy 
in the acquaintance of the only part of the Vansittart family 
l)efore unknown to me, as they have been in my house during 
their stay upon this island. The good example you have set 
me of four little ones I am endeavouring to follow. My present 
family consist of two boys and one girl, besides one upon the 
stocks that will make his or her appearance in three months ; 
after which, having followed your example, I aspire to no further 
wish of greater perfection . . ." 

" Danl. Corneille." 

[Holography 2 pp., 4to.] 

[No. 287.] 
H.H. the Nawab Walajah to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1776, June 20th, Chepauk.— " His Highness the Nabob 
Wallaujau, Ummeer ul Hindh, Omdaht ul Mulk, Ausuph ud 
Doulah, Anweer ud Deen Cawn Bahauder, Zuphur Jung, Sepah 
Salaur, Subahdar of the Carnatick, to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

" I have received your friendly letter of the 17th November 
last. It arrived at a time I was under great imeasiness of mind, 
and gave me great comfort, I am nnich obliged to you for 
your promises to assist Colonel Macleane'^' in my affairs. I 
have already acquainted you with the arrival of Lord l^igot 
and his bringing the Company's order in regard to Tanjorc. 
Though the Fort was provided with all kinds of military stores, 

(1) Emeliiv Palk, Ijorn 1771. 

(2) Daniel Corneille was Lieut. Guvernor of St. Ilclcn.i. He became Oovernor 
of the Island in 1782. - 

(:^> Culone] Lauflilun Mailcatie Vide No. 1()9, //. ISil, m.te 2. 

275 [No. 287. 

I put it into his Lordship's hands without any difficulty, and 
gave no opposition to my friends the Company, but submitted 
to them the state of affairs here. Every gentleman here 
evidently perceives that it is his Lordship's intention to distress 
and disgrace me, and he has seized every opportunity of injuring 
my affairs and of hurting my honor and authority ; and though 
I am the firmest ally to his Majesty, the Company and the 
nation that they have in this country, his Lordship has reduced 
me to a situation not to be described. The Gentlemen here as 
well as at Bengal have much disapproved of his Lordship's 
conduct. I place great dependance upon your assistance, as 
you are my old friend, and were you here now you would protect 
my honor from his Lordship's insults ; and I now hope that 
you will explain these matters to your friends, and take measures 
for giving me redress. As the ship in which this goes sails 
immediately, I can not now write at length, but I have desired 
that Colonel Macleane will acquaint you fully with Lord Pigot's 
behaviour. Mr. Salmon, who will (leliver this letter, has been 
an eye witness to his Lordship's proceedings. Sir Edward 
Hughes has acquainted me with what you wrote to him about 
mv affairs, and I am much obhoed to vou for it. 

" What can I say more ? " 

" P.S, — The reason of his Lordship's great displeasure towards 
me is this : — The order which he brought here in regard to 
Tanjore, to answer private views of his own, was prejudicial to 
the Company and the publick business ; and though I made no 
opposition to it, and wanted only to explain the true state of 
my affairs and my rights, and the prejudice that would attend 
my business, his Lordship endeavoured to shut up my mouth, 
as he thought that my representations would prevent him from 
pursueing his private interest ; but I have laid a true state of 
affairs before his Lordship, and before the Company also. 
What he now constantly does is with a view of destroying my 
honor and my rights." 

[3| pp., f hep. Endorsed " Nabob, 20th June, 1776. Received 
22nd .Tune, 1777." The outer cover, which is addressed to " Robert 
Palk, Esq., Rruton Street," is marked "Duplicate of letter 
of the 20th .Tune," and is endorsed " Detained till 9th June, 
having been enclosed in a packet directed to Colonel Macleane 
(by the Grenville). L.M." The cover bears a ivax seal inscribed 
in Persian character tvith the titles of the Nazvab nearly as set 
forth at the head of his letter. The ori<^inal letter appears to have 
been received on the 3rd February, 1777.] 

• [No. 288.] 

.John d'Fries to Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1770, June 20th, Madras. Heeeived otli TY'l)ruary, 1777.— 
" I have received yoiu- favor of the 15th Decern l)er, and waited 
on the Nabob myself with your letter, who seemed very happy 
at your expressions of frieudsiiip, and puts great relyance in 

No. 288.] 276 

your assistance. He has of late been in a very disagreable, 
nay distressful! situation. The part Lord Pigot had to act of 
delivering up Tanjore naturally occasioned a distance between 
them. Two months after his Lordship's arrival the Nabob 
consented to deliver up Tanjore Fort to an English garrison : 
he could not be prevailed upon to go further. Lord Pigot, 
after trying in vain for near two months more to perswadc the 
Nabob to surrender the countrey to the Rajah, he went down 
himself, being vested by the Council with the powers of a 
deputation for reinstating the Rajah, and he was declared 
Commander in Chief of all the garrisons he went through. 
Messrs, Dalrymple'^' and Jourdan'-' accompanyed his Lordship, 
but they were simple companions, the former doing all his 
business. The Rajah was accordingly reinstated on the 11th 
of April. The Nabob had assigned the revenues of Tanjore 
proceeding from the February crop of grain to Europeans and 
others to the amount of, as it is currently reported, fifteen 
or sixteen lacks of pagodas. Mr. Benfield had the largest 
Tanakaw ; Mr. Monckton, George Smith, Adams, De Souza 
and others had also. The grain was a great part cutt and 
received by the Tanakawholders. However, it did not signifie : 
the Rajah's people, supported by our troops, possessed 
themselves of it. Since Lord Pigot's return there has been some 
division in Council, and the Majority was that the Tanakaws 
should be paid. The Nabob having applyed to Sir Edward 
Hughes for his protection, alledging that he apprehended 
violence from Lord Pigot, has prevented his Lordship from 
going to him of late. The Supreme Council has also wrote to 
the (iovernor and Council here, disapproving Lord Pigot's 
sending for the Dabir*-^' away by a military force from the 
Nabob's territorys. He was manager for the Rajah, and since 
for the Nabob, of the Tanjore countr}^ and he was ordered 
away to Alianore just before liOrd Pigot got to Tanjore. 

" These disagreements render the Settlement unhappy, and 
affects credit very much, and I am afraid the breach between 
Lord Pigot and the Nabob is so wide that it will hardly be closed. 
I apprehend things were pushed rather too far. The Tanakaws 
was a matter of such general concern to the Settlement that it 
interests almost every body, and has occasioned nuich uneasiness. 
Such is our situation at present, and no doubt \ery different 
things will be wrote by the different partys. The Nal)ob's 
character will on the one side be made out as a dissi})atiiig 
intriguing man aiming fast towards independence : and his 
own partizans will represent him as ill treated and oppressed 
grandure. It is very certain that the Nabob is so very different 
a eiiaracter now, both in his political as well as personal 
capacity, to what he was 14 years ago that the method of 

(1) Alpxcander Dalrymple. Vide No. 263, p. 257, note 2. 
('-) Fi'iinci.s Jourdan. Vide Xn. '.i'.i, p. 51, note 1. 
(3^ J^Abir, Pcid., secretary. 

277 [No. 288. 

treating him tlien can't be any ways prf)por at present. A 
vicforons Administration can easily contain the Nabob within 
the ])roper bounds, at tlic same time that he should not be 
lowered too much in the eyes of the publiek, particularly the 
natixes. It is certain that he has not the least notion of order, 
reffularitv or oeconomv in his finances, and if our (iovxrnment 
could settle the revemies and expenees of the Nabob on a 
proper reasonable footing, it will be the greatest service they 
could render the publiek as well as the Nabob. It will be a[n] 
arduous as well as a very delicate undertaking : however, in 
my humble opinion better worth attempting than many things 
else which causes ill blood and no real advantage. Your 
assisting the Nabob in this time of perturbation to him will be 
very acceptable . . . 

" A peace was concluded with the Morattas the 1st of May." <^* 

" John d'Fries." 

[Holograph, 4 pp., Mo.] 

[No. 289.] 

Chocapah to the Honble. Robert Palk, Esqr. 

1776, June 27th, Fort St. George. — " Since mine of the 2nd 
February last . . . Lord Pigot, Mr. Dalrymple, Mr. Jourdan, 
Captains Wood'-' and Thomson and one or two officers and 
doctors, with a battalion of seapoys and fifty European cavalry, 
and Moodu Kistnah, &c., set out from hence the 28th of March 
to Tonjore. And also his Lordship desired Chippermall Chitty, 
Sunca Rama Chitty and me from this place, and Irshepah Chitty 
and Sree Salupudy from Cuddalore to accompany him. We 
did accordingly, and we all, in company with his Lordship, 
arrived at Tonjore the 8th April, and the ceremony at the time 
of the restoration of the Rajah is wrote in a seperate paper and 
enclosed herein. And by what I heard and saw, the poor Rajah 
has been treated very ill by the Nabob's people taking every 
thing from him, and left him in a small place in his palace, and 
he had only one turband and no coat to put on, or any kind 
of iewells or anv household furniture. Thev hardlv left the 
copper potts and things commonly used in their necessary 
affairs, and also took away every kind of Jewells from the 
Rajah's women, and left them with black beeds on their necks, 
and with very few clouts and very poor allowance daily given 
them. He could hardly maintain his family and attendants. 
Several of his relations and people were kept close prisoners, 
and they were released after his Lordship's arrival there ; 
but most of the people thanked the Nabob for keeping the King 
so long with hfe. That he would not have done if it were not 

(1) An error for 1st March, Cf. No. 284, p. 273. 

f2) Captain Robert Wood, Town Major of Fort St. George. 

No. 289.] 278 

for his promise, when that place was taken by our forces, to 
the Governor and Council and General Smith. All which ga\e 
much concern to his Lordship and the rest of the gentlemen to 
see the Rajah in such miserable condition as the Nabob's 
people treated him, and his Lordship was so gracious as to buy 
a pullenkeen, a horse and a dagger, and presented them to the 
Rajah, and afterwards remained at Ton j ore about 18 days . . . 

" Comaroo, who was dubash to Mr. Hay<^' at Trichinopoly, 
and after Mr, Hay went home he served Mr. Benfield and acted 
in the saucar business ; and I hear that he played several 
tricks with the Rajah and hurted the kingdom in several 
respects before the place was taken . . . And now he went, 
with his Lordship's leave, to Tonjore with us, and as soon as 
he got there, that very same night he went to the Rajah in 
the middle of the night a